I think that you will be fascinated to learn that according to the
Compton's Cd-ROM Encyclopedia, Raja Rammohan Ray borrowed his ideas from
Christianity. Here are some excerpts:
"RAY, Rammohan (1772P1833). Often called the father of modern India,
Rammohan Ray was a social reformer who borrowed elements of Christianity
in order to reform Hinduism.
.... By 1815 he was denouncing religious divisions and advocating worship of
one supreme God. He translated and wrote commentaries on early Hindu
scriptures. In 1820 he published the ethical teachings of Jesus Christ,
though he vigorously denied the uniqueness of Christianity.
....In 1828 he formed the Society of Brahma (Brahmo Samaj), a religious
movement with elements of Protestantism that was to play a major role in
reform during the 19th century.
With best regards,
Mail your posts to: gh...@netcom.com
Hindu Sanghatana Diwas
You are cordially invited to participate in the celebration of Hindu
Sanghatana Diwas. This day marks the coronation of Chhatrapati Shivaji,
one of the great Hindu kings. At a time when Hindus were disorganized
and the entire Bharat (India) was under foreign rule, Shivaji organized
an army of ordinary people and restored the glory. This occasion reminds
the Hindu society about the need to be united.
On this auspicious occasion we are fortunate to have Prof. K. Shripaty
Sastry, All India Saha-Baudbik Pramukh (Ideological Wing) of RSS with us.
As a speaker, writer and organizer, Prof. Sastry represents the Sangh on
different public forums. He specializes in History of India and History of
West Asia. The scrupulous adherence to documentary evidences and the
thoroughness with which his books(*) are written make them a welcome
addition to the literature on the subject. Prof. Sastry will be
delivering a lecture on the importance of Hindu Unity. Children from
HSS Bal-Vihar will be staging a play on the life of Chhatrapati Shivaji.
Speaker : Prof. K.Shripaty Sastry
Topic : Unity in Diversity - A Historical Perspective
Date : Saturday 15th June 1996
Time : 5.30 PM - 7.00 PM
Venue : Fremont Hindu Temple
1676 Delaware Drive
For Kids : Great stories on Shivaji
For more information, please contact :
>From 880 South : Left on Auto Mall
Left On Fremont Blvd.
Right On Delaware Drive
Go for about 200 yards
The temple is on the right corner .
>From Sunnyvale : 237 Towards Milpitas
Right on Fremont Blvd.
Right On Delaware Drive
Go for about 200 yards
The temple is on the right corner.
(*) Some of Books Written By Prof. K.Shripaty Sastry :
1) THE STORY OF SIND (An Economic Survey) 1843-1933
(Edited)Pub : Dastane and Co. Pune 1983.
2) INDIAN MEMBERS IN THE IMPERIAL LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL (1893-1909).
Book published 1983 Pune, Pragdya Prakashan, Pune ICHR
3) SOCIAL REFORM MOVEMENT IN INDIA
(Chapter on Karnataka) BISM 1992 Pune.
VEDIC SCIENCE COMPARED WITH MODERN SCIENCE
Dr. M.T. Sahasrabuddhe
(3-B/8 Sahajeevan Housing Society, Plot. No. 2 Shiva jinagar, North
Ambazari Road, Nagpur - 440010)
[Oh ! Lord Ganesha -- you are knowledge absolute, knowledge versatile]
(From Shri Ganapati Atharva Sirsa.)
The significance of the word vijnana in the above chant may be
debatable. The Lord's Song (Bhagavad Geeta) also says "Jnanam Vijnyana
Sahitam". Interpreters have explained the word as 'Specific knowledge'
(Visesa - Jnana). In India many Western scientffic terms have been
rendered into Indian languages, especially Sanskrit; and the Sanskrit
word Vijnan is normally used to signify science in general. Modern
scientists put different objects in the world under analytic observation,
and try to determine their nature. If, then the word Vijnana is
tentatively used as an equivalent of science, it may not be far from the
purport of the term.
Some Western scientists are of the opinion that old religious texts,
especially of the Hindus put out ideas which agree remarkably with
modern scientific research ("Brahman" by James Wallace Intro.XIV). One
illustration will make the point clearer. In 1935 A.D., Einstein,
Podolsky and Rosen published a research paper regarding their experiment.
That was called the E P R experiment. The experiment intended to
critically examine the Quantum Theory. Their observation in brief is as
follows: If twin particles are fired off in opposite directions, and if
one of them is forced to turn right, the other is observed to turn left
and if one moves up, the other, as if by rule, moves clown.
This result of the experiment gave rise to many problems. One of these,
however, was the most baffling! How is it that, out of the two particles,
if one behaves in a particular way, the other conforms with the behaviour
of its counterpart even if they are separated in space and running in
opposite directions ? How one partide knows the activity of the other ? A
well known scientist (J. Sarfatti) proposed that, even if the two
particles were separated, there must be some communication between them.
This inter-relation was termed as "Superluminal Transfer of Negentropy
without Signals". It means exchange of information without signals. [The
experiment is given in detail by Gary Zukav in his book "The Dancing
Wuli Masers" ("Brahman" by James Wallace p. 210)] Quantum theory does
not provide satisfactory answers to such questions. However scientists
were constrained to conclude that super-consciousness is all-pervading
and through it the particles (such as those refered to above) could
know the activities of their counter-parts! It would be interesting to
note how this opinion of the scientists agrees with a Vedic utterance:
"Yat Kincedam Prani, jangamamcapatatricayacca Sthavaram,
Sarvam Tatprajnanetram prajnane pratisthitam." (Aitareya Aranyaka, 6th
"Everything that breathes, that moves and flies, and all non-sentient
things are all endowed with the eye of (prajna) consciousness; they have
their foundation in Consciousness".
This resemblance of thought is accepted by another stalwart in the
field. Michael Talbot. He quotes Lawrence Le Shan thus "The absolute is
everything that exists... this absolute has become the Universe.... by
coming through time, space and causation - This is the central idea of
Minkowski (Advaita)... Time space and causation are like the glass
through which the absolute is seen. and when it is seen, it appears as
the Universe. Now we at once gather from this that, in the Universe
there is neither time, space nor causation. What we may call causation
begins, after (if we may be permitted to say so) the degeneration of
the absolute into the phenomenal and not before." ("Mysticism and New
Physics" by Michael Talbot)
Having mentioned similar exposition by Swami Vivekananda the famous
mystic, with transcendent vision, Michael Talbot alludes to another
scientist Minkowski; and asserts that old Oriental doctrines and recent
Occidental scientific concepts are similar to such an extent, that one
would easily fumble while ascertaining whether their authors were Indian
mystics or Western scientists! [pp.114-115 "Mysticism and New Physics"]
The basic thought on which the Quantum Theory stands is vividly
expressed by Swami Vivekananda. Says he "A stone fails and we ask why ?
This question is possible only on the supposition that nothing happens
without a cause. I request you to make this very clear in your minds:
for whenever we ask why anything happens, we are taking for granted that
everything that happens must have a why :that is to say, it must have
been preceded by something else which acted as the cause. This precedence
in succession is what we call the law of causation." (pp.115)
The parallelism between the Quantum Theory and Indian Tantra philosophy
is so striking, that Tantra shorn of its religious alliance, can be
regarded as an ancient branch of The Quantum theory. This has been
confirmed by Michael Talbot. He has also brought forth some mere parallels.
1) The Primary Element of the Universe, and Prakriti.
2) Super space, and Akasa;
3) The hair of Siva, and the web formed by interwining lines of
geometrodynamical electric force;
4) Siva as Bindu and Sakti as power gyrating around it is likened
with mathematical point and the mathematical lines touching the point
around which it is coiled. Now, I hope, none would dispute, that these
similaritis are amazing!
Let us note a few more instances:
1) The Satapatha Brahman Says
"Samantikam iva ha va ime agre Iokah Asuh ifi/Unmrs'ya haiva
Eggling translates these lines thus, "Because at the beginning these
worlds were well-nigh contiguous to one another, at that time one
could touch the sky thus."
The well-known geologist George Gamow observes, "...it is obvious
that the Moon must have been revolving almost within touch of the
Earth's surface immediately after separation." (Biography of the Earth, A
Mentor Book, p. 48 )
Schrodinger points out that sub-atomic particles show a wave-like
nature 'until they are observed or captured (Wallace p. 204). Once this
happens, they manifest themselves... in the form of little pellets of
condensed energy." Insentient things are termed as Anna, and sentient
beings who utilise them are called Annada (Kathaka Sam 22.214.171.124; Tathi.
Aran. 9.8). In reality Anna is Prana or Life-principle (Sata 126.96.36.199;
188.8.131.52; 184.108.40.206; Jaim.I. 215; Taitt.Ar.3.7.3; Jaim up.Br.1.3.6;
Tait.Ar.9.7). Western scholars were agreeably surprised at such
statements, and they say, "Being old, the symbology used by the
ancients is dassified as mythology whereas that used by modern
mathematicians is given a more respectable name Science... Knowing
this, an attempt has been made in this book to compare scientific
concepts with ancient myths and mysticism; specially Hinduism which is
rich in literature on the subject..." [Introduction, Wallace p XIV].
Western scientists fancy Vedic doctrines on the subject, while Indian
scientists are very slow in showing solicitude in this regard. However,
of late, conferences on Veda Vijnana are periodically held, and it is a
happy augury! Some Vedic quotations are considered below in this context.
1) Lincoln Barnett, a scientist of repute, states that planets are
moving farther from the earth and also from one-another. This fact leads
to the conclusion, that, in the hoary past they must have lived in
conglomeration. See also Sata Br 220.127.116.11; Taitt. Sam. 7.3.10; Tandya Br.
8.1.9.; Sata Br. 18.104.22.168; Tait.Sam 3.4.3; Jaim Br. 1.1.45; also
Maitra. Sam 22.214.171.124.3].
Dyava - Prthvi Saha Astam. (Celestial bodies and the Earth
were together) (cf. Tait.Sam. 5.2.3; Kathaka Sam 3.12; Maitrayani Sam.
3.2.2; Tandya Brah. 7.10.1)
2) Jaiminiya Brahmana is mere explicit on the point, declares that
celestial luminaries *nd the Earth were together, and after same
period they travelled away from each other.
Imau Lokau Saha Astam; tau Saha santau vietam! (Jaim. Br 1.145.)
3) Tyndal, the famous scientist, in one of his dissertations says that in
the earliest stage the earth was in a fluid state and mobile. This is
exactly what the Kathaka Samhita says:
Aleledam va iyam Prithvi Asit (Kathaka Sam. 8.2)
Iyam Tarhi Sthita Asit (Kathaka Sam. 36.7).
Other texts too repeat this, like Satapatha Br. 6.1.13.
4) This much is about the earth. We may now refer to other facts
mentioned in the Vedas : Tasmad Atrapu Ayah Pratidhuk Ksiram Vidahati.
Milk in a copper (pot) without tin becomes sour. Here is a clear
implication that if it is mated with tin, milk in it would not be spoiled.
We are often told that the art of tin-coating was introduced in
India after the advent of Islam. The above statement clearly disproves
this dubious conception !! (Ref. also to Kathaka Sam).
5) "Gold is light (Tejo vai Hiranyam)" says the Veda (Tait.Br.1.8.9/1;
Kathaka Sam 11.4). The world, according to Indian thinkers is
constituted of five elements; the prthvi (earth); Apah (Water); Tejas
(Ught); Vayu (Air) Akasa (Sky or ether). The Veda states that God
is not earthly; it is Tejas (light). An interesting argument is
given for this conviction in the Nyaya school of philosophy. Gold
thrown into the fire becomes fluid, but is never reduced to ashes. It
continues to remain in a molten state. Prithivi element would be burned
6) A stanza in the Mahabharata tell us:
"As a pure bead would take-in the scattered rays of the sun by samadhi
(or placing them togather); so starts the process of Yoga."
"Yatha Bhanugatam tejah manih Suddhah Samedhina Adatte Rajasardula.
Tatha Yngah Pravartate".
The process of Yoga, is to concentrate energy scattered in all and every
part of the human body and this is compared with the intaking of
sun-rays by a mani or bead. This mani may be a sort of convex lens.
7) The Atharva Veda informs us of lead being used to be shot at brigands:
Tan Tva Sisena Vldhyamah (Atharva 1.16).
The purport of the whole hymn in brief may be given thus, "Wise people
have cautioned us against robbers who would attack us on dark new moon
nights. Lord Indra has given us lead which would rout robbers and also
those who would stand as obstacles in our way. Oh Thief! If you kill my
cow or horse or man, I will shoot you to death."
Shooting down an enemy with lead can only imply the use of lead as a
bullet. Agni-Bana is mentioned in the Aitareya Brahmana (126.96.36.199)
8) Dhanurveda, which is ascribed to Vasistha, shows aquaintence with
weapons like Nalika, Naracha and Sataghni. Sataghni is mentioned in the
word as old as Ramayana. The root meaning of the word suggests that the
weapon, when operated, would kill hundreds of people at a time. It must
be some weapon like a cannon (Sunderkanda 2.21; 4.18; etc.) The
Harivamsha describes small cannons, indicating that larger cannons too
were used. A scholar as eminent as Shri Ramachandra Dikshitar, having
considered the point in detail, concludes, "It can therefore be safely
concluded that these weapons, guns and cannons, were used in ancient
India from very ancient times. We must remember here that the Ramayan
far ante-dates the Christian Era."
9) Finally let us consider a stanza in the Rgveda :
Rayim na Kasein mamruaevan avahah Tamuhathuh Naubhirat manvatibhih
Antadksa prud bhirapodakabhih! (RgV. 1.116.3)
"Oh! Ashwins! A person (tradesman) known as Tugra had abandoned his son
Bhujyu (by name), in an ocean-storm like a mortal.. who (to save life)
abandons riches. But you carried him safe in powerful canoes which could
fly in the air and would not touch waters."
Can this description be applicable to any other vehicle than an amphibious
aeroplane? Many such descriptions of aeroplanes can be found in the
Vedas, Epics and Puranas. Having reviewed all these allusions, Dikshitar
says, "Still some writers have expressed a doubt and aked if it were
true. But evidence in its favour is overwhelming."
The length of this disseratation can be increased. However, here, only an
attempt is made to show that ancient Indians were suffiently advanced in
technical achievements. They had known highest metaphysical doctrines. But
that does not imply that they neglected, worldly well-being and material
India's past goes far back in time-scale. None so far has dared to fix the
Indian civilization which is reflected in Vedic literature..The assumed
uniformity of human development by the evolutionists has tempted scholars
to interpret the Vedas as gibberings of primitive humanity. The diffusionist
school and functionalist school of thought have exploded the unilinear
theory of man's progress. Vedic India had reached the highest watermark of
civilization. As Indians, it is our sacred obligation to carry these
ideals, through the agitated present to the glorious future! Science is
said to have been neglected'by religion. But the concept of Dharma cannot
afford to neglect it; for Dharma permeates every walk of life, includes
every human activity, and fuses diverse aspects.
YUGA MAHAYUGA and KALPA
By R.R. Karnik
(A/6 Woodland Flats, Ambedkar Road, Shivajinagar, Pune 411 005)
Many people including Indian astronomers such as Aryabhata, Brahmagupta
and Bhaskaracharya, as also experts outside India such as Whitney,
Burgess, Bentley, etc. believe that one Kaliyuga, is of 432,000 years,
one Mahayuga is ten times this as much (4,320,000 years) and one Kalpa
is a thousand times Kaliyuga (4,320,000,000 years). Many knowledgeable
people just do not accept these large numbers and reject such astronomy.
It appears that these numbers have a bearing on the dating of Ramayana.
According to Valmiki the period of Ramayana is at the beginning of
Tretayuga. Reckoning with these numbers some archaeologists found
volcanic ash which was 1,400,000 years old and associated it with
the period of the Ramayana. On the other hand, there are others who
assert that the Ramayana occured about 8000 years ago.
Various forms of Indian arithmetic have already found an honourable place
in the history of mathematics. It was known that complex mathematics is
available in the Surya Siddhanta, which is reputed to be very ancient.
Since these huge numbers of years for Yuga and Kalpa were to be found in
this Siddhanta, I had avoided studying it. But in my search for higher
mathematics in ancient India, I read this document in original Sanskrit,
analysing each word and its syntax. The knowledge contained in this
document is truly of a high quality. The document could not have been
written in the historical period of the fifth century A.D. with the
advent of Aryabhata and Varahamihira, as the logic for the use of these
huge number of years was not been understood by them.
In the hightech uses of computer technology there is an area called
simulation, in which time is used in two different manners. One is called
"real time" and the other, "non-real time" -- either slow motion or fast
motion. The surprising thing is that the Surya Siddhanta makes use of
this concept of time. All the arithmetics in the Surya Siddhanta is in
terms of integers for which some times "real time" is not suitable.
Some people believe that these huge number of years correspond to an
L.C.M. of the periods of revolution of the planets around the sun. There
have been attempts in Vedanga Jyotisha, where a period of five years has
been used and by Varahamihira in Romaka Siddhanta using 2,850 years.
Cicero gives 12,954 years in the thirty-fifth fragment of Hortensius by
the name of Magnun Annum. Neither of these numbers can divide 4,32,000.
In fact no number however large can give an integer multiple of the
number of years required.
The answer is simple and elementary. The least count used in Surya
Siddhanta for general computations is one Kala or minute of the arc of
which there are 21,600 in the whole circle. If one has to specify the
movememnt of planetary element to the accuracy of one Kala in a year
a period of 21,600 years will have to be taken. This is the period of a
Mahayuga and its tenth part which is 2,160 years is the period of
Kaliyuga. Dwaparyuga is twice this or 4,320 years, Tretayuga is thrice
this or 6,480 years and Krutayuga is four times this or 8,640 years,
all four totaling up to 21,600 years.
The accuracy of one Kala in a year is not adequate. To therefore obtain an
accuracy of one two-hundredth of a Kala in a year, a period that is two
hundred times 21,600 or 4,320,000 years is necessary. The first number of
21,600 years is the real time and the other number of 4,320,000 years
taken for Mahayuga is the frame time or the non-real time.
The Surya Siddhanta records in i. 10:
"Lokanam antarkt kalah kalonyah kalanatmakah
Sa dvidha sthulasuksmatvan murtas ca amurta uccyate".
Rendered in English it means:
"The time which destroys is the real time the other kind of time is
for the purpose of computations. They are of two kinds, the gross one is
used for real time use and the firm one for the purpose of computations."
For the movement of the apogee of the sun this frame time of 4,320,000
years is not adequate and a number ten times this is required which is
43,200,000 years called Kalpa. This is given in the Surya Siddhanta i.20,
"ittham yuga sehesrena bhutasanharakarkah
kaIpo brahmam ahah proktam sarvari tasya tavati"
"Such thousand yugas, of the all destroying kind, are called a day
or Kalpa of Brahma the night being of equal duration."
The Surya Siddhanta gives the rates of motions of apogees and nodes
starting from i.41. It starts with the apogee of the sun which rate is
"Braggate surya mandasya kalpe saptastavahnayah"
"The apogee (mandocca) of sun goes eastwards 387 (bhagana) in a Kalpa."
The computation of the modern value is as follows:
Mean motion of the sun (tropical) 36000.76892 degrees per 100 years
Motion of precession -1.39571 degrees per 100 years
Mean sidereal motion of the sun 35999.37321 degrees per 100 years
Motion of anomaly 35999.04975 degrees per 100 years
Motion of apogee .32346 degrees per 100 years
which is X 1200 = 388.152 bhagana in a Kalpa
This is the fineness with which the motion of the apogee of the sun has
been given in the Surya Siddhanta.
Surya Siddhanta (i.2) states:
"alpavasiste tu krte mayonama mahasurah
rahasyam paramam punyam jijnasur jnanam uttamam"
A short time (10 to 12 years according to critics) before the end of
Krutayuga, a great Asura named Maya sought to acquire this high quality
knowledge endowed with spiritual blessings."
At the end of the Surya Siddhanta there are two verses describing that
when the sages came to know that the Sun has blessed the Maha Asura Maya
with the knowledge of astronomy, they went to him with great respect,
touched his feet and prayed that this knowledge be given to them.
Maya then with great love and affection (in a thorough and complete
manner) imparted this knowledge to them. Xiv. 26-27.
"jnatva tamrsyasc atha surylabdhavaram mayam
paribabrurupety atho jnanam pepracchur adarat (Xiv.26)
sa tebbyah pradadau pritau grahanam caritam mahat
etyadbhutatamam loke rahasyam brahmasammitam II 27 II
This period would be at the end of Krutayuga and the beginning of the
The period of Ramayana is of Tretayuga. Mayasura is the father of
Mandodari the wife of Ravana. It is obvious that this knowledge was
obtained by the sages before the Great War between Rama and Ravana.
After his defeat it is said that Mayasura went home by the land route
in a westward direction to his place. There is a reference to a period of
counting of 360 days, visibility of Sagittarius in the land of Asuras
(when Aeries is visible in the land of Suras) and the sky in the land of
Asuras rotating in the clockwise direction (when it rotates in an
anti-clockwise direction in the land of Suras) in the Surya Suddhanta
suggesting a link with the South American continent for Maya and with the
Mayan culture there. It is to be noted that the fifth ice age was on at
this time and journey from Europe to the American continent would have
been possible by land route at that time. It is said that Mayasura
travelled using this route.
If a learned person like Maya has to "run away", then what can one say of
his disciples and his teachings. It also seems that this knowledge had
to be practised in a surreptitious manner, bearing the wrath of royal
displeasure. It seems that Aryabhata got this method of astronomy
official recognition, however, in the time from Maya to Aryabhatta much
knowledge was lost.
Aryabhatiya shastra has two distinct parts. One of the parts consists of
108 Aryas taken from the Surya Siddhanta and the other part contains 10
Giti -- the original compositions of Aryabhata. On this Brahmagupta
scathingly attacks Aryabhata (Brahmasputa Siddhanta ix.8)
"aryastasate pata bhramanti dasagitike sthirah pata"
[In 108 Arya the nodes rotate (but) in 10 Giti they are stationary.]
But Bhaskara tries to defend Aryabhata.
"atyanta suksmaisam gatir mahata kalena kiyate apy upaciyate
tayoh stokatvad antarasya viksepah sphuta eva laksante"
[A mere eye wash. because of the extremely slow motion even after large
periods of time the deviation is correct i.e. is negligible.]
Obviously, none of the three, Aryabhata, Bhaskara or Brahmagupta had any
knowledge of the correct number of years to be taken for the revolutions
of the apogee of the sun. After them no one has been able to decipher the
mystery of the revolutions of apogees and nodes of the planets.
Indian astronomy has been possessed by these non-real time computation of
Mahayuga and Kalpa and their influence still remains. It has become
almost impossible to view the epics of Ramayana and Mahabharata in an
objective manner due to this. The correct measure that can be seen in
the light of the mathematical contents of Surya Siddhanta for Kaliyuga,
Mahayuga and Kalpa, have been given here. This may perhaps help in
exorcising-the influence of imaginary numbers which have afflicted the
thinking in India for several centuries.