Weekly TMLR digest for May 15, 2022

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May 14, 2022, 8:00:10 PMMay 14
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New submissions
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Title: Behind the Machine’s Gaze: Biologically Constrained Neural Networks Exhibit Human-like Visual Attention

Abstract: By and large, existing computational models of visual attention tacitly assume perfect vision and full access to the stimulus and thereby deviate from foveated biological vision. Moreover, modelling top-down attention is generally reduced to the integration of semantic features without incorporating the signal of a high-level visual tasks that have shown to partially guide human attention.
We propose the Neural Visual Attention (NeVA) algorithm to generate visual scanpaths in a top-down manner. With our method, we explore the ability of neural networks on which we impose the biological constraints of foveated vision to generate human-like scanpaths. Thereby, the scanpaths are generated to maximize the performance with respect to the underlying visual task (i.e., classification or reconstruction).
Extensive experiments show that the proposed method outperforms state-of-the-art unsupervised human attention models in terms of similarity to human scanpaths. Additionally, the flexibility of the framework allows to quantitatively investigate the role of different tasks in the generated visual behaviours. Finally, we demonstrate the superiority of the approach in a novel experiment that investigates the utility of scanpaths in real-world applications, where imperfect viewing conditions are given.

URL: https://openreview.net/forum?id=7iSYW1FRWA

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Title: Structural Learning in Artificial Neural Networks: A Neural Operator Perspective

Abstract: Over the history of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), only a minority of algorithms integrate structural changes of the network architecture into the learning process. Modern neuroscience has demonstrated that biological learning is largely structural, with mechanisms such as synaptogenesis and neurogenesis present in adult brains and considered important for learning. Despite this history of artificial methods and biological inspiration, and furthermore the recent resurgence of neural methods in deep learning, relatively few current ANN methods include structural changes in learning compared to those that only adjust synaptic weights during the training process. We aim to draw connections between different approaches of structural learning that have similar abstractions in order to encourage collaboration and development. In this review, we provide a survey on structural learning methods in deep ANNs, including a new neural operator framework from a cellular neuroscience context and perspective aimed at motivating research on this challenging topic. We first give a background on biological developmental processes in the brain. We then provide an overview of ANN methods which include structural changes within the neural operator framework in the learning process, diving into each neural operator in detail. Finally, we present overarching trends in how these operators are implemented and discuss the open challenges in structural learning in ANNs.

URL: https://openreview.net/forum?id=gzhEGhcsnN

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Title: Attribute Prediction in the Zero-Shot Setting as Multiple Instance Learning

Abstract: Attribute-based representations help machine learning models perform tasks based on human understandable concepts, allowing a closer human-machine collaboration. However, learning attributes that accurately reflect the content of an image is not always straightforward, as per-image ground truth attributes are often not available.
We propose applying the Multiple Instance Learning (MIL) paradigm to attribute learning (AMIL) while only using class-level labels.
We allow the model to under-predict the positive attributes, which may be missing in a particular image due to occlusions or unfavorable pose, but not to over-predict the negative ones, which are almost certainly not present. We evaluate it in the zero-shot learning (ZSL) setting, where training and test classes are disjoint,
and show that this also allows to profit from knowledge about the semantic relatedness of attributes.
In addition, we apply the MIL assumption to ZSL classification and propose MIL-DAP, an attribute-based zero-shot classification method, based on Direct Attribute Prediction (DAP), to evaluate attribute prediction methods when no image-level data is available for evaluation.
Experiments on CUB-200-2011, SUN Attributes and AwA2 show improvements on attribute detection, attribute-based zero-shot classification and weakly supervised part localization.

URL: https://openreview.net/forum?id=nmFczdJtc2

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Title: Auxiliary Cross-Modal Common Representation Learning with Triplet Loss Functions for Online Handwriting Recognition

Abstract: Common representation learning (CRL) learns a shared embedding between two or more modalities to improve in a given task over using only one of the modalities. CRL from different data types such as images and time-series data (e.g., audio or text data) requires a deep metric learning loss that minimizes the distance between the modality embeddings. In this paper, we propose to use the triplet loss, which uses positive and negative identities to create sample pairs with different labels, for CRL between image and time-series modalities. By adapting the triplet loss for CRL, higher accuracy in the main (time-series classification) task can be achieved by exploiting additional information of the auxiliary (image classification) task. Our experiments on synthetic data and handwriting recognition data from sensor-enhanced pens show an improved classification accuracy, faster convergence, and a better generalizability.

URL: https://openreview.net/forum?id=QDQOZnESCG

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