Ng Das Statistics Pdf Free Download

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Lynelle Staudt

Dec 2, 2023, 3:55:30 PM12/2/23
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    Summarize the pathophysiology of hemorrhagic stroke.Identify the most common causes of hemorrhagic stroke and the most common site of the bleeding.Review the common presentations of this hemorrhagic stroke.CT scan is the initial investigation of choice. Prompt medical, sometimes surgical (in indicated cases), management is needed for recovery from hemorrhagic stroke.
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Secondary injury is contributed to by inflammation, disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), edema, overproduction of free radicals such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), glutamate-induced excitotoxicity, and release of hemoglobin and iron from the clot.

ng das statistics pdf free download


Statistics (from German: Statistik, orig. "description of a state, a country")[1][2] is the discipline that concerns the collection, organization, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of data.[3][4][5] In applying statistics to a scientific, industrial, or social problem, it is conventional to begin with a statistical population or a statistical model to be studied. Populations can be diverse groups of people or objects such as "all people living in a country" or "every atom composing a crystal". Statistics deals with every aspect of data, including the planning of data collection in terms of the design of surveys and experiments.[6]

Two main statistical methods are used in data analysis: descriptive statistics, which summarize data from a sample using indexes such as the mean or standard deviation, and inferential statistics, which draw conclusions from data that are subject to random variation (e.g., observational errors, sampling variation).[7] Descriptive statistics are most often concerned with two sets of properties of a distribution (sample or population): central tendency (or location) seeks to characterize the distribution's central or typical value, while dispersion (or variability) characterizes the extent to which members of the distribution depart from its center and each other. Inferences on mathematical statistics are made under the framework of probability theory, which deals with the analysis of random phenomena.

Statistics is a mathematical body of science that pertains to the collection, analysis, interpretation or explanation, and presentation of data,[9] or as a branch of mathematics.[10] Some consider statistics to be a distinct mathematical science rather than a branch of mathematics. While many scientific investigations make use of data, statistics is concerned with the use of data in the context of uncertainty and decision making in the face of uncertainty.[11][12]

In applying statistics to a problem, it is common practice to start with a population or process to be studied. Populations can be diverse topics such as "all people living in a country" or "every atom composing a crystal". Ideally, statisticians compile data about the entire population (an operation called census). This may be organized by governmental statistical institutes. Descriptive statistics can be used to summarize the population data. Numerical descriptors include mean and standard deviation for continuous data (like income), while frequency and percentage are more useful in terms of describing categorical data (like education).

When a census is not feasible, a chosen subset of the population called a sample is studied. Once a sample that is representative of the population is determined, data is collected for the sample members in an observational or experimental setting. Again, descriptive statistics can be used to summarize the sample data. However, drawing the sample contains an element of randomness; hence, the numerical descriptors from the sample are also prone to uncertainty. To draw meaningful conclusions about the entire population, inferential statistics is needed. It uses patterns in the sample data to draw inferences about the population represented while accounting for randomness. These inferences may take the form of answering yes/no questions about the data (hypothesis testing), estimating numerical characteristics of the data (estimation), describing associations within the data (correlation), and modeling relationships within the data (for example, using regression analysis). Inference can extend to forecasting, prediction, and estimation of unobserved values either in or associated with the population being studied. It can include extrapolation and interpolation of time series or spatial data, and data mining.

Mathematical statistics is the application of mathematics to statistics. Mathematical techniques used for this include mathematical analysis, linear algebra, stochastic analysis, differential equations, and measure-theoretic probability theory.[13][14]

The earliest writing containing statistics in Europe dates back to 1663, with the publication of Natural and Political Observations upon the Bills of Mortality by John Graunt.[16] Early applications of statistical thinking revolved around the needs of states to base policy on demographic and economic data, hence its stat- etymology. The scope of the discipline of statistics broadened in the early 19th century to include the collection and analysis of data in general. Today, statistics is widely employed in government, business, and natural and social sciences.

The mathematical foundations of statistics developed from discussions concerning games of chance among mathematicians such as Gerolamo Cardano, Blaise Pascal, Pierre de Fermat, and Christiaan Huygens. Although the idea of probability was already examined in ancient and medieval law and philosophy (such as the work of Juan Caramuel), probability theory as a mathematical discipline only took shape at the very end of the 17th century, particularly in Jacob Bernoulli's posthumous work Ars Conjectandi.[17] This was the first book where the realm of games of chance and the realm of the probable (which concerned opinion, evidence, and argument) were combined and submitted to mathematical analysis.[18][19] The method of least squares was first described by Adrien-Marie Legendre in 1805, though Carl Friedrich Gauss presumably made use of it a decade earlier in 1795.[20]

The second wave of the 1910s and 20s was initiated by William Sealy Gosset, and reached its culmination in the insights of Ronald Fisher, who wrote the textbooks that were to define the academic discipline in universities around the world. Fisher's most important publications were his 1918 seminal paper The Correlation between Relatives on the Supposition of Mendelian Inheritance (which was the first to use the statistical term, variance), his classic 1925 work Statistical Methods for Research Workers and his 1935 The Design of Experiments,[26][27][28] where he developed rigorous design of experiments models. He originated the concepts of sufficiency, ancillary statistics, Fisher's linear discriminator and Fisher information.[29] He also coined the term null hypothesis during the Lady tasting tea experiment, which "is never proved or established, but is possibly disproved, in the course of experimentation".[30][31] In his 1930 book The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection, he applied statistics to various biological concepts such as Fisher's principle[32] (which A. W. F. Edwards called "probably the most celebrated argument in evolutionary biology") and Fisherian runaway,[33][34][35][36][37][38] a concept in sexual selection about a positive feedback runaway effect found in evolution.

A descriptive statistic (in the count noun sense) is a summary statistic that quantitatively describes or summarizes features of a collection of information,[49] while descriptive statistics in the mass noun sense is the process of using and analyzing those statistics. Descriptive statistics is distinguished from inferential statistics (or inductive statistics), in that descriptive statistics aims to summarize a sample, rather than use the data to learn about the population that the sample of data is thought to represent.[50]

Statistical inference is the process of using data analysis to deduce properties of an underlying probability distribution.[51] Inferential statistical analysis infers properties of a population, for example by testing hypotheses and deriving estimates. It is assumed that the observed data set is sampled from a larger population. Inferential statistics can be contrasted with descriptive statistics. Descriptive statistics is solely concerned with properties of the observed data, and it does not rest on the assumption that the data come from a larger population.[52]

Most studies only sample part of a population, so results don't fully represent the whole population. Any estimates obtained from the sample only approximate the population value. Confidence intervals allow statisticians to express how closely the sample estimate matches the true value in the whole population. Often they are expressed as 95% confidence intervals. Formally, a 95% confidence interval for a value is a range where, if the sampling and analysis were repeated under the same conditions (yielding a different dataset), the interval would include the true (population) value in 95% of all possible cases. This does not imply that the probability that the true value is in the confidence interval is 95%. From the frequentist perspective, such a claim does not even make sense, as the true value is not a random variable. Either the true value is or is not within the given interval. However, it is true that, before any data are sampled and given a plan for how to construct the confidence interval, the probability is 95% that the yet-to-be-calculated interval will cover the true value: at this point, the limits of the interval are yet-to-be-observed random variables. One approach that does yield an interval that can be interpreted as having a given probability of containing the true value is to use a credible interval from Bayesian statistics: this approach depends on a different way of interpreting what is meant by "probability", that is as a Bayesian probability.

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