The mission of the Parrot Researchers Group (PRG) group is to establish and promote research needs and priorities, with particular attention to regional conservation strategies to the parrots of the world. To achieve this, the PRG
1) Promotes parrot research,
2) Establishes research needs and priorities, with particular attention to regional conservation strategies,
3) Identifies and addresses barriers to effective research and conservation of parrots (Psittaciformes).
The PRG is characterised by a regional approach, being organised in four regions (African, Australasian, Neotropical, and Indo-Malayan), a Wild Parrot Veterinary Section, and a Secretary Office that coordinates joint work. The Co-ordinators of the regions and sections and the Secretary are elected by all members every four years (last time in Nov 2018).
Since 2010, discussions, exchange of advice, and the coordination of joint projects have been carried out. The discussions can be freely accessed through our web page but registration is needed. If you know someone interested to join the group, please, write the Secretary, any of the regional coordinators or the librarian (e-mails below).
We are Pat Latas, Johanne Martens, and LoraKim Joyner (e-mails below). We each are leaders of Regional Sections, and LoraKim is the Secretary as well. Our role is to insure smooth operations, open communications, and the formation of networks and teams to advance the work of parrot research and conservation. With the other Regional Coordinators, we lead this group of hundreds of parrot researchers and conservationists, though every member can become as involved as they'd like. Our organization and the parrots surely need you! Please let us know how your experience is with this google group and what you'd like to do as a member. In the meantime, we will give periodic updates so you can know what is going on and how to get involved.
A) African region
Past co-ordination committee: Dr. Rowan Martin, Dr. Nathaniel Annorbah, Assoc. Prof. Dr. Craig Symes
In 2014 a review of research and conservation priorities for the ‘larger’ parrot species of Africa and Madagascar (Genera: Coracopsis, Poicephalus , Psittacula, Psittacus) was published (Martin et al. 2014). A sister publication covering the ‘smaller’ parrots (Genus: Agapornis) is planned.
Martin, R.O., Perrin M.R., Boyes R.S., Abebe Y.D.,
Annorbah N.D., Asamoah A., Bizimana D., Bobo K.S., Bunbury N., Brouwer J., Diop
M.S., Ewnetu M., Fotso R.C., Garteh J., Hall P., Holbech L.H., Madindou I.R.,
Maisels F., Mokoko J., Mulwa R., Reuleaux A., Symes C., Tamungang S., Taylor
S., Valle S., Waltert M. and Wondafrash M. 2014. Research and conservation of
the larger parrots of Africa and Madagascar: a review of knowledge gaps and
opportunities. Ostrich, 85(3), 205–233. https://doi.org/10.2989/003065
Goals for 2018-2022:
(1) Develop discussions from the side-meeting of the PRG Africa region at the 14th Pan African Ornithological Congress, over ways to facilitate the collection of distributional data on African parrots as well as collect samples (blood, faecal, feathers) to enable research in a variety of fields, including population genetics, disease and wildlife forensics
(2) work towards coordinating a topical symposium at the Pan African Ornithological Congress in 2020 in Zimbabwe
(3) promote coordination among research and conservation groups working on parrots in the region, through the development of conservation action plans, or working groups for particular species or issues (e.g. trade in wild parrots)
(4) ensure that scientific and grey literature on African parrots is disseminated through the group and available through the virtual library
(5) complete an updated review of conservation and research priorities for lovebirds in Africa (a sister publication to the review on larger parrots of the African region)
B) Australasian region
Current Co-ordination committee: Dr. Johanne Martens ( email@example.com )
Past co-coordinators: Prof. Dr. Robert Heinsohn, Assoc. Prof. Dr. Jörn Theuerkauf, Dr. George Olah
This region has been working on a review paper
analysing the factors endangering birds in the region, focusing on evaluating
the consequences of climate change on habitat loss and invasive species. The
following scientific paper is the result of the work: Olah et al. (2018) Emu -
Austral Ornithology, 118, 94-112, doi:10.1080/01584197.2017.1410
For the period 2018-2022, we plan to follow the priorities outlined in our recent review covering this region (Olah et al. 2018), focusing on mitigating the main threats to the most endangered species. At the sub-regional level, we would focus on the following priority actions:
Australia, including its offshore islands, has 54 species of parrots, of which 15 are currently listed as threatened. We will continue our local on Critically Endangered Australian species. We also plan to do further conservation genetic research on Australian parrots, including whole genome sequencing and disease testing.
2. New Zealand
Invasive species present the most severe threat type to the parrots of New Zealand. We will continue to collaborate with colleagues from this region in monitoring the effects of predators and to protect the remaining parrot populations in the country.
The islands of Wallacea have 34 extant parrot species, of which 29% are threatened. Trapping was identified as a major threat in this sub-region. We will study the illegal parrot trade in Wallacea with forensic genomic tools in collaboration with colleagues from the Indo-Malayan region.
4. New Guinea
New Guinea is similarly rich in parrot diversity, with 46 native species, though only 7% are considered threatened. Many are poorly known, so we plan to gather further information on these species, and revise their Red List status.
5. Islands of the Pacific Ocean
There are 31 extant parrot species in the Pacific Islands, but nearly half (47%) are threatened with extinction. Conservation efforts will need to focus on eradication of invasive species from highlighted habitats. There are limited data for the parrots on most of the Pacific Islands, where research should be focused, with special emphasis on the threatened Vini species.
We will also involve audio-visual recording of our
highlighted projects in the region to use them for education and awareness
raising to the wider public (see more details at
We are further planning to organise symposia and meetings for Australasian parrot researchers at conferences, to form a stronger Australasian network and to promote collaborations and knowledge exchange.
C) Indo-Malayan region
Past co-ordinator: MSc. Avinandan, Bonnie Zimmermann, Peter Widmann
Aims for 2014-2018: to 1) increase membership from this region; 2) get more literature on Indo-Malayan parrots into the PRG_virtual_library; 3) look out for funding opportunities to fund research work on parrots, particularly lesser known and declining species like the Nicobar parakeet (Psittacula caniceps), Lord Derby’s parakeet (P. derbiana) or Blue-rumped Parrot (Psittinus cyanurus) and also more widespread species like the Alexandrine parakeet (P. eupatria); 4) to complete a regional update of current threats faced by Indo-Malayan parrots.
Our key goals for period 2018-2022 are summarized below:
1. Population assessments of threatened psittacine species.
2. Raise awareness of threats faced by psittacine species in this region, thereby promoting greater national and international protection.
3. Carrying out research to better understand the threats (wildlife trade and loss of habitat) and motivations behind them. Create change at the local level by providing means of sustainable income, empower communities to become stewards of these species and promote habitat restoration.
4. Clarification of the taxonomic status of potentially cryptic species complexes.
5. Capacity-building and establishing guidelines in the rehabilitation and release (and post-release) of rescued psittacines.
6. Enhance understanding of the status and risks of psittacine diseases/pathogens in the context of the parrot trade, and its implications for commercial bird markets as well as for rescued/released and native parrot populations.
7. Complete a regional update of current threats faced by Indo-Malayan/Southeast Asian psittacines.
8. Conduct population surveys.
9. Assess the feasibility of more intense in-situ parrot conservation projects.
10. Assessing the status and risks of psittacine diseases/pathogens in the context of the parrot trade.
Existing projects: The last two years saw progress in the region:
1. Comprehensive in-situ conservation program for the Philippine Cockatoo Cacatua haematuropygia, including research on distribution, threats, habitat use, reintroduction, conservation education, diseases and parasites, breeding and feeding biology: all these are ongoing, we are currently looking a bit deeper in our dataset on breeding success on Rasa Island to explore how this can be published. A short communication on cockatoo genetics is in prep. More samples (esp. from museum specimens) should be included to better cover the historical range of the species. Samples from KFI project sites show very little genetic variability (Peter Widmann)
2. Development of a field laboratory to monitor prevalence of PBVD in wild and domestic parrots in the Philippines = potential joint project with the Wild Parrot Veterinary Section: The attempts to establish a PBFD field lab so far was unsuccessful due to technical difficulties (it works in the UK, but not in the Philippines for yet unknown reasons). Colleagues from Chester Zoo work on it. (Peter Widmann)
3. Reintroduction of the Philippine Cockatoo to Siargao Island, Philippines: Actual reintroduction is put a bit in the backburner, due to lack of suitable birds from the EAZA studbook at the moment. Enrichment planting with food-providing plants was initiated earlier. (Peter Widmann)
4. Mitigation of (future) human-cockatoo conflicts on Palawan, Philippines: We will start a pilot in Iwahig Prison and Penal Farm. A company who is willing to market the product for a higher price was identified and KFI is in talks with them. (Peter Widmann)
5. Conservation of Tanygnathus (sumatranus) everetti. The species was split recently, and is known from few recent records in very few sites. Probably it will qualify as “EN” or “CR”. We try to track down birds in captivity to establish a conservation-breeding population. Surveys in the remaining known sites are planned. (Peter Widmann)
6. Understanding the breeding ecology and behaviour, as well as diet composition of yellow-crested cockatoos in Indonesia – thesis completed for Masalembu islands (Bonnie Zimmermann)
7. Seram cockatoo (Cacatua moluccensis) population surveys in Seram, Indonesia (Bonnie Zimmermann)
8. A review of the domestic and international parrot trade in Singapore, and other parts of Southeast Asia: paper published. Pending second paper around human perceptions on parrot keeping in Singapore (Jessica Lee)
9. Develop and launch a behavior change media campaign targeting parrot hobbyists in Singapore (drawing from the key results of #8 above) – Nat Geo grant did not go through. Currently rewriting the grant to apply to a local conservation fund (Jessica Lee)
10. Population assessment, and assessment of ecological niche of the critically endangered yellow-crested cockatoo Cacatua sulphurea (as well as other cockatoo species) in Singapore = potential joint project with the Urban Parrot Section: fieldwork completed. Pending report/thesis (Jessica Lee)
11. Assessing threats to yellow-crested cockatoos (Cacatua sulphurea) in native habitats in Indonesia, and conservation opportunities in introduced populations in Hong Kong and Singapore. This is coupled with market surveys for psittacine species = potential joint project with the Urban Parrot Section: fieldwork completed. Cage traps were set up in the last quarter of 2019. I flew over, and together with the team, carried out site assessments of the cages (to determine any use by birds) in Nov 2019. Birds were only observed using the traps in March 2020. Trapping to commence in Apr 2020. Pending report/thesis (Jessica Lee)
12. Using next-generation sequencing (NGS) to determine the phylogenetic relationships between subspecies of yellow-crested cockatoos (museum specimens), and to identify markers for identifying subspecies in Hong Kong and Singapore. The study will help quantify the genetic viability of introduced populations, and to assess the potential for use in reintroduction efforts back into the native range: samples from HK collected (more than 10 birds). To be sent to Singapore for genome-sequencing. On hold now because of the COVID19 situation. (Jessica Lee)
13. Assessing the status and risks of psittacine diseases/pathogens in the context of the parrot trade in Singapore = potential joint project with the Wild Parrot Veterinary Section – we are looking at starting a program on Chlamydia psittaci: we started a pilot study on the parrots currently under our care, as well as donated/rescued birds. Looking at the active trapping of wild birds for screening (Jessica Lee)
14. Population and ecological assessment of the Blue-rumped parrot (Psittinus cyanurus) in Singapore. This may be coupled with trial studies on the use of tracking devices as means of monitoring the species = potential joint project with the Urban Parrot Section: first trial was not a success. The birds pulled the trackers out within 30mins to 2h. To re-assess and start second trial, repositioning the trackers (Jessica Lee)
15. White cockatoo (Cacatua alba) population surveys in North Maluku, Indonesia: surveys currently being completed, but local community surveys are finished (Jessica Lee)
16. Reintroduction programs of Indonesian psittacines confiscated by the illegal trade: currently working with the Philippines and Indonesia on repatriating ~130 animals (mostly parrots) back to Indonesia via Sulawesi. It has been postponed because of the COVID19 situation. (Jessica Lee)
From Avin - the perspective of India as a country and Psittacula as a genera, what should be our focus are
1) A detailed study of the Nicobar parakeet (Psittacula caniceps) . Identifying researchers who are willing to brave the hostile conditions of Nicobar island and do a long term field study and also the necessary funding and moral support that such an arduous project requires.
2) A subcontinent wide ecological study of the three most widely distributed sympatric Psittaculas (eupatria, cyanocephala and krameri) through coordination with multiple field researchers from across their distribution. They are the ecological equivalent of Tiger, Leopard and Jungle cat or the Wolf, Dhole and Jackal. This is how I put it to many Indian ecologists who are very mammal- centric.
3) A detailed study of the various subspecies of the Red breasted Parakeet (Psittacula alexandri) which has the most unique biogeographic distribution among all Psittaculas and perhaps all parrots. It occurs or off shore islands of Sumatra but not in mainland Sumatra itself. It is sympatric to the Long tailed parakeet (Psittacula longicauda) in Andamans but is absent in Nicobars.
4) Field ecology of the Lord Derby's parakeet (Psittacula derbiana) in Tibet and Arunachal Pradesh.
D) Neotropical region
Current Co-ordination committee: Dr. LoraKim Joyner (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Past co-ordinators (2014-2018): Dr. Igor Berkunsky, Ass. Prof. Dr. Donald Brightsmith, MSc. Martín Lezama López, Dr. Isabelle Paquet-Durand
This region has published the regional update of current threats faced by Neotropical parrots.
Berkunsky I, Quillfeldt P, Brightsmith DJ, Abbud MC, Aguilar JMRE, Alemán-Zelaya U, Aramburú RM, Arce Arias A, Balas McNab R, Balsby TJS, Barredo Barberena JM, Beissinger SR, Benites de Franco MR, Berg KS, Bianchi CA, Blanco E, Bodrati A, Bonilla-Ruz C, Botero- Delgadillo E, Canavelli SB, CaparrozR, Cepeda RE, Chassot O, Cinta-Magallón C, Cockle KL, Daniele G, de Araujo CB, de Barbosa AE, de Moura LN, Del Castillo H, Díaz S, Díaz-Luque JA, Douglas L, Figueroa Rodríguez A, García-Anleu RA, Gilardi JD, Grilli PG, Guix JC, Hernández M, Hernández-Muñoz A, Hiraldo F, Horstman E, Ibarra Portillo R, Isacch JP, Jiménez JE, Joyner L, Juarez M, Kacoliris FP, Kanaan VT, Klemann-Júnior L, Latta SC, Lee ATK, Lesterhuis A, Lezama-López M, Lugarini C, Marateo G, Marinelli CB, Martínez J, McReynolds MS, Mejia Urbina CR, Monge-Arias G, Monterrubio-Rico TC, Nunes AP, Nunes FdP, Olaciregui C, Ortega- Arguelles J, Pacifico E, Pagano L, Politi N, Ponce-Santizo G, Portillo Reyes HO, Prestes NP, Presti F, Renton K, Reyes-Macedo G, Ringler E, Rivera L, Rodríguez-Ferraro A, Rojas-Valverde AM, Rojas-Llanos RE, Rubio-Rocha YG, Saidenberg ABS, Salinas-Melgoza A, Sanz V, Schaefer HM, Scherer-Neto P, Seixas GHF, Serafini P, Silveira LF, Sipinski EAB, Somenzari M, Susaníbar D, Tella JL, Torres-Sovero C, Trofino-Falasco C, Vargas-Rodríguez R, Vázquez-Reyes LD, White Jr TH, Williams S, Zarza R & JF Masello (2017) Current threats faced by Neotropical parrot populations. Biological Conservation 214:278-287.
Freely available at •
Projects for the period 2018-2022:
1. Coordinate with all researchers and members in the area to see what they are doing and what they are interested in doing together. Disseminate this information. Form a plan from this integration of other voices.
2. Support the formation of working groups for particular species to meet on email, facebook, or video conferencing. For instance, we need a specialists group for A. oratrix / auropaliata in Central America, and macaws in Central and South America.
3. Support the formation of a section of our group (across regions) dedicated to wildlife trafficking.
4. Support the formation of a section of our group dedicated to population monitoring techniques and plans on how to fill in holes and vulnerable areas.
This sub-group’s focus is wild macaw natural history, ecology and behavior in the wild; data collection; and conservation. It includes people that have worked with macaws in the past, are currently working with macaws or plan to do so in the future, via collaboration with colleagues from the Neotropics/Latin America. Through this informal network the sub-group will exchange scientific advice with a variety of researchers new and experienced alike.
The objective for this sub-group of the PRG is mainly to connect all of the macaw researchers and macaw conservationists already in the group, share our work and attract new macaw researchers and conservationist to the PRG.
The sub-group would like to start by working on a couple of simple and achievable initiatives such as (1) a macaw researcher directory and (2) a catalog of macaw artificial nest designs.
E) Wild Parrot Veterinary Section
Aims for 2018-2022:
GOALS AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS AS OF January 2021:
Opportunities for portable PCR machines for field work. It is an evolving field and may eventually be a valuable adjunct to field work. The Vet Section has discussed the constraints of cost, invasive procedures, practicalities of disease testing, and indeed they present formidable challenges. Yet wild psittacine disease is a neglected field and needs to be seriously investigated for sound biodiversity, rehabilitation, confiscation and policy-making decisions.
We had a generous offer for the donation of 2 portable PCR for a "lending library" type situation, Upon further investigation, although the machines are small, generally efficient and fairly fast, reagents for field use are inexpensive and do not require refrigeration and work on batteries with mobile devices, the main costs for development of reagents and primers are prohibitive. Especially in the light of such little data available as to what pathogens are actually important to wild populations. My hope is that following the CoVID outbreak, many of the small PCR machines now being used for point-of-service CoVid testing may become available as surplus and inexpensive to acquire, and although not portable, they could be a potential inexpensive entry to disease screening. Import/export of materials and reagents is a serious inhibition to testing. We are promoting local development but money, personnel and time constraints are challenging. Contributions and suggestions are more than welcome. Collaborations are welcome.
F) Behavioural Ecology Section
Aim: to promote the development of collaborative research projects in the field of Behavioural Ecology of parrots, particularly research that benefits from interdisciplinary cooperation among PRG members from different parts of the world, large samplings and datasets or questions that could not otherwise be answered.
1) A comparative study of the diet of parrots across populations all over the world including: 1.a) observational data and molecular analyses of faecal samples,
1.b) the study of the environmental determinants of the diet, and
1.c) the secondary metabolites content of the diet items in the context of prophylactic self-medication;
2) An analysis of the effects of global climatic phenomena on the breeding biology of parrots across different regions;
3) A study of the variation of breeding phenology across parrot populations all over the world.
G) Secretary office
Current Secretary: Dr. LoraKim Joyner (email@example.com)
Past-Secretaries: Dr. Juan F. Masello, Dr. Igor Berkunsky
In the coming years, this section will concentrate its efforts in a worldwide project related to parrot reintroductions across wild Psittaciformes from all over the world.
In previous years, this section coordinated worldwide projects: the study of the presence of hemoparasites across wild Psittaciformes from all over the world, resulting in the following scientific publication:
Masello JF, Martínez J, Calderón L, Wink M,
Quillfeldt P, Sanz V, Theuerkauf J, Ortiz-Catedral L, Berkunsky I, Brunton D,
Díaz Luque JA, Hauber ME, Ojeda V, Barnaud A, Casalins L, Jackson B, Mijares A,
Rosales R, Seixas G, Serafini P, Silva-Iturriza A, Sipinski E, Vásquez R,
Widmann P, Widmann I & S Merino: Can the intake of anti-parasitic secondary
metabolites explain the low prevalence of hemoparasites among wild Psittaciformes?
Parasites & Vectors 11: 357.1-357.15. Open access:
The secretary office has also been working on the
creation and maintenance of a virtual_library. It is/has been managed by Dr.
Juan F. Masello (firstname.lastname@example.org
H) Liaisons and
H.1. Great Green Macaw Team
Leader: Guisselle Monge Arias, PhD ( email@example.com )
Saludos estimados colegas de PRG, debido al reciente cambio de categoría de amenaza para la especie Ara ambiguus por parte de BirdLife y UICN es que desde Loros Sin Fronteras (LSF) y otros interesados, hemos acordado conformar un grupo de trabajo para la especie, el cual estoy liderando con el apoyo de LoraKim y Donald Brightsmith.
La idea surge ante la preocupación y sorpresa del nuevo estado crítico establecido, sabemos que en países como Ecuador y Honduras la situación es muy crítica para la especie, para países como Costa Rica y Nicaragua es mejor la situación, muchos esfuerzos para su conservación se están haciendo que reflejan una mejoría y estabilidad de la población, observaciones de grupos de lapas en sitios no vistos antes, por ejemplo. En países como Panamá y Colombia con vacíos grandes de información para la especie, porque no se está trabajando con ella.
Entonces, queremos saber quienes de ustedes tendrían interés en participar del grupo de trabajo Ara ambiguus y aportar en: información, datos, documentos, búsqueda de fondos para conteos y censos, entre otros. Esto con el fin de poder contar con buena información científica fidedigna para cuando se vuelva a evaluar la especie para su categoría de amenaza.
También nos gustaría fortalecer nuestro conocimiento y capacidad para implementar estrategias de conservación para esta especie.
Por favor si está interesado escriba un correo a firstname.lastname@example.org
Greetings esteemed colleagues of PRG. Because of the recent change in the status of the great green macaw (Ara ambiguous) by IUCN/Birdlife to critically endangered, we from Loros Sin Fronteras and other interested parties have agreed to form a working group for this species. Currently I, LoraKim Joyner and Donald Brightsmith are helping to form this group.
The idea arose from the worry and surprise of the species’ new status “critically endangered.” We know that in countries like Ecuador and Honduras the situation is very critical for the species; for countries like Costa Rica and Nicaragua the situation is better. In these areas, much work for the species conservation has been done that reflects upon the improvement and stablity of the population, such as seeing this species in areas where it has not been seen before. In countries like Panama and Columbia there is an absence of information for the species because it has not been worked with there.
Therefore, we wish to know who of you would have interest in participating in an Ara ambiguous Working Group that will do the following: share and increase information, data, and documents, look for funds for counts and surveys, etc. The idea is to have good information when it comes time to evaluate the endangered status of the species. We would also like to strengthen our knowledge and capacity to enact conservation strategies for this species.
If you are interested, please respond to me: email@example.com
Leader: Dr. Asha Poonia firstname.lastname@example.org
PRG illegal bird trade in India on Slack
Leader: Dr. LoraKim Joyner
Objectives: Correlate activities/methods by each program with:
Liaison: MSc. Martín Lezama-López (email@example.com).
Since 2010, the PRG closely co-operates with this independent group, particularly in the update of current threats faced by Neotropical parrots.
Leaders: Juan Cantu President
Loros Sin Fronteras es un esfuerzo mesoamericano, de organizaciones e instituciones involucradas en la conservación de psitácidos (loros, pericos y guacamayas), creado para lograr la conservación de estas especies, con un alto compromiso, experiencia y presencia en los países de la región, conectados con el mundo.
H.6. e-Bird letter
Leader: Dr. LoraKim Joyner
(accomplished its goals in 2020 and is now disbanded)
I) Urban parrot section
THIS SECTION HAS BEEN DEACTIVATED.
Past co-ordinators: MSc. Roelant Jonker, Prof. of Research Dr. José L. Tella, Dr. Michael Braun
The aims of this region (2014-2018) were to 1) increase our understanding of the establishment, diversity and population dynamics of introduced and native parrot populations through our global parrot count, 2) get insights in the genetic make-up and adaptations of these populations in response to live in the new, often urban, landscapes, 3) apply ecological niche modelling to gain insight in the alien invasive potential of these populations and manage real or perceived agricultural conflicts. Additionally, we are planning to educate the public on these populations on a continuous and scientific basis.
J) Caribbean region
THIS SECTION HAS MERGED WITH THE NEOTROPICAL SECTION (see bellow)
Past co-ordinators (2010-2014): Dr. Thomas H. White Jr., Dr. Sam Williams
Several projects focused in: a) rehabilitation, nest monitoring and reforestation on Bonaire (Yellow-shouldered Amazon), b) endangered wild population management (Puerto Rican amazon), c) rehabilitation and release of Hispaniolan parrots and Hispaniolan conures rescued from the illegal pet trade, d) year-round tracking of released birds, e) initiating a third reintroduction of Puerto Rican amazon, f) monitoring and placement of artificial nests.
Other communication ways currently available at the Parrot Researchers Group
@workingparrotsgroup or https://www.instagram.com/parr
Steered by Eliana Blanco Pérez
Steered by Grrrlscientist
Steered by Roelant Jonker
Contact Juan F. Masello
Parrot Researchers Group public webpage
Steered by Pat Latas
RULES OF CONDUCT:
Welcome to the Parrot Researchers Group! We’re glad you’re here and look forward to sharing our research and conservation efforts on parrots. While you’re here, to help ensure a good experience for you and others, we request that you follow our community guidelines.
We encourage respectful discourse at all times, including in comments that may disagree with other members of our group. However, we do not endorse or condone posts that put in a positive light smuggling, poaching, illegal trade or activities. Posts of this kind, and/or comments offering or requesting parrots for sale will be immediately deleted.
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