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Chris Landsea

Jul 18, 1997, 3:00:00 AM7/18/97

Archive-name: meteorology/storms-faq/part2
Posting-Frequency: monthly


Part II:
I: Real-Time Information
J: Historical Information

By Christopher W. Landsea
NOAA AOML/Hurricane Research Division
4301 Rickenbacker Causeway
Miami, Florida 33149

18 July, 1997

This is currently a two-part FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions report) that
is in its second full incarnation (version 2.4). However, there may be some
errors or discrepancies that have not yet been found. If you do see an item
that needs correction, please contact me directly. Part I contains various
definitions, answers for questions about names, myths, winds, records,
forecasting, climatology and observation of tropical cyclones. This section
(Part II) provides sites that you can access both real-time information about
tropical cyclones, what is available on-line for historical storms, as well
as good books to read and various references for tropical cyclones. Keep in
mind that this FAQ is not considered a reviewed paper to reference. Its main
purpose is to provide quick answers for (naturally) frequently asked
questions as well as to be a pointer to various sources of information.

Much of the on-line information is pulled from Ilana Stern's wonderful
"Sources of Meteorological Data FAQ" and I acknowledge the time and effort
she has put in in originally compiling this information. Also Gary Gray
has put together a very comprehensive listing of tropical cyclone Web
sites that I've included here with his permission.


I1) Where can I get real-time advisories for tropical cyclones?
I2) Where can I get real-time tropical weather analyses and forecast fields?
I3) Where can I get real-time ship and buoy data?
I4) Where can I get real-time sea surface temperature data?
I5) Where can I get real-time satellite pictures?
I6) Where can I get real-time radar data?
I7) Where can I get real-time hurricane aircraft reconnaissance data?
I8) Where can I get real-time tropical cyclone motion and intensity model
I9) Where can I get tropical cyclone preparedness information?
I10) What computer software is available for tracking tropical cyclones?

J1) Where can I get historical data on tropical cyclones ?
J2) What journals have regular articles on tropical cyclones ?
J3) What books have been written about tropical cyclones ?
J4) What refereed articles were written in recent years about tropical
cyclones ?


Subject: I1) Where can I get real-time advisories for tropical cyclones?

There are three good ways to get these. Either telnet to a site and
peruse the advisories you would like to see via a menu, have the advisories
sent directly to you via email, or visit sites via the World Wide Web.

Option 1: Telnet to a site
The site that has a very comprehensive listing is the Weather
Underground at University of Michigan. Simply telnet to:
downwind.sprl.umich.edu 3000

Make sure to include the '3000' at the end of the command. From
there you have a simple menu driven system to get to the USA National
Hurricane Center, the USA Central Pacific Hurricane Center, and the
USA Joint Typhoon Warning Center products.

Option 2: Advisories automatically sent to you
WX-TROPL was created for people who want receive, as an email,
tropical bulletins originating from the US National Hurricane Center, the
Central Pacific Hurricane Center, and the Joint Typhoon Warning Center. To
get information as to how to sign up onto WX-TROPL, ftp to po.uiuc.edu and
use anonymous FTP to retrieve the file WX-TALK.DOC from the directory
"wx-talk". If you don't have ftp access, contact either Chris Novy
<ch...@siu.edu> or Charley Kline <c...@uiuc.edu>.

Option 3: Get the advisories via surfing the Web
The World Wide Web is a great source for real-time tropical cyclone
advisories. For brevity here are some reliable http sites (provided by
Gary Gray):

gopher://geograf1.sbs.ohio-state.edu:70/1/Tropical (good source)
http://banzai.neosoft.com/citylink/blake/tropical.html (everything)
http://cirrus.sprl.umich.edu/wxnet/tropical.html (most info available)
http://iwin.nws.noaa.gov/iwin/us/hurricane.html (full advisory list)
http://lumahai.soest.hawaii.edu/Tropical_Weather/tropical.shtml (map)
http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/graphics.html (new stuff... looks great)
http://www.atms.unca.edu/%7Efarr/hurricane96.html (simple & excellent)
http://www.ih2000.net/ira/bmt-wth.htm (strike probs & track maps)
http://www.weather.brockport.edu/cgi-bin/hurricane (simple search)
http://www.npmocw.navy.mil/npmocw/prods/jtwc.html (JTWC forecasts)
http://www.gobeach.com/hurr.htm (forecasts & conditions of Caribbean)


Subject: I2) Where can I get real-time tropical weather analyses and
forecast fields?

(Provided by Gary Gray.)

gopher://geograf1.sbs.ohio-state.edu:70/1/Tropical (lots of info)
http://www-pcmdi.llnl.gov/fiorino/wxmap/wx.htm (Mike Fiorino's site)
http://banzai.neosoft.com/citylink/blake/tropical.html (most products)
http://cirrus.sprl.umich.edu/wxnet/tropical.html (most info available)
http://grads.iges.org/pix/trop.00hr.html (nice tropical graphics)
http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/ (most products)
http://www.atms.unca.edu/%7Efarr/hurricane96.html (many products)
http://www.flinet.com/%7reiter/ (links to tropical weather summary)
http://www.met.fsu.edu/explores/tropical.html (several products)
http://www.nws.noaa.gov/Marine.htm (some unique maps)
http://www.sims.net/links/hurricane.html (good set of info)
http://www.utmb.edu/hurricane.html (basic info)
http://ws321.uncc.edu/data/wxp/aviation/trop (excellent!)


Subject: I3) Where can I get real-time ship and buoy data?

(Provided by Gary Gray.)

http://banzai.neosoft.com/citylink/blake/tropical.html (great source)
http://cirrus.sprl.umich.edu/wxnet/tropical.html (good set of data)
http://www.nws.fsu.edu/buoy (great graphic buoy/cman source)
http://www.bbsr.edu/weather (nice ship, bouy, and wave data)
http://www.met.fsu.edu/explores/tropical.html (Gulf & W Atlantic)


Subject: I4) Where can I get real-time sea surface temperature data?

(Provided by Gary Gray.)

http://cirrus.sprl.umich.edu/wxnet/tropical.html (several products)
http://ssec.ssec.wisc.edu/data/sst/latest_sst.gif (global SST image)
http://www.bbsr.edu/weather (decent AVHRR SST maps)
http://www.met.fsu.edu/explores/tropical.html (analysis & anomaly)
http://www.nws.noaa.gov/Marine.htm (a few different "styles")
http://www.rsmas.miami.edu/images.html (several good SST maps)
http://www.seaspace.com/images/goes8.gif (global SST image)
http://www.sims.net/links/hurricane.html (global SST image)


Subject: I5) Where can I get real-time satellite pictures?

(Provided by Gary Gray.)

http://oldthunder.ssec.wisc.edu/ (Chris Velden's site)
http://www.nrlmry.navy.mil/sat_products.html (Jeff Hawkins' site)
http://banzai.neosoft.com/citylink/blake/tropical.html (many good pix)
http://www.nrlmry.navy.mil/sat_products.shtml (GOES 8 & 9, specials)
http://cirrus.sprl.umich.edu/wxnet/tropical.html (a few good pix)
http://clunix.cl.msu.edu:80/weather/ (lots of sat pix)
http://grads.iges.org/listing/wx.html (nice GOES-8/9 full disk images)
http://tu...@www.alw.nih.gov/weather.html (many pix have bad links)
http://www.atms.unca.edu/%7Efarr/hurricane96.html (the basics)
http://www.bbsr.edu/weather (Bermudocentric & other sat pix)
http://www.dibbs.net/%7Ejadkins/storm.html (Atlantic)
http://www.flinet.com/%7reiter (GOES-8 US & Atlantic & FL)
http://www.met.fsu.edu/explores/tropical.html (tropics)
http://www.sims.net/links/hurricane.html (several decent sat pix)
http://www.t-e.k12.pa.us/~dbaron/satellite/ (tons of sat pix)
http://www.cira.colostate.edu (GOES-8 & 9, and historical)


Subject: I6) Where can I get real-time radar data?

(Provided by Gary Gray.)

http://banzai.neosoft.com/citylink/blake/tropical.html (nice source)
http://cirrus.sprl.umich.edu/wxnet/tropical.html (full set of rad pix)
http://tu...@www.alw.nih.gov/weather.html (Mid-Atlantic sites)
http://www.atms.unca.edu/%7Efarr/hurricane96.html (decent selection)
http://www.flinet.com/%7reiter (Miami radar)
http://www.gulf.net/%7Egbamonte/min_wet.htm (Mobile, AL radar)
http://www.ih2000.net/ira/bmt-wth.htm (coastal TX radar only)
http://www.satchmo.com/nolavl/storm.html (New Orleans radar)


Subject: I7) Where can I get real-time hurricane aircraft reconnaissance

(Provided by Gary Gray.)

http://www.hurricanehunters.com (info from the source)
gopher://geograf1.sbs.ohio-state.edu:70/1/Tropical (good recon lists)
http://banzai.neosoft.com/citylink/blake/tropical.html (decent source)
http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/ (excellent site)
http://ws321.uncc.edu/data/tropical (simple recon report grabber)
http://www.funet.fi/pub/dx/text/utility/Hurricane (decoding info)
http://www.met.fsu.edu/explores/tropical.html (TCPOD & recon reports)


Subject: I8) Where can I get real-time tropical cyclone motion and
intensity model forecasts?

(Provided by Gary Gray.)

http://www.fnoc.navy.mil/noraps.html ("normal" model, but good for TS)
http://www.nws.noaa.gov/Marine.htm (not models, but some forecasts)
http://www.meto.govt.uk/sec2/sec2cyclone/sec2cyclone.html(old storms)
http://www.ugems.psu.edu/~owens/trantech/ (Gary. Gray's model)


Subject: I9) Where can I get tropical cyclone preparedness information?

(Provided by Gary Gray.)

http://www.casualty.com/hcane.html (all the basic preparedness info)
http://www.co.alachua.fl.us/%7Eacem/oemtest.html (Alachua Co., FL)
http://www.fema.gov/fema/trop.html (FEMA)
http://www.flinet.com/%7reiter (several links)
http://www.gulf.net/%7Egbamonte/min_wet.htm (general preparedness)
http://www.insiders.com/boca/flweathe.htm (basic preparedness info)
http://www.oo.com/%7Efrank/disaster.html (disaster preparedness)
http://www.storm97.com (lots of preparedness info)
http://www.sims.net/links/hurricane.html (great preparedness info)


Subject: I10) What computer software is available for tracking tropical

(Descriptions kindly provided by Tom Berg and via the authors. Note that
this does not constitute an endorsement of any product. "Low $"
indicates less than $50, "Medium $" indicates between $50-$100,
and "High $" indicates more than $100.)

1. HURRTRAK (Windows-based) --- shareware, semi-functional available on
Compuserve in Aviation and Weather Channel forums. Also on AOL. It is
also available through the WeatherNet:
The company is PC Weather Products
P.O. Box 72723
Marietta, GA 30007-2723
Email: wxpe...@pcwp.com
Web: http://www.pcwp.com
They primarily market their professional versions (high $), but still
provide a hobbyist edition (medium $). The professional software allows
for many additional capabilities such as plotting county lines & roadways,
more detailed charts, detailed impact reports as well as animation and
strike probabilities. See their WEB site at http://www.pcwp.com for more

2. STORM (DOS-based) ------ shareware, semi-functional available on AOL.
The company is Utopia Software
P.O. Box 420324
Houston, TX 77242
They offer a regular (low $) and enhanced version (medium $). What the
enhanced offers special is the ability to enter and plot the forecasted
positions from the NHC and to include offshore platforms or ships
positions on the charts.

3. FORCE12 (Windows) ---- shareware, semi-functional available on Compuserve
in Aviation and Weather Channel forums and AOL.
The company is Epperson Computing
P.O. Box 1094
Baytown, TX 77522-1094
There is only one version (low $).

4. MERLIN (DOS) ----- shareware, semi-functional available on Compuserve in
Aviation and Weather Channel forums. The company is T.M. Parker
P.O. Box 1431
La Porte, TX 77572
There is only one version (low $).

5. GCANES (DOS) ----- shareware, semi-functional available on Compuserve in
Aviation forum. The company is Robert Terwilliger
2398 SW 22nd Ave.
Miami, FL 33145
There is only one version (low $).

6. HURRICANE FORECASTER (DOS) - shareware, semi-functional available on AOL.
The company is Craig Rorrer
3809 Iola Ct.
Virginia Beach, VA 23456
There is only one version (low $).

7. HURRICANE TRACKER (Windows) -- shareware, semi-functional available on
Compuserve forum Aviation. The company is Nicheware
P.O. Box 1312
Summerville,SC 29484-1312
There is only one version (low $).

8. HURRICANE WATCH! (Windows) --- shareware, semi-functional available on
Compuserve forum Aviation and AOL. The company is SeaBorne Systems
414 Long Leaf Acres Dr.
Wilmington, NC 28405
There is only one version (low $).

9. TRACKEYE (Windows) ----- shareware, semi-functional available on
Compuserve forums Aviation and Weather Channel.
The company is GenCode Technologies
7907 N. Rome Ave.
Tampa, FL 33604
There is only one version (low $).

10. TRAKHUR (DOS) --- I only found it advertised in Weatherwise magazine.
The company is Bryan Lambeth, PE
Hurricane Research Srvc
P.O. Box 181032
Austin, TX 78718
There is a regular version (low $) and the TRAKHUR PRO version (medium $).

11. TRACKER (DOS) -- again, I found it through Weatherwise.
The company is OceanSoft Inc.
P.O. Box 1224
Largo, FL 34649
TRACKER (medium $) also includes something unique called Mapper, this
allows you to build your own maps of any ocean and will show the map in
Mercator, Azimuthal, and spread types.

12. WINSTORM --- shareware (no cost), semi-functional available on
Compuserve forum Aviation and AOL. The company is Ingramation
2437 Bay Area Blvd.
Suite 349
Houston, TX 77058

13. MCHURRICANE -- a hurricane tracking program for the Macintosh,
posted on AOL, along with several shareware (low $) CDs.
The company is William I. Chenault
149 Country Club Rd
Shalimar, FL 32579


Subject: J1) Where can I get historical data of tropical cyclones?



For unofficial near-real time summaries of global tropical cyclone
activity, Jack Beven of the USA National Hurricane Center/Tropical
Prediction Center produces these on a weekly basis and has done so for
over three years. Text copies of past weekly summaries can be retrieved
via the Web at: <http://groundhog.sprl.umich.edu/iww/tropics>. If you'd
like to obtain these near-real time summaries directly, simply email
Jack at: be...@nhc.noaa.gov and ask him to start sending you the
summaries. Note however that these are already posted on
sci.geo.meteorology and WX-TALK.



ftp hrd-type42.nhc.noaa.gov []
Atlantic basin tropical storm and hurricane best track data, 1886-1996.
Every 6 hour intensity and position information in an ASCII file
including a README documentation file (tra86to96.atl and README.atl).
Also, Northeast/North-central Pacific tropical storm and hurricane data
(1949-1996) are also provided (tra49to96.epc and README.epc).

Provided by lan...@aoml.noaa.gov (Chris Landsea).


This best track information for the Atlantic has provided in seperate
images for each years by some people at Purdue University. The tracks for
the individual years have been provided in a color coded (for intensity)



World Weather Disc ($295):
Monthly temp, precip, pressure, sunshine data for about 2000 world
stations for period of record. Daily weather data at hundreds of US
stations. Data for some stations on temp, precip, freeze, drought, soil
moisture, wind, storms. Frequency and movement of tropical cyclones.

Contact: Cliff Mass, Dept. of Atmos. Sci. (AK40), University of
Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. 206/685-0910.


Global Tropical and Extratropical Cyclone Climatic Atlas (GTECCA) ($100):
This CD-ROM contains all global historic tropical storm track data
available for five tropical storm basins. Periods of record varies for
each basin, with the beginning as early as the 1870s and with 1992 at the
latest year. Northern hemispheric extratropical storm track data will be
included from 1965 to 1992. Tropical track data includes time, position,
storm stage (maximum wind, central pressure when available). The user can
display tracks, track data for any basin or user-selected geographic area,
or tracks passing within a user-defined radius of any point. Narratives
for all tropical storms for the 1980-1992 period will be included as well
as basin-wide tropical storm climatological statistics.

Contact: National Climatic Data Center, Federal Building, Asheville,
NC 28801, USA. 704/271-4800, email ord...@ncdc.noaa.gov.


Web Site Historical Data:

(Provided by Gary Gray.)

http://cirrus.sprl.umich.edu/wxnet/tropical.html (1995 storm map)
http://grads.iges.org/pix/allhurr.html (1995 track info)
http://meridian.ngdc.noaa.gov/dmsp/dmsp.html (Allison & Erin sat pix)
http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/ (archive data)
http://wxp.atms.purdue.edu/hur_atlantic/ (past tracks)
http://vortex.plymouth.edu/home.html (some nice past sat pix/loops)
http://www.aer.com/hurricane/hurricanes_95.html (great 1995 sat pix)
http://www.bbsr.edu/weather (nice 1995 sat pix)
http://www.fema.gov/fema/trop.html (some 1995 storm archives)
http://www.flinet.com/%7reiter (links to much past data)
http://www.gulf.net/%7Egbamonte/min_wet.htm (Erin & Opal stories)
http://www.insiders.com/boca/flweathe.htm (brief Andrew/Gordon info)
http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/dmsp/ols-app-hurr.html (a few old sat pix)
http://www.storm97.com (1995 and 1996 archives)
http://www.satchmo.com/nolavl/storm.html (LA storm archives)
http://www.sims.net/links/hurricane.html (1995 storm archive)
http://www.terrapin.com/hurricane/Plotter (1995 plots... needs Java)
http://www.vas-das.com/ (TONS of GOES-8 images... not just tropical)


Subject: J2) What journals have regular articles on tropical cyclones?

The American Meteorological Society publishes the _Monthly Weather
Review_ which has annual summaries of Atlantic basin tropical cyclones,
Atlantic basin tropical disturbances, and Northeast Pacific (east of 140W)
basin tropical cyclones. These summaries have a substantial amount of
data and analysis of the storms.

_Weatherwise_ prints annual summaries of both the Atlantic and
Northeast Pacific basins which are less technical that the _Monthly
Weather Review_ articles, but come out months earlier.

For just the tropical cyclones of the Southeast Indian/Australia and
the Australia/Southwest Pacific basins, the _Australia Meteorological
Magazine_ has a very thorough annual summary.

The Indian journal _Mausam_ carries an annual summary of tropical
cyclone activity over the North Indian Ocean.

_Mariner's Weather Log_ has articles from all of the global basins
in annual summaries. These are descriptive and non-technical.


Subject: J3) What books have been written about tropical cyclones?

************************* _Meteorology Today for Scientists and Engineers_

_The Hurricane_
For a excellent introductory text into hurricanes (and tropical
cyclones in general), this book by R.A. Pielke provides the basics on
the physical mechanisms of hurricanes without getting into any
mathematical rigor. This first version is just 100 pages of text with
another 120 pages devoted toward all of the tracks of Atlantic hurricanes
from 1871-1989. Roger A. Pielke is a professor of Atmospheric Science
at Colorado State University (USA). The book's 1990 edition is available
through Routledge Publishing, New York. (An updated version of this
book should be forthcoming in 1997.)

_Meteorology Today for Scientists and Engineers_
For a concise mathematical description of hurricanes that has NO
calculus and NO differential equations, then I would suggest obtaining
a copy of this book by Rolland B. Stull (West Publ. Co., Minneapolis/St.
Paul, 385 pp - Chapter 16 Hurricanes p289-304). This paperback book is
designed to accompany C. Donald Ahrens' introductory book _Meteorology

BEST TECHNICAL BOOK: _Global Perspectives on Tropical Cyclones_
This is the revised version of _A Global View of Tropical Cyclones_ and
is the most current, detailed book available on the subject. This book
provides the state of the science as of 1994. Improvements over the
previous version include a chapter on the ocean response to tropical
cyclones. This paperback book is written in 1995 by G.R. Foley, H.E.
Willoughby, J.L. McBride, R.L. Elsberry, I. Ginis, and L. Chen with Elsberry
serving as Editor and is available from the World Meterological Organization
as Report No. TCP-38. Their address is:

World Meteorological Organization
Publications Sales Unit
Case Postale 2300
CH-1211 Geneva 2

BEST FORECASTING MANUAL: _Global Guide to Tropical Cyclone Forecasting_
For the tropical cyclone forecaster and also of general interest for
anyone in the field and those with a non-technical interest in the field,
the loose-leaf book - _Global Guide to Tropical Cyclone Forecasting_ (1993)
by G.J. Holland (ed.), World Meteorological Organization, WMO/TD-No. 560,
Report No. TCP-31 is a must get. (See above for address of the WMO.)


______Atlantic Hurricanes_______
A classic book describing tropical cyclones primarily of the Atlantic
basin, but also covering the physical understanding of tropical cyclone
genesis, motion, and intensity change at the time is _Atlantic Hurricanes_
by Gordon E. Dunn and Banner I. Miller. Written in 1960, published by the
Louisiana State Press, this book gives provides good insight into the
knowledge of tropical cyclones as of the late 1950s. It is interesting
to observe that much of what we know was well understood at this pre-
satellite era. Gordon E. Dunn was the Director of the U.S. National
Hurricane Center and Banner I. Miller was a research meteorologist also
at the National Hurricane Center.

________Hurricanes, Their Nature and History______
Before Dunn and Miller's book, Ivan Ray Tannehill came out with
an authoritative reference on the history, structure, climatology,
historical tracks, and forecasting techniques of Atlantic hurricanes
as was known by the mid-1930s. This is one of the first compilations
of yearly tracks of Atlantic storms - he provides tracks of memorable
tropical cyclones all the way back to the 1700s and shows all the
storm tracks yearly from 1901 onward. The first edition came out in 1938
and the book went through at least nine editions (my book was published
in 1956). Mr. Tannehill was engaged as a hurricane forecasts for over
20 years and also lead the Division of Synoptic Reports and Forecasts of
the U.S. Weather Bureau. Princeton University Press, 308 pp (in 1956

________A Global View of Tropical Cyclones_______
A very thorough book dealing with the technical issues of tropical
cyclones for the state of the science in the mid-1980s: _A Global View of
Tropical Cyclones_ (1987) by Elsberry, Holland, Frank, Jarrell, and
Southern; University of Chicago Press, 195 pp. A revised version of this
book has recently become available, see _Global Perspectives on Tropical
Cyclones_ below.

________Tropical Cyclones of the North Atlantic Ocean, 1871-1992_______
Researchers and those who follow Atlantic hurricanes should all have
a copy of the atlas: _Tropical Cyclones of the North Atlantic Ocean,
1871-1992_, by C.J. Neumann, B.R. Jarvinen, C.J. McAdie, J.D. Elms;
Asheville, NC, (1993), Prepared by the National Climatic Data Center,
Asheville, NC, in cooperation with the National Hurricane Center, Coral
Gables, FL, 193 pp.

________Florida Hurricanes and Tropical Storms, 1871-1993,
An Historical Survey_________
A recent book providing a historical perspective of Florida Hurricanes
is _Florida Hurricanes and Tropical Storms, 1871-1993, An Historical Survey_,
F. Doehring, I.W. Duedall, and J.M. Williams, (1994), Tp-71, Florida Sea
Grant College Program, Gainesville, Florida, USA, 118 pp.

________Cyclone Tracy, Picking up the Pieces_______
Twenty years after Cyclone Tracy, this book recreates, by interviews
with survivors, the events during and after the cyclone that nearly
destroyed Darwin, Australia: _Cyclone Tracy, Picking up the pieces_, B.
Bunbury, (1994), Fremantle Arts Centre Press, South Fremantle, Australia,
148 pp.

An introductory text book for young readers on hurricanes by
Sally Lee, Franklin Watts Publishing, New York, 63 pp.


Subject: J4) What refereed articles were written in recent years about
tropical cyclones?

At the ftp site:

ftp hrd-type42.nhc.noaa.gov []

The files - TCpubs.1994, TCpubs.1995 and TCpubs.1996 - contain all known
refereed publications concerning tropical cyclones that were in journals
around the world with a print date for those years.

Maintained by lan...@aoml.noaa.gov (Chris Landsea).

Chris Landsea
NOAA AOML/Hurricane Research Division Voice: (305) 361-4357
4301 Rickenbacker Causeway Fax: (305) 361-4402
Miami, Florida 33149 Internet: lan...@aoml.noaa.gov
"The Florida straits were as dangerous as the Florida Indians. There [was]...
the extraordinary danger of hurricanes in the tropic latitudes, that could
blow up almost without warning from June to November, gray screaming
whirlpools of wind more than a hundred miles an hour, dragging in their
centers a mound of sea water and blowing before them the high ungovernable
ships like dried leaves onto that deadly line of reef and rock."
- _The Everglades: River of Grass_ - Marjory Stoneman Douglas - 1947

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