Sanskrit time units

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संस्कृत संवादः

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Apr 28, 2024, 4:40:16 AMApr 28
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1 निमेषः = 0.16 seconds
1 काष्ठः = 0.26̅ seconds
1 त्रुटिः = 0.32 seconds
1 विपलम् = 0.4 seconds
1 लवः = 0.64 seconds
1 कला = 8 seconds
1 पलम् = 24 seconds
1 क्षणः = 4 minutes
1 घटिका/दण्डः = 24 minutes
1 मुहूर्त्तः = 48 minutes

60 दण्डाः = 24 hours = 1 day

krishna murthy

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Apr 28, 2024, 12:34:18 PMApr 28
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Thank you for your mail


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Raja Srinivasan

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Apr 28, 2024, 12:34:25 PMApr 28
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A wonderful wiki shows even finer gradations of time. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hindu_units_of_time

Regards
Srinivasan


G S S Murthy

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Apr 30, 2024, 1:26:44 AMApr 30
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How is the basic unit "Second" determined?
Thanks and regards,
Murthy

R. N. iyengar

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Apr 30, 2024, 9:09:45 AMApr 30
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One can make any definition about small units of time. But scientific reality demands proper means of measurement also. Excerpts from my paper on Akshara as the most basic unit systematically refined from the Vedic period to the SIdhhAnta era.

Any physical measuring instrument needs to be calibrated by independent methods to maintain its accuracy. Indian astronomers of the various siddhānta texts recognized the necessity to calibrate the water clock that was used to measure time by a bowl sinking exactly 60 times from sunrise to sunrise. It was important to measure one ghaṭikā that is (1/60)th of an ahorātra by independent means so that the bowl could be fine tuned properly. An ingenious method of calibrating using an audible oral scale of one vighaṭikā was developed in the form of a Sanskrit verse in the līlākhela meter composed of 60 gurvakṣaras. Sixty repetitions of this verse in medium speed would indicate passage of one ghaṭikā equivalent to 24 minutes in present parlance. In the present study the accuracy of this scale has been verified and shown to be very good. It is noted that the time value of this akṣara (syllable) gets fixed phonetically as equal to 0.4 seconds.  Such a practice of recitation to estimate passage of time is traceable to the Vedic oral tradition, wherein many ritualistic texts describe congruence relations between akṣara and time. We find that in the legend of Indra crossing over the night with the help of the seven chandas, followed by the starting and ending time prescriptions of the prātaranuvāka chanting of 1000 verses, adding to 36,000 akṣara (syllables) there is evidence to the ancient practice of estimating passage of night time by Vedic recitation at medium pace. 

Gurvakshara = 0.4 seconds as per our experiments with about 30 participants!

G S S Murthy

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Apr 30, 2024, 11:15:25 AMApr 30
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Thank you Dr. Iyengar, for your scholarly exposition. I just wanted to point out that giving names to smaller and smaller units has no meaning when the precision of the method of measurement is not upto the mark.
Thanks and regards,
Murthy

संस्कृत संवादः

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May 1, 2024, 12:14:46 AMMay 1
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It's determined by its relations with other units like muhurutta and danda. I have relied on sanskrit verses of texts and sanskrt koshas.

मंगलवार, 30 अप्रैल 2024 को 10:56:44 am UTC+5:30 बजे G S S Murthy ने लिखा:

Prakash Raj Pandey

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May 1, 2024, 4:58:09 AMMay 1
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One may divide one unit of time million times, but the question is -- do we have instruments to measure them.

SuryaSiddhanta says --

लोकानामन्तकृत्कालः कालोऽन्यः कलनात्मकः ॥ 
स द्विधा स्थूलसूक्ष्मत्वान्मूर्तश्चामूर्त उच्यते ॥१०॥ 

We can measure स्थूलः as it is मूर्तः, but not the सूक्ष्मः which is अमूर्तः . 

So the book tells us --
प्राणादिः कथितो मूर्तस्त्र्युट्याद्योऽमूर्तसंज्ञकः ॥

We can count how many times we inhale and exhale, but the minute units of time denoted by such units as त्रुटिः are only theoretical ones.

regards,

Prakash Raj Pandey



kenp

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May 5, 2024, 11:51:48 AMMay 5
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Is there any manuscript of the basic mathematics book taught in ancient Gurukuls as there are lots of discussions about mathematical verses in ancient Sanskrit texts?

Bandaru Viswanath

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May 5, 2024, 11:52:03 AMMay 5
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We should look probably from the other way around. From my basic Indian Jyotisha understanding.

1 day = time between two consecutive sun-rises.
1 day has 60 Ghati/Ghatika
1 Ghatika has 60 vighati/pala
1 vighati has 60 vipala

This is how most of the calculations are done. You can see that the absolute time measurement of a Ghati/vighati/vipala varies with the duration of the day, which is every day.

To me, the unit "second" is not an Indian measurement of quantity and so we are always mapping something which is fixed to something changing.

I could be wrong, I am a beginner in these calculations,

Viswanath

Nagaraj Paturi

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May 5, 2024, 11:57:42 AMMay 5
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To kenp ,

examples:

సారసంగ్రహ గణితము

by
 
పావులూరి మల్లన

https://archive.org/details/in.ernet.dli.2015.372131

The Ganita-sara-sangraha Of Mahaviracarya

by
 
Rangacarya, M., Tr.

https://archive.org/details/in.ernet.dli.2015.47515

On Sun, May 5, 2024 at 9:21 PM kenp <drk...@gmail.com> wrote:
Is there any manuscript of the basic mathematics book taught in ancient Gurukuls as there are lots of discussions about mathematical verses in ancient Sanskrit texts?

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Nagaraj Paturi
 
Hyderabad, Telangana, INDIA.
Dean, IndicA
BoS, MIT School of Vedic Sciences, Pune, Maharashtra
BoS Kavikulaguru Kalidasa Sanskrit University, Ramtek, Maharashtra
BoS Veda Vijnana Gurukula, Bengaluru.
Member, Advisory Council, Veda Vijnana Shodha Samsthanam, Bengaluru
Former Senior Professor of Cultural Studies, 
FLAME School of Communication and FLAME School of  Liberal Education, 
Hyderabad, Telangana, INDIA.
 
 
 
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