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Ancient Commercial Transportation Routes Link Together TINNEY and Variations Surname Origins, Without Using Defective and Unsubstantiated DNA Genetic Analysis - UPDATED

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Sep 29, 2019, 12:15:32 PM9/29/19
Ancient Commercial Transportation Routes Link Together TINNEY and Variations Surname Origins, Without Using Defective and Unsubstantiated DNA Genetic Analysis - UPDATED

Ancient tin found in Israel has unexpected Cornish links

The Enigma of Bronze Age Tin
Researchers use methods of the natural sciences to uncover geographic origin of archaeological tin artefacts from the Mediterranean . . . The tin artefacts from Israel, for example, largely match tin from Cornwall and Devon (Great Britain). “These results specifically identify the origin of tin metal for the first time and therefore give rise to new insights and questions for archaeological research”, adds Dr Berger, who conducts research at the Curt Engelhorn Centre for Archaeometry.

Isotope systematics and chemical composition of tin ingots from Mochlos (Crete) and other Late Bronze Age sites in the eastern Mediterranean Sea: An ultimate key to tin provenance? . . . With the help of the tin isotope composition and the trace elements of the objects it is further possible to exclude many tin resources from the European continent and, considering the current state of knowledge and the available data, to conclude that Cornish tin mines are the most likely suppliers for the 13th–12th centuries tin ingots from Israel.


The LORD Jesus Christ, Jews, The House of Joseph, Gentiles and Heathens: A Careful Study of the TINNEY Surname from Worldwide Origins.
Document Section from 4000 B.C. to the Birth of Jesus Christ
. . .
The power of words cannot be doubted and the family Surname ranks as the chief daily reminder of what a man or woman is, in verbal communication. The Tinney Surname is a good name, preserved in the collective, recorded history of man. For example, one of the greatest poets of all time was (Lord) Alfred Tennyson.
. . .
"T". = The twentieth letter of the modern English alphabet is represented by tinne [Ir., holly] in the ogham alphabet of early Ireland. "T" appears as three straight lines: "lll" above the foundation-line: _________ [druim]. Holly of the Old World often had bright-red berries and glossy, evergreen leaves with spiny margins, used traditionally for Christmas decoration.
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The letter "T" is further discussed, by William Morris, excellent editor of The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, published in 1976, by the Houghton Mifflin Company, in Boston, Massachusetts. Mention is made that around 1000 B.C., the Phoenicians and other Semites of Syria and Palestine began to use a graphic sign in three irregular and interchangeable forms. They gave it the name taw, meaning "mark", and used it for the consonant "t". After 900 B.C., the Greeks borrowed the sign from the Phoenicians, altering its shape slightly to give it the characteristic "T" form. They also changed the name to tau. The Greek forms passed unchanged via Etruscan to the Roman alphabet. The Roman Monumental Capital is the prototype of the modern printed and written capital "T". This traces the16th letter in the Irish alphabet, the letter "T", named Tinne, and thus, the Surname Tinney of which Tinne is a known variant, back through time to the Hebrew alphabet letter "T".
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Cyril Noall, Geevor Tin Mines plc Pendeen, Penzance, Cornwall, comments: "A bronze dagger found on the site of an old tin stream work near Mevagissey, together with a mould for making a flat-bladed type of bronze axe, suggest that tin was worked in Cornwall [England] during the early Bronze Age." In the early Bronze Age, Italy, Central Europe, the west Baltic coastland, and the British Isles were united by a single system for the distribution of metal ware, rooted in the Aegean market (Childe, 1958). Jewish involvement in metals is mentioned in the Biblical book of Numbers, Chapter 31, verses 21-23, under part of the ordinances of the law which the Lord commanded Moses [circa 1603-1483 B.C.]. In the purification of the soldiers, it was permissible to keep gold, silver, brass, iron, tin, and lead. Everything that may abide the fire, "ye shall make it go through the fire, and it shall be clean". Emrys Bowen, an archaeologist and historical geographer, indicates that in Ireland, smiths of the Beaker era were fashioning bronze axes and daggers before 1500 B.C. As Ireland had no tin workings of its own, they must have exploited the Cornish tin mines via seafarers. From later in the Bronze Age, archaeologists have discovered a hoard of tin ore at Treviskey in Cornwall, as noted in The English Channel, by Nigel Calder, published 1986.
. . .
T. W. Potter and Catherine Johns mention in Roman Britain, (1992), that scrap metal was being traded across the English Channel by the Middle Bronze Age (c. 1200-1100 B.C.), validated by cargoes in ship wrecks lying on the seabed. By 1100 B.C., Assyrians were encountering seafaring Phoenicians,who were known to hunt sperm whales as well as participate in merchant sea trade. Sperm whales, once common in the tropical and temperate seas, also traveled north as far as Iceland and the Bering Sea and also south to Antarctica.The schools migrating north in summer, followed by the Phoenician hunters, appear to have assisted in the discovery of the British Isles.

The long relationship between England and France is validated in Vol. III of An Economic Survey of Ancient Rome, (1959), under Roman Britain mining and minerals, the subject Tin. It appears that west Cornwall [England] was well populated and in close touch with Brittany and Ireland, and after 1000 B.C.,"they became much closer, and local finds demonstrate frequent imports,. . . these include objects from Gaul, the Pyrenees, Numidia, Greece, and Cyprus." A maritime perspective of middle Bronze Age trade, between Britain and Europe, is noted by Keith Muckelroy, in Vol. 47, (December 1981), issue of the Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society. The witness for past trade exhibited by wreck-sites is in many respects superior to any other source;suggesting, in a very real sense they are 'trade frozen in time'. Importantly, "the evidence suggests a European-wide network of bronze exchange which operated separately from local arrangements for production and distribution."
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As noted in Ancient and Medieval Jewish History, edited by Leon A. Feldman, (1972), it cannot be denied that over the centuries, Palestine exported not only its excellent fruits, wine, and grapes but also grains. It is known that there were large imports of manufactured articles and the importation of metals was a significant part of the economy. From an economic standpoint, since Palestine paid for all these imports with the excess of its agricultural production, maximum return on the dollar [figuratively speaking], was also a key criteria in ancient times. The early population of Ancient Israel, circa 1000 B.C., has been approximated as Judah (450,000), Israel (1,350,000) and all of ancient Israel (1,800,000), with conquered peoples (3,000,000). The City of Jerusalem was estimated as having a 15,000 to 20,000 total population.
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The Ancient Tin Trade of Britain is discussed in Notes and Queries, [England], A Medium of Intercommunication for Literary Men, General Readers, Etc., 9th Series, Volume IV, (July-December 1899), page 516 [of Vol. 100], dated 23 Dec 1899. It states: "According to M. Salomon Reinach, a well-known French anthropologist (see L'Anthropologie, Vol. X, 1899, page 397), there was in 1000 B.C. an overland trade in tin between the British Islands and Thrace or Macedonia.The relations of Britain, Northern Europe, and Western Asia are proved by the diffusion of tin, amber, and spiral ornaments and bronze implements.
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The Babylonian Talmud, Translated into English with Notes, Glossary and Indices under the Editorship of Rabbi Dr. I. Epstein, B.A., Ph. D., D. Litt., published various years, The Soncino Press, London, [England], Vol. 1-18, records under SEDER KODASHIM, in Three Volumes, III, . . . TAMID, in consecutive Vol. 17, Chapter III, pages 18-19, mentions the following: - MISHNAH. . . . They went into the chamber of the vessels and brought out from there ninety-three vessels of silver and gold. They gave the animal for the daily sacrifice a drink from a cup of gold. Although it had been examined on the previous evening, it was now examined again by torch light. Those on whom the lot had fallen to clear the ash from the inner altar and from the candlestick went on in front with four vessels in their hands--the Teni {2} and the kuz and two keys. The Teni resembled a tirkab of gold and held two kabs and a half . . .{2} (Teni Lit[erally, means] 'basket'. [It was the name for] the receptacle for the ash from the altar.) The Teni was used in the process of giving burnt offerings to JEHOVAH, the Everlasting God of Israel.
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The Jewish merchant class followed King Solomon's example and cemented local protection of their Diaspora group, by entering into marriages and having concubine contract agreements with local royalty and families in positions of authority. The Journal of Near Eastern Studies, Vol. XVI, (January-October 1957), has the article: "The Problem of Ancient Oriental Shipping on the North Sea", by B. Lundman. He states that on all the Frisian Islands [See: Frisian and Free, Study of an ethnic minority of The Netherlands, by Cynthia Keppley Mahmood, 1989], quite a number of people with huge curved noses and darker coloring are found. There are also instances of a similar type found in the coastal areas of the British Isles. These darker skin colored people, with slightly thick lips, have almost "Jewish" noses, and convex "Iberian, nay Assyrian profiles". Similar in characteristics to the population of Cornwall, England with Semitic traces of the Jewish-Armenoid type.

Significantly, as noted by Fig. 4- Ancient sea routes between Asia Minor and the North, include connections to Cyprus, the Etruscans, southern Spain, northwest France, western Ireland, south and west England, including both the passage through the English Channel and that around the north of Scotland. "Mixed Armenoid types similar to those found in western Europe exist in an area from southwestern Arabia" and along the Persian Golf, thence east and southwards along the western and southwestern coast of India. This continues on down to Ceylon and even a little way along the southernmost part of the eastern coast, in Tinnevelly. [The name of an ancient non-Aryan,Tamil Kingdom at the extreme southern tip of the Indian peninsula, as mentioned in The Hindu World, Vol. 2, pages 180-181.]
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Milton Rubincam, in Genealogical Research: Methods & Sources,editor of the revised edition, notes on page 564, that the ancient Etruscans, who inhabited north central Italy from the 8th century B.C., were the first Europeans to introduce surnames. In Italy, Giuliano Bonfante and Larissa Bonfante, show in The Etruscan Language, as published as an introduction thereto, by the Manchester University Press in 1983, in the Glossary under Part Three:Study Aids, the following translations are given:
Ten/= to act as
Tin/= day
Tin, Tinia= Jupiter, Zeus, god of daylight.
The Rosie Crucian Secrets,(Wellingborough, England: The Aquarian Press, 1985), p. 209,states that: JUPITER is Tin.

The Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, notes that Jupiter is called Hor-tash-tawy, the last word segment similar to the Hebrew alphabet letter "T" or taw. The connection with religious worship and the metal "tin" appears in the coating of sacrificial implements and personal ornaments with precious metals. The god Tinia is found displayed as a man in physical form on mirrors, with other gods. Mythologies, (1991), compiled by Yves Bonnefoy, mentions Uni, consort to Tinia. Uni was highly venerated, especially as the goddess of maternity. In the sanctuary of Pyrgi she was equivalent to Ilithyia or Leucothea and was assimilated to the Phoenician goddess Astarte. Tentinia would indicate "to act as Tinia"; the uncompounded tinia would be "to be Tinia". These variations indicate the later formations in the gens of the Roman Empire of this particular Etruscan Family. Tinia, Tentinia, Titinia, Tinius, Titinius were later modified and carried on down in time by the alphabet letter "T" to Irish/ English Tenne/Tinne/Tynne [for the metal "tin"], as well as other surname sources, to the present day Tinney Surname, [going back also anciently via Hebrew alphabet origins.] Etruscan Magic and Occult Remedies, calls TINA or TINIA the highest Etruscan god, honoured in every Tuscan city. Invocations were made for the power that speaks in the thunder [synonymous to Thor, God of the North, noted by Robert Ferguson, The Teutonic Name-System, (1864), as the god from which the Anglo-Saxon surname TINNEY originated, as well as the designation of the day Thursday] and descends in the lightning. He, TINIA alone had three separate bolts to hurl.
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TINIA is also found in Tuscan legends as that of a great and wealthy lord- un milionario, the richest in all the country, a deus ex machina, or higher power. Richard E. Mitchell, when writing about Patricians and Plebeians,(1990), mentions that in the origin of the Roman State in Italy, plebeians are defined in part as individuals incorporated into the Rome City population after conquests. This was the position of the more ancient Etruscan nobility after Roman ascendancy, of which the Titinius family has been documented as part of the elite equestrian military establishment. One of the Tribal divisions, of Roman/Etruscan origin was the Titienses, a name borne by the archaic equestrian centuries, the archaic tribal military force.[See: The Annals of Q. Ennis, by Otto Skutsch, (1985).
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Strabo relates that even in Sulla's time, circa 100 B.C., that a Jewish element had penetrated into every city and "there is hardly a place in the world which has not admitted this people and is not possessed by it." [STRABO, Fragment 6, cited by Josephus, Ant. Jud., XIV, 7,2.] Strabo also mentions in Book III, "Prettanike" for Britain. Modern Etymological authorities believe in the possible original pre-Roman Celtic name Pretani. The inhabitants of Brettanike who dwell throughout the promontory called Belerion are more than usually friendly [differential] to strangers, as noted on page 219, in C. F. C. Hawkes' paper, Ictis disentangled, and the British Tin trade, Oxford Journal of Archaeology, Vol. 3, No. 2, July 1984, pages 211-234. Thus, it is historically obvious that displaced Jews would have been welcomed here and would find survival in the preparation and distribution of tin. Jewish traders would buy the tin and transport it for sale at Marseilles and elsewhere. Since early-medieval Irish texts refer to the Channel as 'the sea of Icht', it is obvious that Jewish interests were carried throughout the British Isles through merchant contacts, as well as on the European continent. [See also: Ictis: was it here?, by Barry Cunliffe, Oxford Journal of Archaeology, Vol. 2, No. 1, March 1983, pages 123-on.]
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John Lingard, D.D., mentions in The History of England, the key element that tin was brought up by factors on the coast of the Mediterranean, and conveyed over land to the remote provinces of India. A Cornish Parish: Being an Account of St. Austell, Town, Church, District and People, published 1897, by Joseph Hammond, LL.B., Vicar, page 43, mentions that: "In one [of the stream works on St. Austell moor] were lately found, about 8 ft. under the surface, two slabs or small blocks of melted tin of about 28 lb. weight each, of a shape very different from that which for many years has obtained in Cornwall. They have semicircular handles or loops to them, as if to sling and carry them more conveniently on horseback.". . . it had a long land journey, on packhorses, before it was put into the boat for Gaul, and it had a still longer horseback journey afterwards,as noted in the account of Diodorus Siculus. This fact appears to be handed down in the very definition of the word Tyn in Cornish, i.e. a Passage over a River or Arm of the Sea; also a Hill, as noted in A Cornish-English Vocabulary, the last section in the book: Antiquities, Historical and Monumental, of the County of Cornwall, published in London, 1769, by William Borlase, LL.D., F.R.S., Rector of Ludgvan, Cornwall.

Greek and Latin Authors on Jews and Judaism, Vol. I, pages 45-52, records tradition dating back to the writings of Megasthenes and Clearchus of Soli, circa 300 B.C. They connect the Jewish people with the country of India, both in opinions that are expressed by the ancients and descent from the Indian philosophers. Connection by Jewish tin merchants is confirmed from England to the country of India, as shown in these cultural similarities. The Cornish word Tin is defined as sharp, terrible, severe. CERNVNNOS was a deity of the Gauls, a name derived from the word "horn"; used also to include the sharp projections shooting out on each side into the sea from ancient Kernou (Cornou/Cornouak or Cornow/Curnow); i.e., Cornubia or Cornuwallia, for the native designation for Cornwall; as in Hebrew Karnee/-t, adj., hornlike.[Cornvalgie, - - Cornwall, from page 30, Vol. 2, The History of Cornwall, Chron. Saxon.]


The LORD Jesus Christ, Jews, The House of Joseph, Gentiles and Heathens: A Careful Study of the TINNEY Surname from Worldwide Origins.
Document Section from the Birth of Jesus Christ to A.D. 1453

Tannaim, i.e., the tanna, or Teni were the ancient Jewish scholars,expounding law and teaching the people in synagogues and academies,the foundations of an ancient University. In Jerusalem there was at the Temple Mount the Avtinus chamber room, where incense was compounded for later use in the offerings upon the Golden Altar. Beth Ab was the name for the Father's House, the Temple at Jerusalem. This holy chamber [Av (father)+ tinus; Ab is a variant of Av, part of Aramaic abba, father], was named after the Jewish aristocratic Avtinus family, merchants and spice makers. According to the Babylonian Talmud, Vol. 12, Seder Mo'ed, (Vol. IV),Shekalim, Chapter V, page 19: the House of Abtinas [was] over the preparing of the frankincense.
. . .
The Babylonian Talmud, Vol. 11, Seder Mo'ed, (Vol. III), Yoma, Chapter III, pages 176-178, mentions "They of the House of Abtinas" would not teach anything about the preparation of the incense, of which they were expert.Their smoke ascended [as straight] as a stick. When the Sages asked why they, the House of Abtinas, would not teach their art, the reply was "They knew in our father's house that this House is going to be destroyed and they said: Perhaps an unworthy man will learn [this art] and will serve an idol therewith. --- And for the following reason was their memory kept in honour: Never did a bride of their house go forth perfumed, and when they married a woman from elsewhere they expressly forbade her to do so lest people say: From [the preparation of] the incense they are perfuming themselves. [They did so] to fulfill the command:'Ye shall be clear before the Lord and before Israel.' "
. . .
Pamela Fletcher Jones states in The Jews of Britain that there were Jews living in Britain as early as Roman times. She notes a coin of Herod Agrippa I was found at Bingley Moor in the West Riding of Yorkshire, struck 42-43 A.D. A coin was found at Melandra Castle in Derbyshire dated 66-72 A.D.; a coin was found at the old G. P. O.site in London's St. Martin's-le-Grand, struck to celebrate a victory of Bar Kokhba.
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Rabbi Bernard Susser notes in his book The Jews of South-West England,(1993), of "some connection between the inhabitants of Devon and Cornwall and the dwellers on the Palestinian coastline is shown by food habits which they still hold in common. Both areas use saffron in cooking, particularly in the baking of cakes. In these two regions as well as in Brittany, which was also under Celtic influence, clotted cream is manufactured." Additionally, "A further indication of some degree of intercourse between the ancient Israelites and Celts is said to be the similarity in sound and meaning of words and phrases in the Hebrew and Celtic languages."
. . .
For a long period in the early history of tin mining, the mines of Cornwall appear to have been in the hands of the Jews. They became possessors of them chiefly by taking them as securities for loans granted to the early Dukes of Cornwall; and at several periods, when the Jews were hotly persecuted, those engaged in 'tinning' were particularly exempted. Many curious remnants of the Jewish rule are met with in Cornwall. Rude furnaces are frequently found beneath the soil of the existing valleys, which are called Jew houses; and the tin, which is often found in blocks, formed, as it would seem, by running the melted metal into a rude hollow made in the soil, is called 'Jew's house tin'. (See also: British Mining, by Hunt.)

[Research Note: Institutes of the Laws of England : Containing the exposition of many ancient and other statutes

This record states . . . of all the tynne in Cornwall and Devon. Tynne is a Saxon word and is derived [from] tinnitu

So how does a Saxon word form also show up in Tinni mac Conri, who is mentioned in the King List of Connacht, without commercial Jewish contacts, etc.? It is not possible otherwise. [ After this division of the Kingdom, Eochaidh proceeded to erect a Royal Palace in Conacht; this he built on Tinne's government in a place called Druin-na-n Druagh, now Craughan (from Craughan Crodhearg, Maedhbh's mother, to whom she gave the palace), but previously, Rath Eochaidh. {See Note Below: The employment of Cornish tin miners on fortifications was a long-established custom} About the same time he bestowed his daughter the Princess Maedhbh on Tinne, whom he constituted King of Conacht; Maedhbh being hereditary Queen of that Province. After many years reign Tinne was slain by Maceacht (or Monaire) at Tara. Information listed under item number 72.]

Edward or Eadward, called The Confessor (died A.D. 1066), last Anglo-Saxon King of the English, had one law that stated: Judei et omnia sua, Regis sunt. [The Jews and everything they have or possess is part of the property of the King.]

Going forward (and back in time): Cornish Tin Miners [England]
"The seminal importance of the English voyages to North Carolina and Virginia [USA] which were made under the auspices of Sir Walter Raleigh between A.D. 1584 and 1591 has long been fully recognized despite their failure to found a lasting settlement on American soil." See: The William and Mary Quarterly, [USA], 3rd Series, Vol. VI, No. 2, (April, 1949), article beginning page 173, Preparations for the A.D. 1585 Virginia Voyage, by David B. Quinn. There is reference made to the need to use "sum of your myners of Cornwell" in the proposed colony. As stated on page 214 of this article, "Besides the military administrators and personnel a number of individual specialists were required." This included "sum of your myners of Cornwell" {16} The employment of Cornish tin miners on fortifications was a long-established custom [A. L. Rowse, Tudor Cornwall (1941), 402]. In the spring of 1586 Raleigh was instructed to levy 100 Cornish tin miners to be sent to the Low Countries for this purpose [William Murdin, A Collection of State Papers . . . 1571 to 1596 . . . left by William Cecil Lord Burghley (1759), 782; Raleigh to Leicester, March 29, 1586, in Edwards, Ralegh, II, 33-34]. Continuing, on page 216, lists among men to be taken to America were: Men experte in the arte of fortification . . . Makers of spades and shovells for pyoners, trentchers, and fortemakers. Makers of basketts to cary earthe to fortes Rampiers. Pioners and spadesmen for fortification . . . Men cunning in the art of fortification, that may chuse out places strong by nature to be fortified, and that can plot out and direct workmen. Choise spadesmen, to trench cunningly, and to raise bulwarks and rampiers of earth for defence and offence . . . Mynerall men and Men skilful in all Minerall causes . . .

Because Cornwall was so invested with such mighty men, it is self evident that there was a clearly identifiable military linkage, as Tin was tied to instruments of warfare, and suggests in part, why Ireland escaped the canopy of domination by Romans.

I additionally refer you to my previous notation: Etruscan Magic and Occult Remedies, calls TINA or TINIA the highest Etruscan god, honoured in every Tuscan city. Invocations were made for the power that speaks in the thunder [synonymous to Thor, God of the North, noted by Robert Ferguson, The Teutonic Name-System, (1864), as the god from which the Anglo-Saxon surname TINNEY originated . . .

Robert Ferguson (1 April 1817 – 1 September 1898) was an English mill-owner from Cumberland, antiquarian and Liberal politician, who sat in the House of Commons from 1874 to 1886. Ferguson was also an antiquarian and a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries. The society's library is oldest, and the major archaeological research library in the UK.
He was a very prolific writer; one of which was:


Reference to the Surname Tinney on page 129

This record was considered to be important enough to be digitized by the Internet Archive in 2010 with funding from the University of Toronto.

I mention in particular, The name of Thor, the second of the gods, from whom we have Thursday, seems also, like that of Odin, to have been uncommon as a man's name in its simple form. . . . There seems indeed to me a considerable probability that the name of this god, or rather of some god wielding the thunder, is of older date than the rest of the Odinic mythology.[i.e., as heretofore stated, TINA or TINIA the highest Etruscan god, honoured in every Tuscan city. Invocations were made for the power that speaks in the thunder ] . . . SIMPLE FORMS. . . . Tinno, 7th cent. Anglo-Saxon Dun, . . ., Tun,. . .. Tunny,. . .Ton, TINNEY, etc.

So in a nutshell, this connects them all together, along with the stated facts of Cornwall and Devon TYNNE, or Tin, as now said, or used in common language usage; and, yes, yes, intimately connected from A.D. to B.C. with Jewish Mercantile activities.]

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