Einstein’s Dirty Laundry sounds heavy, but it’s the name of the 1996 article
to tell about the auction of several papers and documents from Einsten. The 1913 paper "On the motion of the perihelion of
Mercury," written by Einstein and Michele Besso was purchased for
$398,500 by the scientific book dealer Jeremy Norman & Co. The paper
was resold by 2019 at almost 10 times the 1996 price.
The 51 pages manuscript, with mathematical and physical calculations
and some comments and additional text, was hidden from the public view
for more than 40 years, and surfaced after the death of Besso in Geneva,
Switzerland , on March 15, 1955. The manuscript consists of loose sheets,
most of them single-sided, some double-sided, with no continuous
numbering. Roughly half the pages are in Einstein's hand, the other half in
The document was toroughly analyzed by scientists since then, which
contributed with hundred of observations in the next 50 years. After an
impressive work to digitalize and order the document, it was made available
online at Princeton’s web site:
in the section “Volume 4: The Swiss Years: Writings 1912-1914 Pages 360 to
473. There, the complete work performed by Einstein and Besso between
June 1913 and early 1914, is presented with 249 Notes and 376 formulae,
numbered by specialists who gave order to the temporal sequence of the
calculations, and inserted the numerations to make the document legible.
IMO, the analysis of the online document allows anyone with patience and
some knowledge on physics and mathematics, to witness how both
partners started from Square One up to a final part, where competing
Nordstrom theory was analyzed under the light of the mathematical
framework of the June 1913 published Entwurf, co-authored by Grossman
and Einstein. The 114 pages available on line contain a digitalized form of
the manuscript plus more than 63 pages with the 249 notes elaborated by
unknown specialists. I didn’t have the time who they were, and when any of
those comments was elaborated in the period 1955 – 2005.
It’s have been difficult for me, in the last days, to follow the developments
within the document, because the transcription is literal and don’t provide
any help to further decode the calculations. So, it was needed an effort to go
forward and back along the 376 formulae and 249 notes in order to obtain
the real formulae for Mercury’s perihelion, as Besso and Einstein obtained.
The part where they both analyze Nordstrom’s theory (at the end) is easier
As it’s commented, the document contain many gross errors in concepts
and calculations, which were not corrected by then. Only a century later,
such errors (which amount to a difference of about 2,000 times the final
1913 value) are made public. Also, an incredible expression of Nordstrom
final formula was derived by them, which differs EXACTLY in a factor “6”
from the 1897 Gerber’s formula and the “clone” that Einstein presented
2 and half years later (Nov.18, 1915) to the Prussian Academy of Science,
where he claimed the validity of his GR for the explanation of Mercury’s
perihelion shift. Such historical date marks the BIRTH of Einstein’s General
Relativity theory in modern form, but it had to wait for another 4 years until
Eddington’s expedition to prove light deflection in 1919, after the Great War
(WWI) ended. Then, Einstein was made a worldwide sensation by the media,
and his journey around the world to promote it started until late 1925.
To make this OP short, I’ll post four formulae as a result of such manuscript:
Einstein-Besso 1913 formulae, Nordstrom 1913 formulae, Einstein 1915
formulae and Gerber 1898 formulae. Maybe, in next posts on this thread I’ll
write several considerations, which are EXCLUSIVELY BASED on the
document online at Princeton’s web site. For now, this is a start:
[Eq. 331] δθ = -π.So.k/2f . 1/r = - 4π.K.M.Rs².(Tm/Ts)/(10.c².Rm³) = -5.6 . 10E-7 rad/orbit = - 2.3"/century [Einstein-Besso, 1913]
[Eq. 331 with errors detected and corrected] δθ = -1.4 . 10E-11 rad/orbit = -1.2 . 10E-3 "/century [Einstein, 2005]
(Equation 376, Nordström) Ψ = π (1 + ½ 4. π².a²/((1 – e²).T².c²)))
(from Equation 376) ΔΨ = 2Ψ - 2π = 4.π³.a²/((1 – e²).T.c²) = 0.8 × 10E-7 rad/orbit = 7.2 ′′/century [Nordström, 1913]
[Gerber, 1898] ΔΨ = 24π³.a²/[c². T². (1- e²)]
Nordström and Gerber in natural units. Einstein-Besso in cgs system.
ΔΨ [Nordström, 1913] = 1/6 𝜖 [Einstein, Nov. 18, 1915] = 1/6ΔΨ [Gerber, 1898]
For those who wonder what are the coefficients at Einstein-Besso formulae,
[Eq. 331] δθ = - 4π.K.M.Rs².(Tm/Ts)/(10.c².Rm³)
Related to the Sun: M: mass; Rs: radius; Ts: rotation period.
Related to Mercury: Tm: period for one orbit; Rm: semi-major axis.
The Einstein-Gerber 1913 manuscript, which was never made public while
Einstein was alive, is totally UNRELATED to his Nov. 18, 1915 paper. And
that work done in a week or two? Everyone here is blind to the fact that
Einstein was inept in mathematics, even at algebra level. He had a TEAM
working for him all the time he was not plagiarizing someone else (like
Stark on thermodynamics, or Lorenz-Poincaré in relativity). His 1913 team
don’t match the figure of “a lone genius”: Grossman, Besso, Adriaan
Fokker, Lorentz, Ehrenfest, Sommerfeld, Lorentz, etc. (last three as
advisors). It’s HIGHLY PROBABLY that Schwarzschild was an advisor too.
After all, the astronomer had been influential for the position offered by
Planck at Berlin, because there were problem about HOW to fund the 12
years contract for Einstein there, which was expensive. Schwarzschild,
along with Planck, found the way to split the sources of the funding in 1914.
By October 1915, he received STRONG GUIDANCE from Hilbert himself, as
a result of his summer lecture at Gottingen, due to Hilbert’s invitation. He
stayed for a week and told Hilbert WHY he was lost with GR math and Hilbert helped him there and after, with many letters exchanged. He had
left Grossman in the past and was connected with Levi-Civita as an
advisor for his math, plus who don’t know else. But the path he followed in
the next weeks were ALIEN for him, as he changed his 1913 approach in a
1) Instead of messing with the Sun as a rotating sphere, calculating his mass by comparisons with Earth's mass, re.inventing the gravitational constant G in 4 or 5 different ways, using the real radius of the Sun and
the influence of Earth, Venus and Jupiter on Mercury, he replaced the Sun
with a NEWTONIAN point-like non-rotating mass, as it was done for 200 years.
2) Abandoned any attempt to include gravitational drag originated by the
rotation of the Sun (read his 1913 formula) and abandoned any attempt to
work with the energy-stress tensor, by making Rᵤᵥ = 0 and proposing an
expression for the gravitational field in vacuum (with pure mathematical
meaning, not physical) for the behavior of this equation on an space VOID
of matter and energy, with a “suitable choice of coordinates”:
Σᵢ ∂Γⁱᵤᵥ/∂xᵢ + Σᵢᵣ Γⁱᵤᵣ Γʳᵥᵢ = 0 ,
with Γⁱᵤᵥ = -1/2 gᵛˣ (∂gᵤₓ/∂xᵢ + ∂gᵢₓ/∂xᵥ - ∂gᵢᵤ/∂xₓ)
3) He went backward from the solution to the origin of the development by
HACKING the math at the very beginning, installing the influences of the
Sun’s gravitational field CHANGING his equation (4a):
"Or more compactly gᵤᵥ = - δᵤᵥ ; gᵤ₄ = g₄ᵤ ; g₄₄ = 1 (equation 4a, pure mathematics)
gᵤᵥ = - δᵤᵥ + α . (∂²r/∂xᵤxᵥ - δᵤᵥ/r) = - δᵤᵥ - α . xᵤxᵥ/r³ ; g₄₄ = 1 - α/r (equation 4b, which HACKED 4a, now physical)
4) After (4b), and with disregard of the assumption of a void universe, he
PLANTED the Sun at the origin and CONNECTED this HACK with the
hacked equation (4b). With these SIMPLIFICATIONS, it was easy to get
Gerber’s formula (which was TREMENDOUSLY CORRECT, 17 years before)
and get a similar formula with the famous 43”.
A final, but fundamental fact: the value obtained in 1913 [Equation 331]
was thought to be - 2.3"/century, which was about 6 times lower than the
18” that Einstein (his hand writing) wrote above the [Eq. 188].
The exact factor “6” is the difference between Einstein-Besso derived
formula for Nordstrom theory [Equation 376] and the Gerber’s formula that
Einstein used on his Nov.18, 1915 presentation on the problem of
Mercury. Read Notes , , ,  and  from Princeton site.
The conclusion is obvious for me: after hacking his 1915 paper and
reingeneering [Eq. 376], Nordström) formula to increment its value
EXACTLY 6x to match Gerber’s formula, he presented his famous paper at
the Prussian Academy of Science.
Never ever Einstein did make public his 1913 teamwork and, even less, the
absurd result of - 2.3"/century, which was found decades after to be
-0.0012”/century, due to the numerous errors and misconception they had
But nobody, in the world of physics or mathematics since 1955, DARED to
publish the incoherence in the narrative of GR history. Even the Notes at
the Princeton's site, even when find mistakes and inconsistencies, justify
Einstein in many ways, but NEVER address the weird coincidences.
And this is because the script for GR history was written since 1916 and
perfected even to insanity in the last 40 years, when Einstein's figure was
revitalized. And, of course, nobody on his sane mind, dares to confront the