The FAQ !!! (long)

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Craig Cockburn

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May 2, 1994, 5:39:23 PM5/2/94
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Archive-name: celtic-culture
Version: 1, Beltaine 1994
Last-Modified: 1-May-94

As this is the first posting, it is likely to contain errors and is
obviously incomplete. Corrections, comments, suggestions and particularly
volunteers to right the rest are welcomed - please contact Craig Cockburn
on cr...@scot.demon.co.uk

Once this version has circulated for a few weeks, a corrected version
will be sent to the usual FTP sites (complete with corrections!!)

Contributors: Craig Cockburn, Sean Kelley, Jeff Inglis, Godfrey Nolan,


Sections:
(a) The Celts and Celtic language questions
(b) Alba - Scotland
(c) Alba Nuadh - Nova Scotia
(d) Breizh - Brittany
(e) Cymru - Wales
(f) Eire - Ireland
(g) Kernow - Cornwall
(h) Mannin - Isle of Man
(i) Celtic events & societies in major cities around the world

Section (a) - The Celts
(1) The Celts
(2) The Celtic languages
(3) What is GAELIC-L, WELSH-L, CELTIC-L, IRTRAD-L and how do I subscribe?
(4) Celtic Music
(5) How do I identify which Celtic language this is?
(6) Books for Celtic names for children
(7) Multilingual publications

(1) The Celts

The Celts (pronounced with a hard C like "Claymore") appear in Europe
as a group of peoples who spoke languages in the Celtic branch of the
Indo-European family of languages. Other branches of the Indo-European
family are Albanian, Anatolian, Armenian, Balto-Slavic, Germanic
(includes English), Greek, Indo-Iranian, Italic (Latin based) and
Tocharian. Celtic is closest to the Italic group. European languages
*not* belonging to the Indo-European group are Basque, Hungarian,
Finnish, Estonian and Lappish (also called Saami). Basque is notable
in that it is almost certainly a remnant of the languages present in
Europe before the Indo-European expansion. Hungarian, however, was
brought from the East at a later date. Pictish (now extinct) was also
non IE, more of this later.

Around 1500-1000BC, the Celts lived in an area which today is mostly in
Eastern France. The area stretched from roughly where Luxemburg is today
to a bit further south than Geneva and took in parts of modern day
West Germany and Switzerland. It was an area a little bigger than the
island of Ireland.

The Celts then expanded to cover an area covering most of Western
Europe and Central Europe. Around 400BC, the Celts lived in what
is now called Britain, Ireland, France (i.e. Gaul), Luxemburg, Belgium,
Switzerland, Austria, and the Czech and Slovak Republics. Celts also
lived in parts of Spain (notable Galicia), northern Italy, The Netherlands,
the southern half of Germany, and parts of Poland and Russia (source: "The
Story of English", Faber and Faber; BBC books 1992).

For more history on The Celts, see:
Frank Delaney "The Celts" (BBC books). The two major epochs in continental
Celtic are referred to as "La Te\ne" and "Hallstadt" - can someone check
this.

After the height of their power, the Celts (the first Indo-European
group to spread across Europe) were pushed north and west by sucessive
waves of Indo-European peoples, notably Germanic and Latin based. The main
migration was by the Galli or Gauls into France, northern Italy and the
north of Europe.

(2) The Celtic languages.
Primary source: Cambridge encyclopedia of language.

The Celtic languages are divided into two classes: Insular and Continental

Continental Celtic languages are no longer spoken, but consisted of:
Celtiberian (Spain), Gaulish (Swiss variant known as Lepontic)
and Galatian in Turkey(!).
Galatian was spoken until about the 5th century

Insular Celtic is divided into:
P-Celtic, also called Brythonic or British
Q-Celtic, also called Goidelic or Gaelic

P-Celtic consists of:
Cumbric (extinct), Welsh, Cornish, Breton
Breton and Cornish were apparantly mutually intelligible until
the 15th century

Q-Celtic consists of:
Irish, Scots Gaelic, Manx
These languages are almost mutually intelligible today.
i.e. Donegal Irish and Islay Scots Gaelic are quite close.
In Scotland, Gaelic is pronounced "Gallic" when talking in
English, in Ireland and Man it is pronounced "Gaelic"

There were two waves of invasions to the British Isles which gave rise
to the P/Q variaties we have today. The first invasion was to Ireland
in the 4th century BC, probably from Western France. This variant
became Gaelic and spread from Ireland to the Isle of Man and Scotland.
The second invasion (P-Celtic) was to southern England and Wales and
from there (in 5th century AD) to Brittany. Celtic languages have also
spread from Britain. 150 Welsh speakers started a Welsh colony in
Patagonia in 1865, and there is also a Scots Gaelic community in Cape
Breton Island, Nova Scotia. Breton is not classified as continental
Celtic because it came to Brittany from Britain. There was a Gaelic
speaking community in the Carolinas but this died out in the 20th
century.

Pictish: The Picts were Celts but spoke a mixture of languages. They
spoke a pre-Celtic language for ritualistic purposes (source: Prof
Derek Thompson - "Why Gaelic matters"), and Pictish at other times.
Pictish is mentioned The Cambridge Encyclopedia of language as possibly
being Celtic or possibly being a non-Indo-European isolate like Basque.
Thompson says "It is clear from the evidence of place names that there
was much common ground between [Brythonic] and the Celtic constituent
of Pictish".

Many of the Scottish Island names including Arran, Skye, Lewis and Jura
are Pictish. For more information on placenames: (W.F.H. Nicolaisen
"Scottish Place Names", Batsford, London 1976).

(3) What is GAELIC-L, WELSH-L, CELTIC-L, IRTRAD-L and how do I subscribe?
If you want to learn any of the Celtic languages, there are two
lists set up.

GAELIC-L for Irish, Scots Gaelic and Manx (currently about 600 members)
and WELSH-L for Welsh, Cornish and Breton
Note that these are primarily lists for discussions *in* those languages
and not discussions in English *about* the languages, although short
English only messages from learners are OK. To join, send a message
to
list...@irlearn.ucd.ie (or list...@irlearn.bitnet)
containing the line: subscribe listname yourfirstname yoursurname
i.e. subscribe GAELIC-L Micheil Caimbeul

For issues in English about Celtic culture, see the lists IRTRAD-L
for Irish traditional music and CELTIC-L for Celtic culture. To join
these lists, simply replace the "GAELIC-L" in the above list with
the name of the list you wish to join.

(4) Where can I get Celtic music?
lmac...@uogelph.ca has compiled a worldwide list of music stores and
record companies (Lloyd MacIsaac). There is also a list of Celtic music
sources available on the Internet. Mail ceo...@celtic.stanford.edu for more
info, or FTP to celtic.stanford.edu and look in the /pub directory

(5) How do I identify which Celtic language this is?
Clues:
Irish Gaelic and Scots Gaelic do not have these letters: j,k,q,v,w,x,y,z
they also don't have double vowels. Irish Gaelic has fadas (acute accents),
Scots Gaelic has both acutes and graves, but predominantly graves (acutes
no longer officially exist). Irish has no grave accents.
Breton has n-tilde (like Spanish) and a high number of z's
Breton has acute and grave accents.
Cornish looks very much like Breton, except Cornish has very few accents
Cornish has an a-circumflex. K's, w's, z's occur frequently
Welsh has no z's, but a high number of y's and w's
Welsh also has circumflexes on all its vowels : a,e,i,o,u,w,y.
Manx is the only Celtic language to be written according to non-Celtic
phonetic rules. Manx is written according to more or less English phonetic
rules. I think Manx is the only Celtic language with a "j". Manx is also
the only Celtic language to have a c-cedilla. The letter "y" occurs
frequently, as do double vowels.

(6) Books for Celtic names:
Scottish:
_Ainmean Chloinne_, Peadar Morgan. Available from Gaelic books council

Irish:
Linda Rosenkranz & Pamela Redmond Satran _Beyond Shannon and Sea/n_
(St. Martin's Press 1992)

Donncha O/ Corra/in & Fidelma Maguire _Irish Names_ (Lilliput 1990)
Eoin Neeson _The Book of Irish Saints_ (Mercier 1967)

Muiris O/ Droighnea/in _An Sloinnteoir Gaeilge agus an tAinmnitheoir_
(Coisce/im 1991)

(7) Multilingual publications:
Carn: The journal of the Celtic League. This is in all 6 Celtic
languages with English summaries of many of them.


Section (b) Alba - Scotland

(1) Scotland's name
(2) Celtic background
(3) Where can I get Gaelic books?
(4) How can I learn Gaelic?
(5) Where can I get Gaelic music and words to Gaelic tunes, info on Gaelic
choirs
(6) Any online files for Gaelic info?
(7) Scottish music Radio Programmes:


(1) Scotland's name
Scotland gets it's name from the Scots, or Scotti who first arrived
in Argyll in the late 3rd to mid 4th centuries AD. It was not until
about 500AD that they built up a sizeable colony though. The Scots
spoke Irish, not Scots. Scots is a Germanic language like English,
described later.

(2) Celtic background
It is incorrect to think of Scotland as a wholly Celtic country. Since
the first millenium BC, Scotland has been a place of multiple languages
and this tradition continues today. First of all it was Pictish and
British; then Gaelic, Norse and Scots came and today it's English,
Scots and Gaelic. Nearly all of Scotland was once Gaelic speaking
except Orkney, Shetland and Caithness which had a variety of Norse
until recent times and East Lothian which was settled by the Angles.
Galloway had a Gaelic community which became separated from the Gaelic
speaking Highlands and Gaelic was still in use until about the 17th
century in Galloway. "Poets, scholars and writers in Lowland Scotland
up until the 16th century readily acknowledged Gaelic to be the true and
original Scottish language. For Walter Kennedy 'it suld be al trew Scottis
mennis lede': ('Flyting with Dunbar' c.1500)" : section quoted from
"Gaelic: a past and future prospect", Kenneth Mackinnon

Other notable reads include anything by the late Prof Kenneth Jackson,
particularly "A Celtic Miscellany", any of John Prebble's books (ie "1000
years of Scottish History") or Nigel Tranter ("The Story of Scotland")


(3) Where can I get Gaelic books?
The Gaelic Books Council stocks every Gaelic book in print
including prose, peotry, songs, music, children's material etc.
They have a catalogue.
Address: An Comann Leabhraichean, An Roinn Cheilteach, Oilthigh Ghlaschu,
Glaschu, G12 8QQ
The Gaelic books council, Dept of Celtic, University of Glasgow,
Glasgow G12 8QQ.
tel: 041 339 8855

Note: All Gaelic addresses can be used fine provided the postcode is written.


(4) How can I learn Gaelic?
Join the Gaelic learners association. They can advise about books,
learners near you, classes, correspondence courses etc. They are called
Comann an Luchd-Ionnsachaidh. This is abbreviated to CLI and prounounced CLEE.
Motto: "The voice of Gaelic Learners". CLI has members around the world.
Address: 5 Caolshraid Mhicheil, Inbhir Nis, IV2 3HQ, Alba
5 Mitchell's Lane, Inverness, IV2 3HQ, Scotland
Tel/Fax : 0463 711792 (+[44] 463 711792)

Suggestions for learners:
Teach Yourself Gaelic (book,tape) author: Boyd Robertson

Speaking Our Language (workbooks, tapes, videos), published by Canan
(email: ca...@smo.ac.uk)

Everyday Gaelic (book) author: Morag McNeill (intermediate level)

Gaidhlig Bheo: Correspondence course, run by The National Extension
College, 18 Brooklands Avenue, Cambridge Tel: (0223) 316644
Fax: (0223) 313586

Gaelic/Highland/Music/Singing courses (1-2 weeks long)
Sabhal Mor Ostaig, Sleite, Isle of Skye tel: 04714 373
Email: ga...@smo.ac.uk
(Sleite is pronounced "Slate")

(5) Where can I get Gaelic music and words to Gaelic tunes, info on Gaelic
choirs
--- Contact An Comunn Gaidhealach, 109 Sraid na h-Eaglais, Inbhir Nis,
IV1 1EY. They have a lot of Gaelic music and maintain a list
of every Gaelic choir in Scotland + London. They probably also
know about Gaelic choirs overseas (ie Vancouver, Sydney)

6) Are there any files I can access for more information?
-- See the Gaelic-L archives

7) Scottish music radio programmes
In Scotland:
Radio Scotland (MW= Medium Wave 810, FM = 92.4 to 94.7)
Sat: 7-8pm Take the floor (FM,MW): 8-10pm "Travelling Folk" (FM,MW)
10-midnight: "Celtic Horizons" (FM,MW)

In the US: Celtic Horizons. This is hosted by Fiona Ritchie.
There is an on-line list of stations carrying this programme -
see /pub/thistle.list on FTP site: celtic.stanford.edu

9) How can I get Gaelic TV/radio programmes
Gaelic Radio is on Radio Scotland Medium Wave (810) 9pm-10pm Mon-Fri
Gaelic TV is on BBC Scotland. Scottish Television and Grampian
Television. For details of times and programmes, see the Gaelic
TV times "Suas!", publisher: The Gaelic Television Committee.
contact: Suas!, 4 Acarsaid, Cidhe Sraid Chrombail, Steornabhagh,
Eilean Leodhais PA87 2DF, Scotland.
Tel: 0851 705550
Fax: 0851 706432

11) What is the Scots language. Who do I contact for more info?
The Scots language is a Germanic language related to English.
For more info, write to:
The Scots Language Society, Sandeman Library, Perth, PH1 5ET
Tel: 0738 623329

12) What Scottish Record labels are there
-- search this FAQ for "Lloyd MacIsaac"

13) How do I find out about Folk events in Scotland which might be on?
-- The Scottish Folk Arts Directory. This is a book detailing
virtually everything to do with the Scottish folk music scene.
contact: Blackfriars Music, 49 Blackfriars St, Edinburgh EH1 1NB
Tel: 031 557 3090

14) When are the major Scottish folk festivals
15) What's on in Nova Scotia ? (ie St Francis Xavier, The Rankins etc)
16) How do I trace my Scottish ancestry ?
There is a book published by HMSO (Her Majesties Stationary Office)
called "Tracing your Scottish Ancestry". All the records for
births, marriages and deaths in Scotland are held at:
New Register House, West Register St, Edinburgh, EH1
Tel: 031 334 0380
Fax: 031 314 4400

18) What's the number of the Scottish Tourist Board ?
031 332 2433

19) Politics: Scotland and the UK/devolution/independence
(to be filled in later!)

20) Where can I get haggis ?
McSweens Haggis, 130 Bruntsfield Place, Edinburgh, EH10 4ES
Tel: 031 229 1216. Ships worldwide

21) When are Burns night and St Andrews Day.
25-Jan, 30-Nov,

22) How do I find out about Highland Games or Mods in my area. What is a Mod?
23) How do I get Runrig records/information?
Contact the fan club at:
Runrig Fan Club, 55 Wellington St, Aberdeen AB2 1BX. Tel: 0224 573100

24) How do I get Capercaillie information?
Capercaillie Fan Club
Chapmanagement
PO Box 1155
Glasgow
G3 7TW

(c) Alba Nuadh - Nova Scotia
-- No info here at present
-- Ask on GAELIC-L
-- see the list of references in "Da Mihi Manum"
by Marion Gunn, email: mg...@irlearn.ucd.ie for more info

Highly recommended newsletter is:
Am Braighe "A quarterly journal focusing on the oral traditions and history
of the North American Gaels. Interviews in Gaelic and English on
immigration, folklore, history, music and song"
Subscriptions or FREE sample copy :

Am Braighe
PO Box 179
Mabou
Canada
Tel: (902) 945-2666
Fax: (902) 945 2723
Rates, (4 copies) 10 pounds (UK) ($20 Can) $14 (US), $12 Canada
Visa and Mastercard accepted

(d) Breizh - Brittany

-- No info here at present,
-- Ask on WELSH-L
-- see the list of references in "Da Mihi Manum"
by Marion Gunn, email: mg...@irlearn.ucd.ie for more info

(e) Cymru - Wales

-- No info here at present,
-- Ask on WELSH-L
-- see the list of references in "Da Mihi Manum"
by Marion Gunn, email: mg...@irlearn.ucd.ie for more info

(f) Eire - Ireland

Remarks:

[Apologies to all and sundry as this is a pretty bare Irish FAQ.
We all decided that it was taking too long to get the FAQ
out the door. So we're sending out the Irish FAQ with a lot of
holes. If you would like to make any additions feel free.
They'll probably make it into next months edition.

GN]

1. Please read this FAQ before posting to soc.culture.celtic
2. This FAQ is available through anonymous ftp from rtfm.mit.edu
3. This FAQ is a living document, if you have any suggestions
or additions that you would consider relevent then please
email one of the maintainers.
G.N...@bath.ac.uk
kel...@ede.sanders.lockheed.com
tho...@maths.tcd.ie
Aine.M...@maths.anu.edu.au
4. The FAQ is NOT a political document, the information is
offered, with no bias to any of the communities in Northern Ireland
or the Republic of Ireland.
5. Soc.culture.celtic is for discussion of related topics on Scotland,
Wales and Ireland. This section of the FAQ only deals with Ireland,
with particular emphasis on the Republic of Ireland.

Part 1. - General Information
Info from the CIA yearbook - Republic of Ireland ONLY
What to call the Republic and the North (Ulster != NI)
Part 2. - Music & Art
Rec.music.celtic etc.
Translation of Clannad/Enya/etc. lyrics
List of sessions
Part 3. - Tourism
Places to visit in Ireland
Part 4. - Gaeilge na hE/ireann (Irish Gaelic) Language
Common greetings/sayings in Irish Gaelic
Irish Gaelic courses in Ireland and elsewhere
Availability of Irish Gaelic books, videos and music
Part 5. - Politics
Contraception, Divorce, Abortion, Homosexuality in Ireland.
Part 6. - Sport
LOI soccer mailing list
World Cup tickets - current status
GAA & Hurling
Part 7. - History
Why is Ireland divided?
Chronological list of dates of Irish History
Part 8. - Books & Papers
Subscriptions to newspapers
List of books
Part 9. - Tracing Irish Anscestors
Part 10. - Internet information services
ftp sites for the peace declaration, constitution,
opshal findings etc
Part 11. - Mythology
Part 12. - Cuisine
Part 13. - Miscellaneous
Getting jobs in Ireland
Applying for Irish citizenship
What is the Claddagh ring?
Irish National Anthem

************************************************************************
************************************************************************

Part 1 - General Information

Information from the CIA yearbook (abridged) Republic of Ireland ONLY
---------------------------------

Area:
total area: 70,280 km2 land area: 68,890 km2
Climate:
temperate maritime; modified by North Atlantic Current; mild winters, cool
summers; consistently humid; overcast about half the time
Terrain:
mostly level to rolling interior plain surrounded by rugged hills and low
mountains; sea cliffs on west coast
Natural resources:
zinc, lead, natural gas, petroleum, barite, copper, gypsum, limestone,
dolomite, peat, silver
Population:
3,529,566 (July 1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Irishman(men), Irishwoman(men), Irish (collective plural)
adjective:
Irish
Ethnic divisions:
Celtic, English
Religions:
Roman Catholic 93%, Anglican 3%, none 1%, unknown 2%, other 1% (1981)
Languages:
Irish (Gaelic), spoken mainly in areas located along the western seaboard,
English is the language generally used
Labour force:
1.37 million
by occupation:
services 57.0%, manufacturing and construction 28%, agriculture, forestry,
and fishing 13.5%, energy and mining 1.5% (1992)
Capital:
Dublin
Administrative divisions:
26 counties; Carlow, Cavan, Clare, Cork, Donegal, Dublin, Galway, Kerry,
Kildare, Kilkenny, Laois, Leitrim, Limerick, Longford, Louth, Mayo, Meath,
Monaghan, Offaly, Roscommon, Sligo, Tipperary, Waterford, Westmeath,
Wexford, Wicklow
Independence:
6 December 1921 (from UK)
Constitution:
29 December 1937; adopted 1937
Legal system:
based on English common law, substantially modified by indigenous concepts;
judicial review of legislative acts in Supreme Court; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
Saint Patrick's Day, 17 March
Political parties and leaders:
Democratic Left, Proinsias DE ROSSA; Fianna Fail, Albert REYNOLDS; Labour
Party, Richard SPRING; Fine Gael, John BRUTON; Communist Party of Ireland,
Michael O'RIORDAN; Sinn Fein, Gerry ADAMS; Progressive Democrats, Mary
HARNEY
note:
Prime Minister REYNOLDS heads a coalition consisting of the Fianna Fail and
the Labour Party
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
President:
last held 9 November 1990 (next to be held November 1997); results - Mary
Bourke ROBINSON 52.8%, Brian LENIHAN 47.2%
Senate:
last held on NA February 1992 (next to be held February 1997); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (60 total, 49 elected) Fianna Fail 26,
Fine Gael 16, Labour 9, Progressive Democrats 2, Democratic Left 1,
independents 6
House of Representatives:
last held on 25 November 1992 (next to be held by June 1995); results -
Fianna Fail 39.1%, Fine Gael 24.5%, Labour Party 19.3%, Progressive Democrats
4.7%, Democratic Left 2.8%, Sinn Fein 1.6%, Workers' Party 0.7%,
independents 5.9%; seats - (166 total) Fianna Fail 68, Fine Gael 45, Labour
Party 33, Progressive Democrats 10, Democratic Left 4, Greens 1,
independents 5
Executive branch:
president, prime minister, deputy prime minister, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament (Oireachtas) consists of an upper house or Senate
(Seanad Eireann) and a lower house or House of Representatives (Dail
Eireann)
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Mary Bourke ROBINSON (since 9 November 1990)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Albert REYNOLDS (since 11 February 1992)
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Dermot A. GALLAGHER chancery:
2234 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 462-3939
consulates general:
Boston, Chicago, New York, and San Francisco
Flag:
three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and orange; similar
to the flag of the Cote d'Ivoire, which is shorter and has the colors
reversed - orange (hoist side), white, and green; also similar to the flag
of Italy, which is srter and has colors of green (hoist side), white, and
red
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3.5% (1992)
Unemployment rate: 22.7% (1992)
Industries:
food products, brewing, textiles, clothing, chemicals, pharmaceuticals,
machinery, transportation equipment, glass and crystal
Currency:
1 Irish pound (#Ir) = 100 pence
Ports:
Cork, Dublin, Waterford
Telecommunications:
modern system using cable and digital microwave circuits; 900,000
telephones; broadcast stations - 9 AM, 45 FM, 86 TV; 2 coaxial submarine
cables; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station


What to call the Republic and the North
---------------------------------------
The Constitution of Ireland (Bunreacht na hEireann) states in Article 4.
`The name of the State is Eire, or in the English language, Ireland'

The total island of Ireland has 32 counties, 26 are in the Republic of Ireland
and the remaining 6 are in the North of Ireland. The island is historically
divided into the four provinces of Leinster, Munster, Connacht and Ulster.
The province of Ulster has 9 counties, of which 6 are in Northern Ireland.
Northern Ireland is part of the United Kingdom, and the remaining 26
counties make up the Republic of Ireland.

This is further confused by the fact that articles 2 & 3 in the constitution
claim the North as part of Ireland.

Article 2:
`The national territory consists of the whole of the island of Ireland,
its islands and the territorial seas.'

Article 3:
`Pending the re-integration of the national territory, and without prejudice
to the right of Parliament and Government established by the Constitution
to exercise jurisdiction over the whole of that territory, the laws
enacted by that Parliament shall have the like area and extent of Saorstat
Eireann and the like extra-territorial effect.'


More information can be found from various ftp and www sites given
in Part 10.

************************************************************************
Part 2. - Music & Art
(i) Rec.music.celtic etc.
(ii) Translation of Clannad/Enya/etc. lyrics
(iii) List of sessions


(iii) List of sessions
----------------------

Seisiu/n list

=======================================================================
IRELAND:
Dublin:
The Ferryman I was there on two Sir John
consecutive nights with Rogersons Quay
different musicians..
An Beal Bocht I think on Wednesdays.. On the banks
of the Grand Canal
o'Donoghue's Every night, 1st and Merrion Road near
if necessary 2nd floors St. Stephen's Green

Slattery's Different nights Capel Street off of
depending on schedule the quay, west of
o'Connell street
Don't stray northward!
Galway:
Flanagan's
Monroe's Tavern > Probably every night .. Domenick Street area
Taylor's Bar
Waterfront
The Quay > Probably every night .. Quay Street area
Naughton's
Also the Crane Bar and Club Ora na Galway which is hard to find.

Mayo:
Westport: Matt Molloy's .. probably every night I would guess.

Killarney:
Kerry: Buckley's .. every night I'd say .. friendly place
============================================================================
USA:

ILLINOIS:
Chicago:
Chicago, IL: The (Irish) Abbey Pub, 3420 W. Grace, has sessiuns
every Sunday night from 8pm on. Some of the best musicians in
Chicago play here regularly (Liz Carroll, Marty Fahy, Martin
Hayes--before he moved to Seattle). The noise is a little
more than desirable, though.

Brookfield: (western suburb of Chicago): Irish Times, 8869
Burlington, has open sessions every Wednesday night. The
attitude here is a little less formal than at the Abbey.
Last I was there, there was one other fiddle player, a
bodhran/harmonica player, a guitarist, and a whistle player
who considered themselves regulars. The drummer and guitarist
also play in the local band "Donnybrook".

Evanston: Tommy Nevin's Pub has sessiuns every Sunday afternoon at
around 2pm.. (sorry, I don't know the number or address)

MASSACHUSETTS:
Boston:
The Green Dragon Saturdays 4pm - 9pm+ Downtown
The Green Briar Mondays 9pm on.. Brighton
Mr. Dooley's Wednesdays 9pm on.. Downtown
Sundays 7pm on..
From: Seamus Keleher <KJJ%NCCIBM1...@HEARN.nic.SURFnet.nl>


WISCONSIN

Madison:
Mickey's Tavern, 1524 Williamson St., (608)251-9964 Wednesdays,
9:30-close. Small, redneck-looking bar, cheap (in both senses) beer.
Two extremes of setting: standing-only crowded, smoky, very noisy /
quiet, empty, laid-back. Musicians: several regulars of commendable
repertoire, plus 3-10 irregulars of various backgrounds. Very
friendly, low-pressure, but 95% Irish, 100% traditional.
Fiddle-heavy, wind-light, one banjo and one uillean piper always
there. From: Alan Ng <ALA...@MACC.WISC.EDU>
Ha ha Ha Ha Ha! This is a VERY funny description. I used to play there as
well. I can update for you- 9 fiddlers of various skill levels, and maximum
volumes is what I have heard lately from my friend Eric. Don't forget the
free beer!!
From: Edward A Beimborn <beim...@CSD4.CSD.UWM.EDU>
===========================================================================
CANADA:

Vancouver, BC
--------------------
last Friday of the month at the CB Vets Legion at Broadway and Cambie,
contact Kevin Dooley.
From: David Dalton <dal...@geop.ubc.ca>

Sunday jams 5--9 p.m. at the W.I.S.E. pub, 254-5858, usually mix
of celtic music, acoustic blues and folk, varies.
From: David Dalton <dal...@geop.ubc.ca>

St. John's, Newfoundland
-------------------------
Wed. nights at Bridgett's Pub. St. John's Folk Arts Council.
From: David Dalton <dal...@geop.ubc.ca>

************************************************************************
Part 3. - Tourism

If you require a list of Hotel or Bed and Breakfast
accommodation then contact any of the following

Bord Failte
The Irish Tourist Board
Head Office
Baggot Street Bridge
Dublin 2
Ireland
Tel + 353 1 676 5871
Tel + 353 1 661 6500
Tel in US 1-800-223-6470

IRISH YOUTH HOSTEL ASSOCIATION
Membership required.
43 Hostels in Republic.
Write to : An Oige
Head Office
61 Mountjoy Street
Dublin 7
Ireland
Tel +353 1 830 4555
Fax +353 1 830 5808
Telex 32988 IYHA EI

YOUTH HOSTEL ASSOCIATION OF NORTHERN IRELAND
Membership required.
6 hostels in Northern Ireland
Write to YHIANI
56 Bradbury Place
Belfast BT7 1RU
Northern Ireland
Tel +44 232 324 733
Fax +44 232 439 699

IRISH BUDGET HOSTELS LTD.
No membership required.
26 hostels in Republic
Write to : Irish Budget Hostels Ltd.
Kinlay House
2-12 Lord Edward Street
Dublin 2
Ireland
Tel +353 1 269 7696
Fax +353 1 269 7704

INDEPENDENT HOSTEL ORGANISATION
No membership required.
97 hostels in the Republic and 3 in NI.
Write to Independent Hostel Organisation
Information Office
Dooey Hostel
Glencolmcille
Co Donegal
Ireland
Tel +353 73 30130
Also in Dublin Independent Hostel Organisation
Information Office
Avalon House
55 Aungier Street
Dublin 2
Ireland
Tel +353 1 475 0001
Fax +353 1 475 0303

************************************************************************
Part 4. - Gaeilge na hE/ireann (Irish Gaelic) Language

(i) Common greetings/sayings in Irish Gaelic
(ii) Irish Gaelic courses in Ireland and elsewhere
(iii) Availability of Irish Gaelic books, videos and music


(i) Common greetings/sayings in Irish Gaelic
----------------------------------------

There are many greetings and responses in Irish. These
vary even among the dialects. I will provide a few
here as an example.


Dia duit (Lit. God to you)
Dia is Muire duit (Lit. God and Mary to you)

Go mbeannai/ Dia duit May God bless you
Go mbeannai/ Dia is Muire duit May God and Mary bless you

Bail o/ Dhia ort The blessing of God on you
Bail o/ Dhia is Muire duit The blessing of God and Mary on you

Go raibh maith agat Thanks (Lit. May there be good at you)
Go dtaga do ri/ocht May thy kingdom come
Na/r laga Dia do la/mh May God not weaken your hand
Gura sla/n an sce/alai/ May the bearer of the news be safe
Gurab amhlaidh duit The same to you
Ta/ fa/ilte romhat You are welcome

Cad e/ (Goide/) mar ta/ tu/? How are you? (Ti/r Chonaill)
Ce/n chaoi 'bhfuil tu/? How are you (Connacht)
Conas ata/ tu? How are you? (Mumhan)

Ta/ me/ go maith I'm doing well

An bhfuil aon rud u/r ag dul? What's new?
Aon sce/al 'ad? What's new? (Connacht)

Sla/n leat Good Bye (said to one going)
Sla/n agat Good Bye (said to one remaining)

Sla/inte chugat Good health to you
Gabhaim pardu/n agat I beg your pardon
Gabh mo leithsce/al Pardon me (Lit. Accept my excuse)
Ma/s e/ do thoil e/ If you please
Le do thoil Please
Saol fada chugat Long life to you


For the following greetings Gurab amhlaidh duit is a common answer:

Oi/che mhaith duit Good night
Codladh sa/mh duit A pleasant sleep
Nollaig shona duit Happy Christmas
Nollaig faoi she/an is faoi A prosperous and pleasant
mhaise duit Christmas
Athbhliain faoi mhaise duit A prosperous New Year


Terms of Endearment

a ghra/
a ru/n
a sto/r
a thaisce
a chroi/
a chuisle
my dear darling/love/treasure

muirni/n
leanna/n
ce/adsearc
sweetheart

a ghra/ mo chroi/
love of my heart!


Curses

Imeacht gan teacht ort
May you leave without returning
Titim gan e/iri/ ort
May you fall without rising
Fa/n fada ort
Long travels to you
Go n-ithe an cat thu/ is go n-ithe an diabhal an cat
May the cat eat you, and may the cat be eaten by the devil


(ii) Irish Gaelic courses in Ireland and elsewhere
---------------------------------------------

Introductory Courses to the Irish language
------------------------------------------

NOTE: Additional information is available in the file RPAYNE1 TYIG
via the LIST...@IRLEARN.UCD.IE with command GET RPAYNE1 TYIG


U/dar : Mi/chea/l O/ Siadhail
Teideal : LEARNING IRISH
Foilsitheoir : Yale University Press -New Haven and London
ISBN : 0-300-04224-8

For the tape set (four cassettes);
U/dar : Mi/chea/l O/ Siadhail
Teideal : LEARNING IRISH CASSETTES
Foilsitheoir : Yale University Press -New Haven and London
ISBN : 0-300-04340-6

NOTE: Irish lessons to be used with above texts are available in
the file IGSTENS1 TYIG via the LIST...@IRLEARN.UCD.IE with
the command GET IGSTENS1 TYIG

As a learner, you might consider a set of cassettes and booklet titled
BUNTU/S CAINTE. They come in three levels. This is convenient
as you don't have to purchase all three at once. It is recommended
that you use BUNTU/S CAINTE for pronunciation in combination with
PROGRESS IN IRISH.


U/dar : T. O/ Domhnallain
Teideal : BUNTU/S CAINTE Vol.(1, 2, or 3) Book and Cassettes
ISBN : X50153, X50154, X50155

U/dar : Ma/ire/ad Ni/ Ghra/da
Teideal : PROGRESS IN IRISH
ISBN : X71212


Audio Tapes
-----------

Here is a list of audio tapes (excluding music) available from...

A/isi/nteacht Da/iliu/cha/n Leabhar
31 Sra/id na bhFini/ni/
Baile A/tha Cliath 2
E/ire

(Book Distribution Center)
(31 Fenian Street)
(Dublin 2)
(Ireland)

Prices are in Irish pounds but do not include postage (which can
be considerable for air mail orders). If you wish to order any
of this material you should first write, phone (Dublin 616522),
or fax (Dublin 616564), for a price quotation that includes
surface or air postage.

[Note: V.A.T. is Value Added Tax. It is applied to tapes but not
to books unless the books and tapes are sold as a unit. However
there seem to be exceptions to this generality. Purchasers
outside the European Union should be able to claim V.A.T. exemption]


Am Sce/alai/ochta I
Stories for young children:
Sici/n Lici/n; Na Tri/ Bhe/ar
Book and Tape 3.99 (no tax?)

Am Sce/alai/ochta II
Stories for young children:
Na Tri/ Mhuc Bheaga
An Circi/n Beag Rua
Book and Tape 3.99 (no tax?)

Foclo/ir Po/ca - Caise/ad
Phonetic Tape prepared to accompany Foclo/ir Po/ca, an
English-Irish/ Irish-English dictionary of the synthetic Standard
Irish dialect 4.00 + V.A.T.

I/osaga/n & Sce/alta Eile.
Collection of short stories by Pa/draig Pearse. 4.87 +
V.A.T. These stories are also available in print as "Short
Stories of Pa/draig Pearse" which can be obtained for 4.95 (no
tax).

Uair An Chloig Cois Teallaigh - AN HOUR BY THE HEARTH
Dual Language Book and Tape compendium of folk stories
10.00 (no tax?)


Summer courses in Irish Gaelic
------------------------------

NOTE: Additional information is available in the file IGSGUSA CLAS
via the LIST...@IRLEARN.UCD.IE with the command GET IGSGUSA CLAS


Information concerning courses in spoken Irish (for adult learners) is
available from the contact numbers given below.If you are thinking
of visiting Ireland this summer, you might consider building into
your holiday plans one of these short, intensive courses in Irish
Gaelic. The division below is according to dialect:

(a) Gaeilge Chu/ige Uladh: 01-213566 or 073-3005 ("Oideas Gael")
for Ulster Irish
(b) Gaeilge Chu/ige Chonnacht: 091-95101 ("A/ras an Chadhnaigh")
for Connacht Irish
(c) Gaeilge Chu/ige Mumhan: 066-56100 ("Oidhreacht Chorca Dhuibhne")
for Munster Irish

Here are three snailmail addresses to write to for info on those summer
courses:

(a) Gaeilge Chu/ige Uladh: Fo/n: 353-1-213566 or 353-073-3005
("Oideas Gael") if you wish to learn Ulster Irish.
Seoladh(address):
Oideas Gael,
Gleann Cholm Cille,
Contae Thi/r Chonaill,
E/ire(Ireland)

(b) Gaeilge Chu/ige Chonnacht: Fo/n: 353-091-95101
("A/ras Mha/irti/n Ui/ Chadhain") if you wish to learn Connacht Irish.
Seoladh(address):
A/ras Mha/irti/n Ui/ Chadhain,
An Cheathru/ Rua,
Contae na Gaillimhe,
E/ire(Ireland)

(c) Gaeilge Chu/ige Mumhan: Fo/n: 353-066-56100
("Oidhreacht Chorca Dhuibhne") if you wish to learn Munster Irish.
Seoladh(address):
Oidhreacht Chorca Dhuibhne,
Baile an Fheirte/araigh,
Contae Chiarrai/,
E/ire(Ireland)


(iii) Availability of Irish Gaelic books, videos and music
----------------------------------------------

NOTE: Additional information is available in the file IGJTM1 BIBL
and IGJTM2 TYIG via the LIST...@IRLEARN.UCD.IE with the
commands GET IGJTM1 BIBL
GET IGJTM2 BIBL


Name: Irish Books
Address: 580 Broadway, Room 1103,
New York, New York. 10012
USA
Phone: (212) 274-1923

Name: Schoenhof's Foreign Books
Address: 76A Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, Massachusetts
02138
Phone: (617) 547 - 8855
Fax: (617) 547 - 8551


************************************************************************
Part 5. - Politics

Contraception, Divorce, Abortion, Homosexuality in Ireland.
----------------------------------------------------------
[Disclaimer: This is very incomplete. I will have a complete
rewrite done for the next version of the FAQ. If anyone notices any
errors, or has any suggestions, the email me at tho...@maths.tcd.ie]

Abortion
--------

[Note: As recommended in the "Welcome to talk.abortion" posting, I am
referring to the sides as prolife and prochoice. This is not intended
in anyway to reflect my personal feelings on the use of these terms].

Abortion has been illegal in Ireland since at least 1869. The
law against abortion was added to the Constitution after a referundum
in 1983. The general consensus among the prolife campaigners was
that there was now a constitutional law against abortion, and abortion
would never be introduced into Ireland. In 1992, the Attorney
General placed an injunction against a 14 year old rape victim (Ms. X)
going to England to have an abortion. In a state of near national
hysteria, the Supreme Court overturned the ruling, and declared that
under the 1983 amendment, Ms. X was entitled to have an abortion in
Ireland as she was threatening to commit suicide. The government
moved fairly quickly, and a second referundum was held in November
1992, at the same time as a General election. While people voted
for the right to information and the right to travel, the results from
the vote on the Substantive issue were less conclusive, with both
sides claiming victory. However, the government has failed to
legislate on the basis of the ruling in X.

The governments case was not helped by the Irish Medical Council
ruling that any doctor who performs an abortion should be struck of
the register, a decision later endorsed by the Irish Medical
Organisation.


Divorce
-------

Divorce is not permitted in Ireland. It is however possible to get
an annulment under certain restricted circumstances.

A referundum on divorce was going to be held in Autumn 1994, but a
report in the Irish Times on Wednesday April 27th 1994 suggests that
the referundum will not be held until Spring 1995.


Contraception
-------------
??

[As far as I know there are now no restrictive laws against
contraception in the Republic. No age limits or other bans.
It is fairly common to see contraceptive machines in Dublin
pubs, however I can't speak about the rest of the Republic.
GN]

Homosexuality
-------------

Homosexual acts were illegal in Ireland up until the summer of 1993.
The offences against the person acted lifted the ban, and declared the
age of consent to be 17, the same as that for heterosexual sex.

************************************************************************
Part 6. - Sport
LOI soccer mailing list
World Cup tickets - current status
GAA & Hurling

(i) LOI soccer mailing list
For discussion of League of Ireland and Irish league soccer
Email tho...@maths.tcd.ie

(ii) World Cup tickets - current status

The FAI have held the draw for Irish residents, Irish matches were
enormously oversubscribed and tickets are now at a premium. It might be
possible to trade or buy tickets by posting to rec.sport.soccer

The tickets will not be released by any of the football associations
until two weeks before the first game on June 17 (although the English FA
have said the middle of May). So be wary of con men who tell you otherwise.
Ask for a fax of the letter of confirmation from the appropriate football
association telling them they have got tickets before parting with your money.


************************************************************************
Part 7. - History
Why is Ireland divided?
Chronological list of dates of Irish History

(i) Why Ireland is divided into the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland?
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

Ireland has a long history of being colonized. Even the Gaels, the
Celtic people who arrived around 700 BC and who are now
usually viewed as the indigenous stock, colonized and assimilated
earlier inhabitants.

Ireland (all or part of it, at various times) was a colony of the
English (originally the Anglo-Normans) from the 12th century. From the
late middle ages it was a kingdom, under the same monarch as England,
but a separate country. In law and in practice, the Irish government
was usually subordinate to the English government.

The 17th century saw several wars in England and Ireland: civil wars,
colonial wars, and at least one war (c. 1690) that was part of a wider
European conflict. Following some of these disruptions, the winners
forcibly transferred ownership of large amounts of land to new
landlords, and sometimes new tenants: those who had supported the
winning side, and/or those who they felt would support them in the
future.

The net effect of this was to disenfranchise and alienate the
Gaelic/Catholic majority population (aristocracy and common people
alike) and some of the older Anglo-Irish families, and establish a new
ruling elite of Anglo-Irish (people of English background, and also
anglicized Irish) members of the Church of Ireland (Episcopalian). This
"Protestant Ascendancy" lasted well into the 19th century, with traces
still in evidence today.

In addition, there was another transplant population in Ireland, mainly
in the north-east (part of the northern province of Ulster):
Presbyterians from Scotland (also England and even Germany), and other
nonconformist Protestants. They started arriving in the 16th century,
and their numbers grew in the 17th. During this period they and the
Protestant Ascendancy were not close allies: there were significant
differences in background, social class and style of Protestantism.

Both the Catholic majority and the Presbyterians were the victims of
discriminatory laws favouring the Church of Ireland. Generally, though,
the discrimination against Catholics was worse than that against the
nonconformists.

(There have been much intermarriage and conversion, and many other
immigrants, in the centuries since. So there are no real racial
differences among the major groups. But the three religious/social/
attitudinal alignments are still very much in evidence, with the
exception that the power of the Ascendancy is very much diminished, both
North and South.)

In 1800, Ireland was technically made one with England, Scotland and
Wales, in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. In some
ways, this was a Good Thing for Ireland, as it led to electoral reform,
land reform, and the disestablishment of the Church of Ireland and its
right to tax the whole population. But the colonial relationship
remained, and as freedoms grew without real equality with England and
the English, so did Irish nationalism develop and flourish. As the 19th
century moved on, independence became inevitable.

But there was a complicating factor. In the late 18th and early 19th
century, the Ascendancy and the Presbyterians had begun to become allies
on political and nationalistic issues. As Irish nationalism developed
(mainly among Catholics), so, in response, did unionism (the desire to
preserve the United Kingdom) develop and strengthen among both kinds of
Protestant. Several times, the unionists threatened insurrection
against their own government in order to stay under that government.

Fast forward to the First World War. The British Parliament had
passed an Irish Home Rule bill, but its implementation was delayed
because of the war. A small band of Irish Republicans, holding that
independence was Ireland's of right and not in England's gift, staged
an armed rebellion (the Easter Rising) in 1916, briefly taking over
a small part of central Dublin. The government acted harshly,
executing several of the rebels, and cracking down hard in general.
This led most of the country to side with the rebel cause.
It quickly became ungovernable by Britain.

But the unionists still held the north, and they would in turn rebel if
Britain cast them loose. To avoid a civil war, the government in late
1921 forced nationalist negotiators to accept partition. The Irish Free
State and Northern Ireland were born. Each had its own Parliament; each
was to be separate from Great Britain but under the Crown.

But it didn't work out like that. The North remained in the United
Kingdom, its government dealing only with local affairs. The South
altered its constitution in the 1930s and 1940s, becoming the neutral
and independent Republic of Ireland. These arrangements were in line
with the wishes of the majority of the people in the respective states.

However, there were other ways in which the arrangement failed, too.
Firstly, civil war was not avoided; its focus was just shifted. Instead
of being between unionists and nationalists, it turned out to be between
those in the Free State who accepted partition and other conditions of
the peace treaty, and those who refused to accept it.

Secondly, the northern unionists, suddenly a majority in their new
state, discriminated against the nationalists, and in turn the
nationalists never fully accepted the legitimacy of the new
constitutional arrangements. Some of them, known as republicans,
continued a violent campaign against the London and Belfast governments;
in turn, the authorities continued to exercise extraordinary powers to
fight them. The community was divided. The fact that this division of
national identity was roughly along Protestant-Catholic lines only made
things worse.

Thirdly, Britain and the North reneged on a promise to reconsider the
alignment of the border, with the result that areas that would
have preferred to be in the South were denied that opportunity.
This exacerbated the problems mentioned in the previous paragraph.

In the 1960s, the republicans gave up violence and turned either to
politics or to retirement. But a new civil rights movement arose, to
protest and correct the discrimination against Catholics. This met a
hostile and violent response from sections of the Protestant population,
including sections of the police force. The Irish Republican Army was
revived, in a new and more vicious form. Civil disorder grew. The
Belfast government could not cope and was biased. The London government
put troops on the streets to keep the factions apart at the end of the
1960s, and abolished the Belfast government (known as Stormont, for the
place where it was based) a couple of years later.

The level of violence is now much less than it was in the early 1970s,
and Northern Ireland is actually a much safer place than the news makes
it seem, but it still has not achieved full and "normal" political and
social stability. The gun is still regarded by too many as a means
of political expression. Large parts of the population refuse to
accept the legitimacy of the political views and sense of national
identity of "the other sort."

For most of the century, the North has been more prosperous than the
South, but the gap has been closing. The South has become richer;
the Troubles have been a drag on the Northern economy in spite of
financial support from London. Common membership in the European
Union (formerly Community) has also served to lessen differences and
remove the customs and excise function of the border.

Another way in which differences are lessening is the religious makeup
of the population. Catholics, though still a minority in the North,
are now a larger proportion than earlier. In another few decades,
it's conceivable that they may hold the majority.

These factors make eventual Irish reunion likely. However, the
continuing violence serves to polarize outlooks: in this writer's
opinion, republican violence, whose object is to achieve a united
Ireland, is actually postponing it. And at the same time, loyalist
violence, supposedly in support of the United Kingdom, is sickening the
British population, and weakening the union. So the risk exists of
several more decades of turmoil.

[Obviously this is the most contentious piece in the FAQ,
but in my opinion, an Irish FAQ that did not address this
issue is not an FAQ. I didn't write this piece but coming
form an Irish Catholic background I tend to agree with it.
If anybody from a Unionist background would like to have
their opinions in the FAQ, then please email me a submission.
Godfrey Nolan]


(ii) Chronological list of dates of Irish History
-------------------------------------------------
_Really_ brief outline of some important dates in Irish history

c.6500BC First settlers arrive in Ireland.
c.4000BC Megalithic tombs first constructed.
c.700BC Celts arrive from parts of Gaul and Britain. Ireland divided
into provinces.
c.AD350 Christianity reaches Ireland.
432 Traditional date for the arrival of St. Patrick in Ireland. Irish
monasticism reaches its zenith.
795 Full-scale Viking invasion.
1014 Brian Boru/ defeats Vikings at Clontarf, but is murdered.
1169 Dermot MacMurrough, exiled king of Leinster, invites help
from 'Strongbow'.
1172 Pope decrees that Hery II of England is feudal lord of Ireland.
1366 Statues of Kilkenny belatedly forbid intermarriage of English and
Irish. Gaelic culture unsuccessfully suppressed.
1534-40 Failed insurrection by Lord Offaly.
1541 Herny VII proclaimed king (rather than feudal lord) of Ireland
1558-1603 Reign of Elizabeth I. Policy of Plantation begins. System of
counties adopted.
1595-1603 Failed uprising of Hugh O'Neil.
1607 Flight of the Earls; leading Ulster families go into exile.
1641 Charles I's policies cause insurrection in Ulster and Civil War in
England.
1649 Cromwell invades Ireland.
1653 Under the Act of Settlement Cromwell's opponents stripped of land.
1689-90 Deposed James II flees to Ireland; defeated at the Battle of the
Boyne.
1704 Penal Code enacted; Catholics barred from voting, education and the
military.
1775 American War of Independence forments Irish unrest.
1782 Grattan's Parliament persuades British to declare Irish
independence, but in name only.
1795 Foundation of the Orange Order.
1798 Wolfe Tone's uprising crushed.
1800 Ireland becomes part of Britain under the Act of Union.
1829 Catholic Emancipation Act passed after Daniel O'Connell elected
as MP.
1845-48 The Great Famine.
1879-82 The Land War; Parnell encourages boycott of repressive landlords.
1914 Implementation of Home Rule postponed because of outbreak of World
War I.
1916 Easter Rising. After the leaders are executed public opinion backs
independence.
1920-21 War between Britain and Ireland; Irish Free State and Northern
Ireland created.
1922 Civil war breaks out.
1932 De Valera elected.
1969 Rioting between Catholics and Protestants. British troops called in.
1971 Provisional IRA begins campaign to oust British troops from Ireland.
1972 UK and Republic of Ireland join European Community. 'Bloody Sunday'
in Derry.
1985 Anglo-Irish Agreement signed.

************************************************************************
Part 8. - Books & Papers

(i) Subscriptions to newspapers
(ii) List of books


Subscriptions to newspapers
---------------------------

The Irish Times is currently offering 32 issues for the price of 26.
England, Scotland & Wales IR#28.60
Airmail Continental Europe IR#46.02
Airmail Outside Europe, Incl. US IR#72.02

The offer is open until 30 June, 1994.
Subscriptions Department +353-1-6792022 or Fax:+353-1-6791321
The Irish Times Newspapers Ltd.
P.O. Box 74
10/16 D'Olier St.
Dublin 2
Ireland

Hot Press (music press) is currently charging the following
UK: UK#30
Ireland: Ir#30
Rest of Europe: Ir#45
US/Canada: $90
Rest of World: Ir#85

Hot Press Hot Press
13 Trinity Street Osnovina Ltd
Dublin 2 c/o Stanley Plitt
Ireland 230 East 44th Street
tel: (01) 6795077 Cheques made out to Osnovina Ltd.


List of books
-------------
FTP to ceolas.stanford.edu or yeats.csufreson.edu for an extensive
list of Celtic books

Name: A Treasury of Irish Myth, Legend and Folklore

Name: Modern Ireland 1600-1972
Author: R.F.Foster
Publisher: Penguin
ISBN: 0-14-013250-3

Name: In Search of a State - Catholics in Northen Ireland
Author: Fionnuala O'Connor
Publisher: The Blackstaff Press
ISBN: 0-85640-509-4

Name: Ten Men Dead - The Story of the 1981 Hunger Strike
Author: David Beresford
Publisher: Grafton
ISBN: 0-586-06533-4

Name: The Druids
Author: Norah Chadwick
Publisher: Penguin

Name: The Celts
Author: Norah Chadwick
Publisher: Penguin

Name: The Celts
Author: Frank Delany

Name: Down by the Claddagh
Author: Peadar O'Dowd
Publisher: Kennys of Galway
Price: #17.95

Name: Classic Irish Recipes
Author: Gerogina Campbell
Publisher: Grafton Books
ISBN: 0-8069-8444-9


Fiction:-
The greats: James Joyce, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, Jonathan Swift,
Flann O'Brien, Brendan Behan, Oscar Wilde
The modern: John McGahern, Brian Moore, Edna O'Brien, William Trevor
The contemporary: Dermot Bolger, Colm Tobin, Patrick McCabe, Roddy Doyle
John Banville

The playwrights:-
Synge, O'Casey, Shaw, Beckett

The poets:-
Yeats, Paddy Kavanagh, Seamus Heaney

************************************************************************
Part 10. - Internet information services (from Sean)

Ireland has an excellent weekly electronic news available from
Liam Ferrie at a yearly subscription rate of IR#25, STG#24 or $35.
[I realise this is still been distributed for free, but by the time
this FAQ gets out in April, Liam will be charging for it].

Irish Emigrant (News from Ireland) list:
Subscribe: irish-ne...@CS.CORNELL.EDU


http:

CURIA Project: Thesaurus Linguarum Hiberni?
Site: http://curia.ucc.ie/

Trinity College Dublin Home Page
Site: http://www.maths.tcd.ie/index.html
Site: http://www.bess.tcd.ie

Pat Murphy's maze of twisty little passages
Site: http://info.cv.nrao.edu/staff/pmurphy/pm-home.html

University Limerick ITDSRV1 Entry Point
Site: file://itdsrv1.ul.ie/pub/webac/home-page.html

Ireland: The Internet Collection
Site: file://itdsrv1.ul.ie/pub/webac/Information/Ireland.html


Site: http://www.iol.ie/IOL-HOME.html

Ireland's Web Servers
Site: http://itdsrv1.ul.ie/Information/ServerMapIreland

University College Dublin ~[gopher.ucd.ie 70 GIE D931114]
Site: gopher://nova.ucd.ie:7777/1

Irish Constitution
Site: http://www.maths.tcd.ie/pub/Constitution/index.html

Peace Declaration
Site: http://www.bess.tcd.ie/dclrtn.html

Ireland On-line
Site: http://www.iol.ie
gopher://gopher.iol.ie
GNN Home Page
Site: http://www.iol.ie/IOL-HOME.html

Broadcom
Site: http://www.broadcom.ie
Note: Choose option [1] from the home page to get to pointers
to other sites.


ftp:

Gaelic-L archive:
Site: YEATS.CSUFRESNO.EDU

Welsh-L archive:
Site: SUNSITE.UNC.EDU

Music archive:
Site: FTP.UWP.EDU

Celtic Music archive:
Site: CELTIC.STANFORD.EDU

Celtic GIF/JPEG archive:
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TOPPSI's list of Irish bulletin boards
--------------------------------------

Name SysOp Speeds Times Phone No.

Connect- David Doyle V21/22/22bis/32/HST 24hrs +353-1-6711047
Ireland/ (Lines 2/3/4) V21/22/22bis/32/32bis 24hrs +353-1-6773547
aka TOPPSI Connect-Ireland is FidoNet node 2:263/151 and concentrates on
community, youth, education and social topics. Official Apogee
distribution site. GreenNet and K-12 links. Lines 2 to 4 are
'banked' on the same phone number. Internet Email access
as <user>@toppsi.gn.apc.org

Infomatique Liam Murphy V21/22/22bis/32/32bis 24hrs +353-1-8721232
(Line 2) V21/22/22bis/HST 24hrs +353-1-8721239
Run on an AMIGA 3000 using DLG Professional - one of Ireland's
first BBS! Supports Amiga, Atari and PC.

SIX Stephen Kearon V21/22/22bis/32/32bis(4 lines)24hrs +353-1-6789000
McAfee Agents for Ireland. FidoNet node 2:263/167.
Alcom/ZyXEL/Gammafax/MegaHertz support.

Nemesis' Andy Mowatt V21/22/22bis/32/32bis/HST16K8 24hrs +353-1-324755
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FrEd Mail Conor Mac Hale V21/22/22bis 24hrs +353-1-2889783
(Free Educational Mail) Trans-Atlantic, European and Australian
penpals and inter-school projects are encouraged. Co-SysOps are
Tom O Briain and Damien Cox.

Electronic Keith Whyte V21/22/22bis/32/32bis 24hrs +353-1-6611433
Media Net Specialises in MIDI, music and the music industry.
FidoNode 2:263/153

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Mainly Amiga but also IBM support. Co-sysop is Christian
Hayden. Runs on Amiga 4000/030 using DLG Pro. Star Trek areas.

Quarterdeck George Hanratty V22/22bis/32 24hrs +353-1-284-4381
International Provides support for QDK products.
BBS. Many utilities available for DESQview and ported X-apps
for DESQview/X.

i-Com V21/22/22bis 24hrs +353-1-679-8924
Commercial 'gateway' to USA - $25/hour. Enter 'o' (letter oh) when
connected; then enter 'i-com' to sign up. First time callers get
free demo.

CUGI-BBS Jamie Ruane V22/22bis/32/32bis 24hrs +353-1-2832829
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computers and providing User Group information. Running on an
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Dromore, Co. Down. This is FidoNet node 2:443/10

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Enterprise Based in Belfast. This is FidoNet node 2:443/21

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Based in Belfast. This is FidoNet node 2:443/509

Special John McCormac V21/22/22bis/HST 24hrs +353-51-50143
Projects Specialises in Ham Radio/TV/Satellite Communications both
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Ireland Barry Flanagan V21/22/22bis/32/32bis/ZyXEL 24hrs +353-91-92722
On-line V21/22/22bis/32/32bis/ZyXEL 24hrs +353-1-???????
Commercial system based in Galway with lines in Dublin as
well. Several access options depending on subscription
paid.

InfoNet Dairmaid O Cadhla V21/22/22bis/32/32bis 24hrs +353-21-892582
Services (line 2) V21/22/22bis/32/32bis 24hrs +353-21-294914
Commercial system based in Cork. FidoNode 2:263/201

CommCubed Tommy McCourt V21/22/22bis/32/32bis 24hrs +44-????
A TOPPSI mirror system in Derry - currently being tested.

Connect Graham Lightfoot V21/22/22bis/32/32bis 24hrs +353-61-????
West A TOPPSI mirror system in Clare - currently being tested.

STYX John McKeon V21/22/22bis 24hrs +353-61-338228
PC based BBS based in Limerick. FidoNode 2:263/271

Reflex Richard Foley V21/22/22bis 24hrs +353-51-83771
AV-BBS Mainly concerned with virus and security issues. Fido 2:263/401

Digital Martin Browne V21/22/22bis/32/32bis 24hrs +353-1-8208291
Paradise Supporting Amiga/IBM PC users.


EXEC Donal O Beirne V21/22/22bis/32/32bis 24hrs +353-61-229998
Supporting a mix of Home/Games users

TechBase John Buswell V21/22/22bis/32/32bis 24hrs +353-66-28929
BBS dedicated to Star Trek and especially Deep Space Nine. Also
online technical database. FidoNode 2:263/250

TheEnd! - Des Gibbons V21/22/22bis/32/32bis 24hrs +353-1-8321673
part two Concentrates on PC software and utilities. FidoNode 2:263/79

GameStorm Declan Lynch V21/22/22bis 21:00-11:00 +353-1-920224
Run by computer game rental company. Contains stock lists and
competition details. Fidonode 2:263/156

The Highway Iain Black V21/22/22bis 22:00-08:00 wk +353-1-8475217
To Hell Concentrates on Amiga and C64. 22:00-13:00 w/e
Online games. Fidonode 2:263/154

************************************************************************
Part 12. - Cuisine

========================================================================
From: Stepanie de Silva

Corned Beef & Cabbage
=====================

1 3/4 lbs onions
2 1/2 lbs carrots
6 lb corned beef brisket or round, spiced or unspiced
1 cup malt vinegar
6 oz Irish stout
1 tablespoon mustard seed
1 tablespoon coriander seed
1/2 tablespoon black peppercorns
1/2 tablespoon dill seed
1/2 tablespoon whole allspice
2 bay leaves
3 lb cabbage, rinsed
2 1/2 lb small red potatoes
1/2 cup coarse grain mustard
1/2 cup dijon mustard

To serve 12, use a 14 to 20 quart pan.

Coarsely chop enugh onions and carrots to make 1 cup each. In pan, place
onions and carrots, corned beef with any liquid, vinegar, stout, mustard seed,
coriander, peppercorns, dill, allspice and bay leaves. Add water to barely
cover beef. Cover pan and bring to a boil over high heat. Simmer until
meat is tender when pierced, 2 1/2 to 3 hours.

Meanwhile, cut remaining onions into wedges. Cut remaining carrots into
2-inch lengths; halve them lengthwise if large. Cut cabbages in half through
cores, then into wedges. Scrub potatoes.

Add onions, carrots and potatoes to tender corned beef, place cabbage on top.
Cover and return to simmering over high heat; reduce heat and simmer until
cabbage is tender when pierced, 15 to 20 minutes.

With a slotted spoon scoop out vegetables onto warm serving dishes. Using
tongs and a slotted spoon, remove beef to a cutting board; cut off and
discard fat, slice meat across the grain and place on warm platters. Serve
meat and vegetables with coarse-grain and dijon mustards.


Colcannon
=========

4 lb russet potatoes
1 lb cabbage, cute into fine shreds
1/2 cup butter
1 1/4 cup milk
1 cup sliced green onions
salt and pepper

To serve 12, you'll need a 5 to 6 quart pan. Peel potatoes; rinse. Drain;
cute into 2 inch pieces. Place potatoes in pan; cover with water. Bring
to a boil, covered, over high heat. Reduce heat; simmer until tender when
pierced, about 15 minutes.

Drain; mash, part at a time, in a heavy-duty mixer or by hand in a large
bowl. As mashed, transfer to a very large bowl; cover.

Place cabbage and butter in pan sued for potatoes. Cover; steam cabbage over
medium-high heat until well wilted, stirring often. Meanwhile, stir milk and
onions often in a 3 to 4 quart pan over medium heat until simmering. Stir
milk mixture into potatoes until smooth, stir in cabbage. Season with salt
and pepper.


Irish Soda Bread
================

3 cups all-purpose flour
3 tablespoons sugar
1 teaspoon baking soda
3/4 teaspoon salt
9 tablespoons butter
1 tablespoon caraway seed
1/2 cup golden raisins
1/3 cup dried currants
1 cup buttermilk for dough
1 1/2 tablespoons buttermilk for brushing

In a large bowl, combine flour, sugar, soda and salt. Cut in butter
with a pastry blender or rub tih fingers until fine crumbs form. Mix in
caraway, raisins and currants; add buttermilk for dough. Stir until
evenly moistened.

Gather dough into a ball and knead about 16 turns on a lightly floured
board. Pat into a smooth ball, then into a falt 1 inch thick round.
Place on a greased 12 by 15 inch baking sheet.

Slash an X about 1/4 inch deep completely across each round; brush with
remaining buttermilk. Bake in a 375F oven until deep golden, 30 to 35
minutes. Serve warm or cool. Cut into wedges.


Elaine's Shortbread
===================

1 cup softened butter
1/2 cup + 1 tablespoon sugar
1 1/2 cups all-purpose flour
1/2 cup white rice flour (or more all-purpose)

In a large mixing bowl, beat butter with the larger amount of sugar until
smooth.

Gradually add all-purpose and rice flours until well combined. Spread in
a 9 by 13 inch baking dish. Bake in a 275F oven until pale golden, 55
to 65 minutes. Place on racks and let cool for 10 minutes. Sprinkle
lightly with sugar, then cut into 24 bars. Let cool completely. Serve.


%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

From: Chuck Narad

Irish Cabbage Potatoes (Colcannon)
=================================-

8 large potatoes, peeled and cubed
1/2 head of cabbage
1 bunch scallions (green onions), chopped
milk
butter
dill (dried, or fresh chopped)
fresh ground black pepper

Shred the cabbage. Sautee it with a little butter,
then reduce heat and cover; let it steam. When it is
almost limp, add the scallions. (I'd probably add some
garlic and an onion if I made this).

Meanwhile, boil, drain, mash the potatoes, add some
milk and a little butter. Add the cabbage mixture, and
stir in the dill and pepper.

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

From: Iain G Liddell

Scottish Shortbread
===================

As far as shortbread is concerned, I'm a great believer in simplicity.
The recipe for Balmoral Shortbread below is typical of this style.

However, with Scots cookery, one should never ignore Mistress Margaret
(Meg) Dods. Her "Cook's and Housewife's Manual" was promoted (ghosted?)
by Sir Walter Scott, who coined her pseudonym. The recipe for Petticoat
Tails is described by Catherine Brown (Scottish Regional Recipes) as
"a ladies' shortbread - men generally prefer thick fingers".

Other recipes call for additions such as rice flour, cornflour (cornstarch),
lemon peel, ground or slivered almonds (or almond essence) but these are
all just curlicues. As for the commercially produced Choc Chip Shortbread
and Cherry Shortbread ... they are about as Scots as the Taj Mahal.

Iain

Balmoral Shortbread
===================
375g plain flour
250g butter (nothing else will do)
125g sugar
salt

Note the 3:2:1 ratio - what could be simpler.

Preheat oven to 350F / 180C / Gas 4

Sift flour onto a board.
Put sugar in a separate pile on the board, and work in butter.
Gradually knead in flour: you should end up with a firm dough.
Flour the board and roll to a thickness of 3mm to 5mm.
Cut into circles and prick with a fork.
Bake on a greased tray for 30 minutes.

Petticoat Tails
===============

(based on Meg Dods' Manual - see preamble)

200 g plain flour
75 g butter
25 g lard
50 g icing sugar (powdered sugar)
2 tsp caraway seeds

Preheat oven to 350F / 180C / Gas 4

Sift flour and sugar into a bowl.
Add butter and lard, and rub in completely.
Add caraway seeds; turn out onto a board, and knead till firm.
Roll out to 5mm thickness into a circle (or cut out a circle).
Cut into wedges the size you want and bake for 20-30 minutes
until the shortbread is pale golden brown.
Dredge with caster sugar (superfine sugar?) while still hot.


%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

>From Deirdre Barr

Boxty
=====

Here's the recipe for boxty, as per the Monica Sheridan cookbook.
2 Large raw potatoes 1 teaspoon baking-soda
2 cups of mashed potatoes 2 tablespoons flour (approx)
1 teaspoon salt.

Grate the raw potatoes & squeeze out the liquid. Add to the mashed
potatoes & add salt. Mix the soda with the flour and add to the
potatoes. Roll out on a floured board to a circle of a 1/2"
thickness. Cut in 4 quarters & put on an ungreased griddle. Cook on a
gentle heat for 30 to 40 minutes, turning the bread at half-time. The
farls or quarters, should be well browned on bothe sides. Serves 4
You may add a teaspoon of caraway seeds, if you like.


Potato Cakes (1)
================

2 tablespoons butter
1 cup flour
1/2 teaspoon baking powder
1/2 teaspoon salt
3 cups freshly mashed potatoes.

Rub the butter into the flour. Add the baking powder and salt and mix
well. Add the potatoes and bind all together with your hand. Roll
out to quarter-inch thickness on a well floured board with a
well-floured rolling pin. Cut in squares or stamp out with a cutter.
Bake on an ungreased griddle until brown on both sides. Serve hot
with running butter. Yields 12 cakes. (Cold potato cakes are often
fried with the breakfast bacon)

Potato Cakes (2)
================

1 tablespoon flour
1/2 teaspoon salt
2 cups freshly mashed potatoes
2 teaspoons bacon drippings for the griddle.

Sprinkle the salted flour over the potatoes and knead lightly
together. Roll out on a floured board to quarter-inch thickness. Cut
in quarters or stamp out into rounds. Put on a greased griddle and
cook on an even heat until both sides are well browned. When cooked,
butter generously and eat at once. Yields 6-8 cakes. Major heart attack
food but extremely tasty.

===========================================================================


************************************************************************

Part 13 - Miscelleous
(i) Getting jobs in Ireland
(ii) Applying for Irish citizenship
(iii) What is a Claddagh ring?
(iv) Irish National Anthem

(i) Getting jobs in Ireland
---------------------------
INI, the International Network for Ireland will send you a monthly list
of jobs available in Ireland for #30 a year.
They also run a jobs fair every Christmas called the `High Skills Pool',
which has taken place in Buswell's Hotel for the past couple of years.
They are partly funded by the IDA and will give you information on
companies in Ireland for free if you have any queries. You can also
get an information pack on moving back to Ireland, e.g. what the tax rate
is, etc.
INI Phone:+353-1-668-7155 or Fax: +353-1-668-7945
Powerhouse
Pigeon House Harbour
Dublin 4
Ireland
As yet they do not have an email address.

Several recruitment agenices have email addresses.
Skillbase: psch...@skillbase.ie
Computer Placement: an...@cpl.ie
As with all recruitment agencies, do not expect a reply unless
they are interested.

Friday's edition of the Irish Times is one of the best places to
see what is on offer in Ireland. Subsciption information can be found in
section 8(ii).


(ii) Applying for Irish citizenship
-----------------------------------

Anyone who has a parent or grandparent born in the Republic of Ireland
or Northern Ireland can get an Irish passport by applying to your local
embassy or consulate.

You need to have the following :-
1) For the Irish grandparent, birth certificate and marriage license to
whoever was the other grandparent of the applicant.

2) For the parent (child of the Irish grandparent) birth certificate and
marriage license to your other parent.

3) For you: birth certificate

ALL of the above documents must have complete details that prove the
connection. In other words, the birth certificate must show the names,
dates of birth and places of birth of both your parents, so that they can
be conclusively identified to be the same person mentioned on the marriage
license and their own birth certificate. Irish documents seem to include
these details automatically, but in the U.S., you may have to contact the
Vital Statistics Bureau in the state of birth to get an official copy
containing more details.

ALL of the documents must be official, i.e., must bear the raised stamp
of the issuing agency.

You have to fill out forms, attach photographs and have it all witnessed,
not by a notary public, but by a "clergyman, high school principal, lawyer
or bank manager".

It costs about $160 if you are claiming through your parent(s), in addition to
the cost of getting copies of the documents. If you are claiming citizenship
based on your grandparent(s) then you need to pay $270 for Registration of
Foreign Birth.

There's about a one-year backlog in processing applications.

(iii) What is a Claddagh ring?
--------------------------------

There are many stories about the Claddagh ring. Claddagh itself
refers to a small fishing village just near Galway city.
The Claddagh ring supposedly originated in this area. The ring has a
design of a heart being encircled by a pair of delicate hands with
a crown above the heart. In earlier times this design was the
symbol of the "Fishing Kings of Claddagh" meaning 'in love and friendship
let us reign'. In the 17th century the symbol was first depicted on a ring
which became the fashionable exchange of friends or lovers. In marriage the
heart was worn towards the wrist otherwise towards the fingertips. There are
many modern versions of the Claddagh Ring. Here are some folk legends
about the Claddagh:


(a)
Way back in the sandy mists of time, so the story went, it seemed as
there was this king. This king was madly in love with a peasant woman, but
as she was of a lower class the love had to go unrequited. In dread despair
the king killed himself and had his hands lopped off and placed around his
heart as a symbol of his undying love for the woman.

(b)
It symbolizes love (heart), friendship/faith (hands) and loyalty (crown).
Two hands Joined together in love and Crowned by the Glory of Christ.

(d)
There was a Dublin version of this Ring that appeared some 100 years back with
two hands and two Hearts but No Crown Some call this Version the Fenian
Claddagh.

(e)
The Crown to The Father, The Left hand to the Son, and the Right Hand the the
Holy Ghost. This Explanation is directly Correlative to the Shamrock, one of
the Earliest Symbols of the Holy Trinity among the Irish.

(f)
Some will say Beathauile is the Crown, Anu is the Left hand, and the
Dagda Mo/r is the Right hand and the Heart is the Hearts of all mankind
and that which gives the everlasting music to the Gael.

(g)
As legend has it, the town developed the ring (originally a sigil to be
painted on ships and sails) to be worn by sailors of Claddagh. When these
sailors would run into other fishermen in their waters, they would check for
the sigil, and if they did not find it, they would kill them.

(h)
The original Claddagh ring is generally attributed to one
Richard Joyce, a native of Galway, who while being transported
as a slave to the plantations of the West Indies was captured
by Mediterranean pirates and sold to a Moorish goldsmith who
trained him in his craft. In 1689 he was released and returned
to Galway and set up his shop in the Claddagh. (The Claddagh is said
to be the oldest fishing village in Ireland). By tradition the
ring is taken to signify the wish that Love and Friendship
should reign supreme. The hands signify friendship, the crown
loyalty, and the heart love. The ring has become popular
outside Connamera since the middle of the last century- its
spread being helped by the vast exodus from the West during
the great Famine in 1847-49. These rings were kept as
heirlooms with great pride and passed from mother to daughter.
Today, the ring is worn extensively across Ireland, either on
the right hand with the heart turned outwards showing that
the wearer is "fancy free" or with the heart turned inwards
to denote that he or she is "spoken for". The pride of place
is on the left hand, with the heart turned in, indicating that
the wearer is happily married.


(iv) Irish National Anthem
-----------------------------
As Gaeilge:

Seo dhibh a cha/irde duan O/glaigh,
Cathre/imeach briomhar ceolmhar,
A/r dtinte cna/mh go buacach ta/id,
'S an spe/ir go min re/altogach
Is fonnmhar faobhrach sinn chun gleo
'S go tiu/nmhar gle/ roimh thi/ocht do'n lo/
Fe/ chiu/nas chaomh na hoiche ar seol:
Seo libh canai/dh Amhra/n na bhFiann

Curfa/:
Sinne Firnna Fa/il
A ta/ fe/ gheall ag E/irinn,
buion da/r slua
Thar toinn do ra/inig chugainn,
Fe/ mho/id bheith saor.
Sean ti/r a/r sinsir feasta
Ni/ fhagfar fe/'n tiora/n na/ fe'/n tra/il
Anocht a the/am sa bhearna bhaoil,
Le gean ar Ghaeil chun ba/is no/ saoil
Le guna screach fe/ la/mhach na bpile/ar
Seo libh canai/dh Amhra/n na bhFiann.

Cois ba/nta re/idhe, ar a/rdaibh sle/ibhe,
Ba bhuachach a/r sinsir romhainn,
Ag la/mhach go tre/an fe/'n sa/r-bhrat se/in
Ta/ thuas sa ghaoith go seolta
Ba dhu/chas riamh d'a/r gcine cha/idh
Gan iompa/il siar o/ imirt a/ir,
'S ag siu/l mar iad i gcoinne na/mhad
Seo libh, canai/dh Amhra/n na bhFiann

Curfa/

A bhui/on na/ch fann d'fhuil Ghaeil is Gall,
Sin breacadh lae na saoirse,
Ta sce/imhle 's scanradh i gcroi/the namhad,
Roimh ranna laochra a/r dtire.
A/r dtinte is tre/ith gan spre/ach anois,
Sin luisne ghle/ san spe/ir anoir,
'S an bi/obha i raon na bpile/ar agaibh:
Seo libh, canai/dh Amhra/n na bh Fiann.

Curfa/

English translation
We'll sing song, a soldier's song,
With cheering rousing chorus,
As round our blazing fires we throng,
The starry heavens o'er us;
Impatient for the coming fight,
And as we wait the morning's light,
Here in the silence of the night,
We'll chant a soldier's song.

Chorus:
Soldiers are we
whose lives are pledged to Ireland;
Some have come
from a land beyond the wave.
Sworn to be free,
No more our ancient sire land
Shall shelter the despot or the slave.
Tonight we man the gap of danger
In Erin's cause, come woe or weal
'Mid cannons' roar and rifles peal,

We'll chant a soldier's song

In valley green, on towering crag,
Our fathers fought before us,
And conquered 'neath the same old flag
That's proudly floating o'er us.
We're children of a fighting race,
That never yet has known disgrace,
And as we march, the foe to face,
We'll chant a soldier's song

Chorus

Sons of the Gael! Men of the Pale!
The long watched day is breaking;
The serried ranks of Inisfail
Shall set the Tyrant quaking.
Our camp fires now are burning low;
See in the east a silv'ry glow,
Out yonder waits the Saxon foe,
So chant a soldier's song.

Chorus


-----
Software:

Irish language version of the Apple Macintosh O/S available
from Everson Gunn Teoranta. Email: eve...@irlearn.ucd.ie or
mg...@irlearn.ucd.ie


(g) Kernow - Cornwall

-- No info here at present,
-- Ask on WELSH-L
-- see the list of references in "Da Mihi Manum"
by Marion Gunn, email: mg...@irlearn.ucd.ie for more info

(h) Mannin - Isle of Man
-- No info here at present
-- Ask on GAELIC-L
-- see the list of references in "Da Mihi Manum"
by Marion Gunn, email: mg...@irlearn.ucd.ie for more info

-- also "Manx Language Officer", Rheynn Ynsee, Murray House,
Mount Havelock, Doolish, Isle of Man IM1 2Q

(i) Celtic events & societies in major cities around the world

(1) London
any others?

-----------
(1) London
The Scottish Tourist Board in London should be able to tell
you what's on, ask them for the "De tha dol" list. I used to
send it to them and now someone else does.

Highlands and Islands society of London (ceilidhs)
Ceilidhs with music, dancing and singing in the London area. Usually
very good and well attended. Contact for more info:
Marybelle Morrisey 081 445 7939; Catherine Cook 081 440 0832

London Gaelic choir. Founded 1892 and the oldest surviving Gaelic
choir in the world. Meets each Tuesday 7:30pm-9:30pm in Covent Garden.
Contact: Arthur Findlay, 6 Hamlea Close, Eltham Rd, Lee, London SE12 8EU
Tel: 081 852 3589. Arthur also has copies of "De tha dol"

Gaelic society of London. Founded 1777 and the oldest Gaelic society in
the world. Contact: Cliff Castle, 14 Poulton Av, Sutton, Surrey, SM1 3PY
Tel: 081 644 7303. Has monthly meetings; social nights; campaigns etc.

John Angus Macleod, 5 Berkeley Crescent, Lydney, Gloucestershire, GL15 5SH
Coordinates a lot of Gaelic activities in England and Wales. Knows about
everything going on! Well known bard and Gaelic teacher, very helpful.


--
Craig Cockburn (pronounced "coburn"), Edinburgh, Scotland
Sgri\obh thugam 'sa Ga\idhlig ma 'se do thoil e.

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