Fairy tales rule the Second University of Medicine in Naples, Italy

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Fairy tales rule the Second University of Medicine in Naples, Italy

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Fairy tales rule the Second University of Medicine in Naples, Italy
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Topic: Fairy tales rule the Second University of Medicine in Naples,
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worelia
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Fairy tales rule the Second University of Medicine in Naples, Italy
« on: June 20, 2016, 12:58:54 AM »
G'day!

[*quote*]
Limitations of Western Medicine and Models of Integration Between
Medical Systems
The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. May 2016, 22(5):
343-348.

Francesco Attena, MD

Department of Experimental Medicine, School of Medicine, Second
University
of Naples, Naples, Italy.

ABSTRACT

This article analyzes two major limitations of Western medicine:
maturity
and incompleteness. From this viewpoint, Western medicine is considered
an
incomplete system for the explanation of living matter. Therefore,
through
appropriate integration with other medical systems, in particular
nonconventional approaches, its knowledge base and interpretations may
be widened.
This article presents possible models of integration of Western
medicine
with homeopathy, the latter being viewed as representative of all
complementary and alternative medicine. To compare the two, a medical
system was
classified into three levels through which it is possible to
distinguish between
different medical systems: epistemological (first level), theoretical
(second level), and operational (third level). These levels are based
on the
characterization of any medical system according to, respectively, a
reference
paradigm, a theory on the functioning of living matter, and clinical
practice. The three levels are consistent and closely consequential in
the sense
that from epistemology derives theory, and from theory derives clinical
practice. Within operational integration, four models were identified:
contemporary, alternative, sequential, and opportunistic. Theoretical
integration
involves an explanation of living systems covering simultaneously the
molecular and physical mechanisms of functioning living matter.
Epistemological
integration provides a more thorough and comprehensive explanation of
the
epistemic concepts of indeterminism, holism, and vitalism to complement
the
reductionist approach of Western medicine; concepts much discussed by
Western medicine while lacking the epistemologic basis for their
emplacement.
Epistemologic integration could be reached with or without a true
paradigm
shift and, in the latter, through a model of fusion or subsumption.
[*/quote*]

Source:
http://online.liebertpub.com/doi/abs/10.1089/acm.2015.0381


Excerpts

“The US National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health and
the
Australian National Institute of Complementary Medicine are other
important
centers that have developed programs for the integration of CAM into
Western medicine. In all cases, the implicit or explicit premise is the
immutability and supremacy of Western medicine within which the CAM
must be adapted
and integrated."

“This article, starting from a different viewpoint, considers Western
medicine to be an incomplete system with respect to a wider explanation
of
living matter.”

“On the other hand, because CAM does not represent a single and compact
medical system, this article discusses only one nonconventional medical
system to help make the discourse more concise and simple. Homeopathy
and
acupuncture are by far the most widely used CAMs in Western countries;
however,
because acupuncture is only part of the wider medical system of
Traditional
Chinese Medicine, homeopathy, a more compact system, was selected to
elaborate on a possible integration with Western medicine. Accordingly,
this
review presents possible models of integration between Western medicine
and
homeopathy, the latter viewed as representative of the characteristics
common
to all CAMs...This discussion will not address the problem, however
crucial, regarding the effectiveness of CAM, a topic already widely
debated
elsewhere.”

“Table 1. Comparison Between Western Medicine and Homeopathy on
Epistemological, Theoretical, and Operational Levels”

[Contents of the table: I will abbreviate in the form of x vs. y, where
x
is the Western medicine entry and y is the homeopathy entry:

Epistemology - in general: reductionism vs. holism, mechanicism vs.
vitalism, determinism vs. indeterminism

Epistemology - in disease interpretation: external causation vs.
internal
causation; negative expression of the body, disease meaningless vs.
disease
as expression of body language; single organ disease vs. systemic
disease .

Theory on the function of living matter: chemical vs. physical,
molecular
vs. electromagnetic; short-range vs. long-range

Clinical practice - doctor-patient relationship: specialist approach,
targeting a single organ vs. systemic approach, targeting the whole
person;
explanatory approach vs. comprehensive approach

Diagnosis: on single organ vs. systemic, on the whole body

Therapy: chemical molecular therapy vs. physical therapy; strong action
vs. weak action; local effect vs. systemic effect]

“...the goal here is to show that Western medicine has two important
epistemological limitations: incompleteness and maturity. From these
limitations
derive further theoretical and practical limits.

“For these very reasons, medicine in general could realize and improve
patient care on the foundation of a model of integration for different
medical
systems. Consequently, this article proposes to show, via the exemplar
of
homeopathy, that CAM could fill the gaps in and overcome the
limitations of
Western medicine. From this premise may arise deeper models of
integration
of Western medicine with CAM than those hypothesized thus far by
others.

“...Western medicine has long been blamed for a too reductionist
approach
to living systems and patients, with all the flaws it entails...The
theoretical consequence of this paradigm involves the belief that the
entire
functioning of living matter is the result of the interaction between
molecules.
The ultimate expression of this attitude is to attribute to DNA all
responsibility for the final configuration of living beings.
Consequently,
medical practice is centered primarily on molecular therapy using
drugs.”

“Incidentally, the molecular paradigm is not a monolith impermeable to
other scientific explanations or integrations; in fact, many criticisms
of
this paradigm have been published and discussed in orthodox scientific
journals. Nevertheless, because of the predominance of the molecular
paradigm, and
the idea that it provides a satisfactory explanation of biological
systems, it tends to underestimate and belittle alternative or
additional
mechanisms of the functioning of living matter.”

“Paradoxically, the excess of success has brought the molecular
paradigm
into crisis, according to the following sequence. In the early stage of
a
paradigm, the simplest and more evident problems are resolved. Later,
increasingly more complex and costly problems are solved...Nowadays
Western
medicine is faced with many problems that are difficult to solve or
that engage
an enormous burden of economic resources.”

“A further explanation [for the rising cost of health care] is that the
molecular paradigm responds to the classic economic law of decreasing
marginal returns, which consists of a gradual reversal of the
cost/benefit ratio.
Being now in a very advanced stage of maturity of the paradigm, any
further
small increase in knowledge involves ever greater resources: for
example,
the huge costs engaged for research on AIDS, development and production
of
new technologies, and research and application of new drugs.”

“According to the Kuhnian notion of paradigm, the concept of
incompleteness derives from the premise that each paradigmatic vision
is always a
partial view of the world of interest. In this case, incompleteness
means that
adherence to the molecular paradigm is a partial vision of the
functioning of
living matter.”

“Instead, much research, proposed, for example, from studies of CAM,
has
shown that living organisms operate not only through the interaction
between
molecules but also through physical modalities. These studies, being
located outside the molecular paradigm, are poorly understood and
little
researched by Western medicine. The scientifically advanced mechanism
discussed in
the literature, which can be integrated into the molecular paradigm,
involves the physics of living systems. This mechanism is fairly well
known but
somewhat underestimated. The sensitivity of biological systems to
electromagnetic fields is an indirect demonstration of this and
concerns all types
of biological systems...this susceptibility might be involved in many
empirical situations or common experience:...the therapeutic tradition
of
bioenergetics, and homeopathy and other alternative medicines.”

“An important expression of the physics of biological systems is the
physics of biological water...Biological water is able to generate
frequency
domains and then to store and transmit information, giving coherence to
the
whole system. Indeed, from a scientific viewpoint the physical
(electromagnetic) organization of living matter could better explain the
long-range
coherence of biological systems than could molecular organization, and
from an
epistemological viewpoint could better explain the concepts of holism
and
vitalism.”

“Moreover, homeopathy is well known for its systemic and holistic
approach
to the patient; for anamnesis and diagnosis that are not limited to
organ
disease but investigate the overall physical and psychological
characteristics of the patient; and for therapeutic activity based not
on molecules but
on water, appropriately diluted and dynamized to resonate with the
living
matter.

“Therefore, in this case also, the three components of this medical
system
are consistent with each other: a holistic, vitalist, and apparently
indeterministic epistemology; a long-range and systemic explanation of
living
matter; a comprehensive, mind–body, and systemic approach to the
patient and
the disease, seen as a disease not of a single organ but of the whole
organism; and a weak therapy free of molecules (Table 1). Presumably,
hostility
toward homeopathy is of a paradigmatic nature rather than of a
scientific
nature (i.e., the so-called incommensurability between different
paradigms).”

“Theoretical integration involves an explanation of living systems
simultaneously covering a molecular mechanism and a physical mechanism
of the
functioning of living matter. Surprisingly, many studies attempt an
additional
explanation of living systems, implying a theoretical integration of
these
two modalities, sometimes also including CAM...Preparata, even 20 years
ago, suggested that living matter seems governed by the quantum field
theory,
with electrodynamic coherence as a bridge between physics and biology.
Annila and Baverstock seek solutions in the second law of
thermodynamics.
Others seek the study of ‘crowding’ in living systems, such as the
effect
caused by crowding conditions from the standpoint of statistical
physics.
Another, more recent theory tries to assign to ultra-weak photon
emission the
role of nonchemical, distant cellular interaction. Probably the most
developed
hypothesis is the one we have already discussed concerning the physical
properties of biological water. Finally, it cannot be excluded that all
of
these studies are resting on a shared and deeper ground, ever
expanding.”

“Why are all of these studies essentially ignored or undervalued by the
scientific community? First, they address topics totally or partly
beyond the
competence of biochemical researchers, who thus find it difficult to
understand and, more so, judge the quality and plausibility of the
hypotheses
presented. These difficulties are further increased by the wide
heterogeneity
of these studies. Second, scientists working within a given paradigm
have
more resistance to accepting theories that challenge the paradigm and
do
not have access to most of the relevant accredited scientific journals
as
they are considered heretical.”

“Theoretical integration of the chemistry and physics of living systems
is
the basis and premise of epistemological integration, allowing us to
overcome the incompleteness of Western medicine. Moreover, it provides
a more
thorough and comprehensive explanation of the epistemic concepts of
indeterminism, holism, and vitalism to complement the reductionist
approach of
Western medicine, concepts that Western medicine talks so much about
while
lacking the epistemological basis for its emplacement.”


“According to the classic Kuhnian approach, when a scientific paradigm
reaches its maturity and is no longer able to support the recurrent
anomalies,
it is replaced, after a scientific revolution, by a new scientific
paradigm. In the present case a fanciful, but theoretically possible,
hypothesis
foresees the birth of a new scientific paradigm whereby the two medical
systems of departure are harmonized on a higher level of explanation of
living
matter that is not simply attributable to one of the previous two
systems.”

“The first step should be the definitive scientific validation of CAM
by
rigorous experimental studies.” [followed by teaching in medical
schools and
other integration with the health care system]

“Ideally, deep integration would cause Western medicine and CAM to be
provided by the same physicians and institutions (e.g., hospitals),
creating a
unified model of medicine that might not result in additional economic
cost. The only certainty in this field is that CAM treatments—consider
acupuncture needles or ultra-diluted homeopathic remedies—are
substantially cheaper
than the treatments and drugs of Western medicine.”


Alas, we do not know all and everything about the world, about physics,
about biology, or medicine. But we try, we try hard, and we have
achieved a lot.

To request science to have the total wisdom is an insane idea. To force
the scientific community to accept fairy tales like homeopathy to be
part of medicine because our knowledge is incomplete is an insane idea.
Why on earth should we accept bullshit? Why on earth should we willfully
do harm to patients? The idea that we must know all is nothing else but
to be god. Are we god? No. We even can't be god because there are not
gods. The will to rule the world by magic is infantile. How degenerate
are the folks at the Second University of Naples in Italy?

----------------------------------------------------------
[*/quote*]
--
Homöopathie ist nichts als Hütchenspielerbetrug und organisierte Kriminalität
http://ariplex.com/folia/archives/565.htm http://ariplex.com/folia/archives/570.htm
http://ariplex.com/folia/archives/585.htm http://ariplex.com/folia/archives/643.htm
http://ariplex.com/folia/archives/647.htm
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