Four incredible mistakes in "traditional" paleo-anthropology:
1) "Out of Africa" = wrong.
2) "Savanna Ancestors" = wrong.
3) "Australopiths were human ancestors" = wrong.
4) "Bipedality defines hominin" = wrong.
Geology before plate tectonics was not always correct,
but what many self-declared "paleo-anthropologists" are convinced to be correct is simply rubbish: pure fantasy (only based on the believe that because chimps & gorillas live in Africa, human ancestors must have become bipedal when they left the jungle for the savanna):
1) We never lived in Africa (although perhaps in Red Sea swamp forests during the late-Miocene):
- Early-Miocene Hominoidea lived in Eurasia (hylobatids & pongids still do - even most H.sapiens today are Eurasian).
- Late-Miocene hominids (Gorilla-Homo-Pan ancestors) most likely lived in Red Sea swamp forests, google "aquarboreal".
- H.sapiens lacks African retrovirus, meaning that our ancestors were not in Africa during the Pliocene, e.g. Benveniste 1976, Yohn 2005.
2) Human ancestors have always been waterside, never dry savanna dwellers, cf. human physiology etc., e.g. https://www.gondwanatalks.com/l/the-waterside-hypothesis-wading-led-to-upright-walking-in-early-humans/
3) Most or all E.Afr.australopiths were fossil relatives of Gorilla, and most or all S.Afr.australopiths, of Pan, e.g. Hum.Evol.9:121-139 "Australopithecines: ancestors of the African apes?", Hum.Evol.11:35-41 "Morphological distance between australopithecine, human and ape skulls".
4) Early-Miocene Hominoidea were already bipedal waders-climbers in swamp forests, google "aquarboreal", or see my 2022 book.
How can so many self-believed "scientists" believe the unbelievable nonsense that their ancestors ran on Afr.savannas, hunting antelopes???
Ape & human evolution (why apes differ from monkeys, and why humans differ from apes) is not so difficult in general, e.g.https://www.gondwanatalks.com/l/the-waterside-hypothesis-wading-led-to-upright-walking-in-early-humans/