surviving / compounds / surprises / Prejocaj // rules for a scientific
discussion / inspiration / word branching / from Jacob to Aaron //
historical core of the Exodus / life symbol ankh / a word formula and
a double calendar
Among the parts of my work the reconstructions of pre-Greek mathematical
methods including a systematic calculation of the circle and numerous
interpretations might have the best chance of surviving. My contribution
to a fair history of civilization.
I wish to add the triangle of language whose corners are
--- life with needs and wishes
--- mathematics as as logic of building and maintaining,
based on the formula a = a
--- art as human measure in a technical world,
based on Goethe's formula All is equal, all unequal ...,
a formula known to artists of all times
(The principle of equal unequal can't be eliminated. Mathematical logic must
be ensured with illogical rules, for example the division by zero is forbidden
because it yields infinite which is equal unequal in itself. Astrophysics
engineered by the powerful instrument of mathematics carries us back in time
by some 13.72 billion years to a tiny fraction of the very first second of
our universe but then collapses and gives way to quantum fluctuations that
rule on the smallest scale of everything.)
Hunch from 1963: If I do a chore in a clever way I save energy, so maybe
intelligence and energy are somehow related?
Definition from 1974/75: Language is the means of getting help, support and
understanding from those we depend upon in one way or another --- and every
means of getting help, support and understanding may be called language,
on whatever level of life it occurs ...
Later addition: Language may be considered the intelligence of life -
coordinated by language in every form we achieve more with the same amount
of energy, or the same with less energy than if we worked all on our own.
Language in the most basic sense provides the 'negentropy' that makes life
I see my work as a quarry of ideas. Glad if some pieces of that 'marble'
can be used one day.
Daniel Everett needed three years until he recognized that the color words
of the Piraha (pee-da-HAN) on the Brazilian Amazon are sentences, for example
kopaiai 'black means: ko 'eye' opai 'unclear, opaque' ai 'to be' - as if seen
with opaque eyes. Also other words like sunrise, morning, noon, low water etc.
I find the same poetic spirit in the transition from Magdalenian to PIE and IE.
Greek pataer Latin pater English father goes back to PAD TYR, activity of feet
PAD to overcome in the double sense of rule and give TYR - he goes ahead and
rules and overcomes obstacles in the way, and, as a hunter, animals that serve
as food for his family and tribe.
An interesting case is Mycenaean atoroqo Greek antropos 'human being', from
AD TOR OC CO, toward AD bull in motion TOR (right) eye OC attentive mind CO -
toward the bull in motion with open eyes and focused mind, facing him, taking
him by the horns, coping with fate, AD TOR OC CO atoroqo anthropos. Now add
)OG or LOG for having the say and you obtain the origin of anthropology as
the science that cares about how people coped and cope with fate. A drawing
in the cave Le Gabillou shows a tiny Stone Age hunter before a giant bull.
The Minoan bull leaper was the emblem of astronomers calculating the cycles
of celestial bodies, a metaphorical bull-hunting, but also a way of coping
with fate for a seafaring nation.
TYRSANOS written on an Etruscan shard found in the agora of Athens makes
sense when parsed TYR SA NOS - he who overcomes in the double sense of rule
and give TYR from above (in downward direction) SA and has a mind NOS of his
own, better known in the form of SA TYR NOS Saturnus Saturn, founder of the
golden age in Latium. The Etruscan leader Tyrsanos would then have been
a worshipper of that god.
How long will scholars of Nostratic and PIE and IE need to consider that also
many of their 'roots' and words could go back to compounds and sentences or
even formula of an older language, as the above formula naming the human
Brian Greene on string theory: "The surprise would have been to find
no surprises." Later on: "Like ancient seafarers, we have a rough sense
of what's out there, but it will require extensive mathematical explorations
to map the lay of the land."
Looking at language in a different way - from a remote past forward in time -
can't but reveal surprises. Also in this field we need extensive explorations,
beginning with lists of derivatives of the most important Magdalenian words,
as explained in the case of DhAG meaning able, good in the sense of able.
If one believes (explicitely or silently) that language was ever the same,
and that animals got no language, then one must conclude that there was a day
in the past when there was no language, and on the next day there was language,
fully developed, indiscernable from a recent language.
I prefer surprises to such an anti-evolutionary stump. As explained in
a previous message, language in the most basic sense is a primary feature
of life, the intelligence of life, providing the negentropy that makes life
There are plenty forms of language. Recently discovered: trees use a chemical
language, all over the world a total of some three-thousand chemical words in
communicating with each other, warning neighbors of a bug, etcetera.
And human word language is still embedded in body language, accompanied by
gestures, among Norwegians no less than Italians, a study form a couple of
years ago revealed.
The Albanian surname Preljocaj inspired
PIR LIC OC CO PRe LI OC O Preljocaj
fire PIR light luck LIC (right) eye OC attentive mind CO - possible title
of an ancient keeper of a lighthouse, maintaining the fire PIR that provides
a guiding light LIC for the open eyes OC and focused mind CO of a lookout on
a ship, not really necessary when the sky is clear and the sea calm, but most
important in a gale, and then seeing the fire of a lighthouse meant luck,
light and luck being the double meaning of Magdalenian LIC.
The above compound would first have named a nautical profession, then become
a metaphor for, say, a moral authority, a shining guide of people, and finally
a mere name.
Greek pharos 'lighthouse', Albanian far, Italian faro, French phare, Spanish
PIR OC CO Phar Ops pharos
OC CO has a close derivative in Czech oko 'eye' and would have been replaced
by Greek ops 'eye', parallel to Mycenaean ator-oqo that became anthr-opos,
whereupon ops would have been reduced to the male ending -os. Light for the
eyes of a lookout on a ship.
PIR OC CO Pha Ops phaos
Greek phaos 'light, daylight, sunlight, eyelight; torch, lantern, fire; life,
luck, salvation, hope'. Imagine a group of Stone Age people returning by
night, feeling lost, and finally getting a glimpse of a fire by their tribe
in an abri ... Or the joy when dawn and sunrise ended a long, cold, moonless
PIR OC CO PIR aiO Peiraieus / Piraeus ?
The main harbor of Athens might have been named for a pair of lighthouses
from the 5th century BC, or even earlier fires guiding ships home. OC CO
became Czech oko German Auge English eye, so why not also Greek aio (omega)
'I perceive, notice; hear, see, feel' ? a sailor perceiving the lighthouses
and already feeling safe at home.
PIR OC CO would also have accounted for English bright, considering *bherhg-
(simplified notation) 'shine, gleam', and PIR LIC for brilliant and French
briller 'shine'. Among the many derivatives of LIC alone are English look
German blicken, German leuchten 'shine', Greek leukos 'white'.
rules for a scientific discussion / inspiration / word branching /
from Jacob to Aaron
Rules for a scientific discussion I proposed in sci.archaeology twenty years
ago: If you are considered a kook, formulate one single claim that holds,
and if you consider someone a kook, focus on one single blunder - 1, one,
one single claim or blunder.
If I had to propose one single claim, I would mention that so-called roots
are not always semantic 'primes' but can sometimes be compounds or even
phrases of an older language. As long as there is no evidence to the contrary
I go on with my work.
Sir Karl Popper asked not only for testable hypotheses and theories but also
for daring ones, the more audacious the better. I offer testcases, from bear
as the furry one vs bear as the brown one to the triple test case regarding
the name of Zeus, the Indo-European homeland, and words for the horse
(involving compounds that became words). Provide arguments for the classical
opinions, then I will provide mine, and we shall see which ones are better,
simpler and with more explaining power (a principle known as Bacon's razor).
As for audacious, my alternative approach to early language (permutation
groups based on four laws) is far from trivial.
The scientific ethos obliges me to go on exploring its possibilities.
If I succeed, fine, and if I fail others may learn. Mistakes are instructive.
3,000 people who fail make someone succeed. But what is most important
is my pleasure and joy in doing my work, getting a glimpse of the language
of the Lascaux people.
Do you think that the greatest painters of their time were all born in
the region of Montignac? No, they came from far, symbolized by the five
swimming stags crossing a river, from all over the Guyenne, a proto-society
held together by wandering arch-shamans and arch-shamanesses, represented
by megaceroi, giant stags and hinds. Cave art allows not only conclusions on
language but also on the social organization.
Wondering about a Magdalenian etymology of 'inspiration' I found *peis
'to whistle' Old Church Slavonic piscati, Sanskrit piccora 'flute', Latin
s p i r o 'blow', Tocharian A pis 'blow an instrument'.
Magdalenian PIS means water in motion, and fish that swim in water,
Latin piscis pisces.
Can it be that PIS meant also air in motion? French bise names both the
medieval water channels in the Swiss Valais (upper Rhone, hewn out of rock
or made from wood, often at dizzying heights, in all 20,000 kilometers long,
half around the world) and a cold wind from the North or Northeast. Parallel
derivatives of PIS in the double sense are German fliessen blasen English
flow blow (liquid infix), Latin pisces 'fish' in water and Magdalenian PIC
for birds in the air, the latter preserved in Sanskrit piccora 'flute' (consider
a song bird, it's melodic sound called Flöten in German), in pick peck beak,
and in peak that compares the lofty top of a mountain to a bird's beak.
Water was a symbol of life, and air, inhaled, a symbol of inspiration,
revived in the language of symbols by Marcel Duchamp, warmth a symbol
of liveliness ...
Michel Lorblanchet convincingly demonstrated how cave paintings were produced:
colored earths or cole were mixed with fat, chewed, and then spit on the cave
wall. Spittle must have had a high value by then. Being antisepctic it was
used by healers who may have chewed herbs with fat in making ointments.
Warm spittle mixed with fat and colors made animals come alive on cave walls.
Actors wishing each other good luck on the stage imitate the sound of spitting,
toi toi toi. In like manner a Stone Age painter spitting red ocher on a wall
- producing a hand negative that claimed a second life in the beyond for a
worthy soul - could have provided onomatopoeic SAI for life, existence,
comparative form of DAI for a protected area, in cave art given as tectiform
signs. Hand negatives are known from Indonesia, 60,000 years old. A red ocher
dot, also claiming a next life in a heavenly beyond, was dated in the Altamira
cave: some 43,000 years old. Also, licking the lips had been a way of declaring
love, which I conclude from the name of the Divine Hind who called life into
existence, her main sanctuary Altamira.
Magdalenian has a most effective mechanism of word branching via compounds.
400 words allow in principle 160,000 compounds of two words like AS PAC
aspa asva and AC PAS hippos equus Epona hevonen, 64,000,000 compounds of
three words like AAR RAA NOS Ouranos Varuna Hérens and NOS AAR RAA Noah,
and 25,600,000,000 compounds of four words like AD TOR OC CO atoroqo
anthropos, formula of the conditio humana.
Compounds are the power and magic of Magdalenian.
Another mechanism of word branching can be observed in the six homonyms *bher-
which derive from BIR meaning fur, Greek byrsa 'hide, fur, leather'
*bher- 1 'boil' - a cooking pit was laid out with a hide, water was filled in,
meat and vegetabilia were added, hot stones from the nearby fireplace were
rolled in and made the water boil
*bher- 2 'brown' - most fur is brown and made the bear as the furry one
a brown one
*bher- 3 'carry' - to carry something in a fur bag, then also used for a woman
bearing a child, giving birth, whereupon the newborn was placed on a bear fur,
a custom known from Hellenistic Greece, survived in parts of the Slavic world
until the twentieth century, was replaced by the bearing cloth in which
a bairn was carried to the church for being baptized in medieval England,
consider also the Divine Bear Mother and Bear Nurse of the Vinca (Vincha)
culture, emblem of motherly love and care and protection
*bher- 4 'cure' - to make ointments by chewing medical herbs and fat and smearing
the paste on the inside of a warming fur, then wrapping it around the patient;
the inverse have been hallucinogenic herbs mixed with fat, smeared on the
inside of the fur coat of a berserk, absorbed by his skin, making him wild
before a batttle (note ber- in berserk)
*bher- 5 'strike' - a hunter striking a furry animal
*bher- 6 'weave' - a Magdalenian site on the Seine before Paris proves that
men worked on stone tools and women on fur, BIR has derivatives in Latin pella,
in English pelt and German Fell and Pelz, then also in English wool and German
Wolle that accompanied the invention of weaving and turned a BIR MAN, fur
handler, MAN meaning hand, into something like weave-man then woman.
BIR was the origin of the six homonyms that can't have sounded exactly the
same, whereas the pronounciation of BIR poses no problem.
PIE offers *worsmno- as origin of Greek ouranos 'heaven' personified by the
sky god Ouranos. An explanation of this name is provided by the big limestone
ring on the Goebekli Tepe that shows a male head ex negativo, composed of
air AAR and light RAA and imagined to have a mind NOS of his own
While *worsmno- remains opaque, AAR RAA NOS opens an archaeological
window. The sky god of the Goebekli Tepe region was implored for rain
with prayers and the rising smoke of sacrifical fires, symbolized by snakes
heading upward; falling rain by snakes heading downward; and rivers by
snakes undulating horizontally. Snakes are by far the most frequent symbol
in the Goebekli Tepe iconography. AAR RAA NOS became the Greek sky god
Ouranos and the old sky god Varuna of the Indus Valley, initial Var- meaning
NOS AAR RAA named Noah who followed the mind NOS of the one of air AAR
and light RAA. This name inspires a story. A long drought was followed by
a heavy rain that fell for forty days and forty nights. Noah and his tribe
left the region of the Goebekli Tepe. There were two Noahs. One Noah
wandered along the Euphrates downward and founded Uruk of the cattle
enclosure in southern Meopotamia, in the Bible Erech and the ark, Uruk
from AAR RAA CA, protected from above by the one of air AAR and light
RAA in the sky CA. The other Noah wandered along the Euphrates upward
and settled in the plain north of Mount Ararat, from AAR RAA RYT, abode
of the sky god, he of air AAR and light RAA as sun archer RYT, anticipating
the sun archer TIR of the Armenian Bronze Age, from TYR meaning to
overcome in the double sense of rule and give.
Magdalenian helps find historical reality in the Bible.
From Jacob to Aaron / historical core of the Exodus / life symbol ankh /
a word formula and calendar
Harran or Haran, forty kilometers south of the Goebekli Tepe, was named for
the ancient sky god AAR RAA NOS.
Jacob on his way from Beersheba to Haran slept in the wilderness of Juda.
In a vision he saw the Lord on top of a heavenly ladder, and the Lord
appointed him governor of this very region. Later on he was given the name
AS AAR RAA ) or AS AAR RAA L Israel
for he saw the Lord up above AS in an aureole of air AAR and light RAA,
and the Lord spoke ) or L to Jacob ...
His descendants became the Israelites, with a center in BIR SAP Beersheba
'Seven Wells'. They were SAP BIR apiru Hebrews, wandering water workers
also in the service of Egyptian kings.
PAS means everywhere (in a plain), here, south and north of me, east and
west of me, in all five places, Greek pas pan 'all, every' pente penta-
'five'. Inverse SAP means everywhere (in space), here, south and north of me,
east and west of me, under and above me, in all seven places, wherefrom words
for seven in many languages. BIR meaning fur named wells as places where fur
bags were filled with water. The SAP BIR apiru Hebrews found water everywhere,
in the five places of a plain, in the valley below, on the hills above.
Their leader was Aaron, in the tradition of those imploring rain from the
ancient sky god AAR RAA NOS. His rod turned into a snake that swallowed the
snakes of the Egyptian magi, meaning he surpassed even the water enigneers
of mighty Egypt.
Several Moses figures and Aaron figures led several groups of Israelites
and/or apiru Hebrews out of Lower Egypt into the Sinai and the region of
the Har Karkom, identified as Mount Sinai by Emmanueal Anati. The high
number of people who left Egypt at once according to the Blble were
several groups of people who left in the course of millennia and had
the potential of becoming a people, while the parting of the Red Sea
means the water workers knew where to traverse the swamps at the former
northern end of the Red Sea (now Suez Canal) without being followed by
Egyptian soldiers on carts pulled by horses that would have been swallowed
by the mud.
In the Negev they found wells, contracted to the miracle of the well in
the desert of Zin. They settled in a place they called Kadesh Barnea and
erected a tent for ShA.CA DhAG.CA, ruler ShA in the sky CA, able one DhAG
in the sky CA.
The numbers 10 5 6 5 of JHWH were encoded in the mercy seat placed on the
ark of the covenant, also this one of interesting numbers, while the sum 26
of the JHWH numbersallowed a fine calendar with a lunar aspect and a solar
aspect. Later on Solomon developed an ingenious geometric system based on
a pair of complementary cubits of nearly the same lengths which provided
simple formulae that solved an array of demanding problems, and the Hazor
bowl from around 840 BC offers a triangular algorithm that can be trans-
lated into words as follows (analogous to the way Joseph managed the Egyptian
famine) - There will be plenty water, then little water, so let us plan ahead
for the time of need, and trust in God, there will be water again ... The
equilateral q-d-sh triangle on the rim of the Hazor bowl fits into the Solomonic
system, and both the 'molten sea' on the Temple Mount of Jerusalem and the
qodesh bowl from Hazor commemorated the miracle of the well in the Negev.
Here I can repeat all the numbers (mercy seat, JHWH calendar, ark of covenant,
Solomonic system, qodesh algorithm) but I can give a summary: Magdalenian
combined with experimental reconstructions of early mathematics reveal
a historical core in the Exodus, related by the Bible in a verbal CinemaScope
that renders history from a psychological perspective.
AAR RAA NOS had been the supreme god of the Goebekli Tepe, the sky god of
air AAR and light RAA with a mind NOS of his own. A short version of his name
accounted for the supreme god of Sumer, the sky god Anu
AAR RAA NOS A(AR RAA) Nu Anu
In the form of AAR RAA CA he named and protected Uruk of the cattle enclosure,
Erech and the ark in the Bible, he of air AAR and light RAA in the sky CA,
while the original name accounted for Akkadian Harranu, oldest known version
AAR RAA NOS h AAR RAA Nu Harranu Harran Haran
Klaus Schmidt identified the sacred Du-ku mountain of Sumerian mythology
- where the first gods and goddesses came from - as the large hill of the
Goebekli Tepe. Du-ku from DhAG meaning able named the large hill as
'mountain' of the able ones.
Its ancient name had been AC CA, where the earth AC and sky CA are meeting,
personified in the Indo-European earth goddess akka mentioned by Pokorny,
and Hebrew Hawwa 'mother of all life' English Eve.
AC CA DhAG may have named Agade Akkad meaning 'the mother of life is able'.
The most famous ziqqurat is the one of Babylon called Etemenanki 'house
of the foundation of heaven and earth'. Herodot reported a ceremonial marriage
on this artificial hill, securing the wealth of Babylon. It would have been
a symbolic union of a priestess representing earth and a priest (or the king)
Marduk was the creator of the cosmos, main god and protector of Babylon,
and Lord of the Etemenanki ziqqurat
AAR RAA NOS DhAG mAR (RAA NOS) DhAG Marduk ?
He was the son of the wise creator-god Enki of Sumer who made the big
rivers Euphrates and Tigris spring from his shoulders, the water god Enki/Ea,
perhaps from AC CA like Latin aqua 'water' obtained as exchange between
earth AC and sky CA (rain implored with prayers and the smoke of sacrificial
fires, rewarding rain sent from above).
Is AC CA also present in Egyptian ankh 'life' ? An Egyptian papyrus mentions
a Syrian province by the name of aqa - maybe the region of the Goebekli Tepe
in southeastern Anatolia and northwestern Syria?
The life symbol ankh is composed of a loop for the sky, a horizontal bar
for the surface of the earth, and a vertical bar for the depth of the earth
- evoking a goddess born from the union of heaven and earth, incorporating
this life spending union herself.
An elegant 'violin idol' from the Cyclades on display at an art and antiquity
fair showed the same idea. A disc (diamater maybe four centimeters)
represented her body and the earth, two lateral protrudings both her arms
and breasts, indicating the surface of the earth where we are active (arms)
and find our nourishment (her nourishing breasts), while a smaller disc
(diam. perhaps three cm) represented her head and the sky, of translucent
alabaster (or marble?), the smaller disc of the head shining like a full moon
when held against light.
Complementary interpretations of the ankh sign are a vessel with a rim,
turned upside down, water flowing out, and a sacral kot.
AAR RAA NOS granted rain - a sequence of ankh symbols represents a jet of
water. AAR means air - the sky goddess Nut holding the ankh before the nose
of a king supplies him with fresh air. A polished form of his name appears
in Horus, the divine falcon whose eyes were moon and sun, the solar disc
also an emanation of the supreme god Ra, short form of RAA for light.
AAR RAA is present in aura and aureole, Greek hora (with omega) 'period of
time; season; spring; harvest; climate; year; daytime, day; hour; moment;
age, phase; youth', Latin hora English hour, Rumantg aura 'weather', Finnish
aurinko 'sun' and Hungarian arany 'gold'.
Marduk was the creator of the cosmos, main god and patron of Babylon.
The sleeves of his shirt had been adorned with circles and inscribed stars
of eight points: emblem of the sun god of Sumer, a world formula, a calendar
of one year (sun and moon), and a calendar of eight years (sun, moon, Venus).
PAS means everywhere (in a plain), here, south and north of me, east and west
of me. Inverse SAP means everywhere (in space), here, south and north of me,
east and west of me, under and above me.
Analogously, the star of eight points of Sumer and Akkad (and on beautiful
Kamares ware from Minoan Crete and in the center of the Tiryns disc of the
Phaistos Disc) are a world formula, seen from our perspective: here and now
(center of the star), south and north of me (two points), east and west of me
(two more points), under and above me (two more points), in the past and in
the future (final points). And seen from the creator god: he was everywhere.
Now the same star can be read as a lunisolar calendar of one year: each point
a period of 45 days, in all 360 days, add 5 and occasionally 6 days for the
center of the star and you obtain 365 days of a regular year and 366 days for
an occasional leap year, while 21 continuous periods of 45 days are 945 days
and correspond to 32 lunations or synodic month (equivalent of the Goebekli
Again the same star can be read as a calendar of 8 years or 99 lunations
or 5 Venus years, rounded average 2,922 days, eight regular years of 365 days
plus 2 leap days. From here you can get a rule: four regular years require
one leap day.
A modern calculation yields a phantastic result. Let one point be 16 years,
and the whole star 128 years. Represent them by 32 groups of four regular
years (r) and in between them 31 leap days (l)
r r r r l r r r r l r r r r l r r ... r r l r r r r l r r r r l r r r r
The mistake is two minutes in 128 years, one second per year!
Ezekiel, exiled in Babylon, Tell Abib on the Chaber, composed a heavenly
Jerusalem from the cycles of sun and moon and Venus rendered as wheels turning
within wheels (far out but numerically solid, as explained in 2017), a vision
culminating in the mighty river of life that comes from a heavenly Gihon Spring.
(scroll down to the end)