Security advisory for Cargo - 2019-09-30

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Alex Crichton

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Sep 30, 2019, 10:28:25 AM9/30/19
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# Security advisory for Cargo - 2019-09-30

The Rust team was recently notified of a security concern when using older
versions of Cargo to build crates which use the package rename feature added in
newer versions of Cargo. If you're using Rust 1.26.0, released on 2018-05-10,
or later you're not affected.

The CVE for this vulnerability is [CVE-2019-16760][0].

## Overview

Cargo can be configured through `Cargo.toml` and the `[dependencies]` section
to depend on different crates, such as those from crates.io. There are multiple
ways to configure how you depend on crates as well, for example if you depend
on `serde` and enable the `derive` feature it would look like:

```toml
serde = { version = "1.0", features = ['derive'] }
```

Rust 1.31.0 [introduced a new feature of Cargo][1] where one of the optional
keys you can specify in this map is `package`, a way to [rename a crate
locally][2]. For example if you preferred to use `serde1` locally instead of
`serde`, you could write:

```toml
serde1 = { version = "1.0", features = ['derive'], package = "serde" }
```

It's the addition of the `package` key that causes Cargo to compile the crate
differently. This feature was [first implemented][3] in Rust 1.26.0, but it was
unstable at the time. For Rust 1.25.0 and prior, however, Cargo would ignore
the `package` key and and interpret the dependency line as if it were:

```toml
serde1 = { version = "1.0", features = ['derive'] }
```

This means when compiled with Rust 1.25.0 and prior then it would attempt to
download the `serde1` crate. A malicious user could squat the `serde1` name on
crates.io to look like `serde 1.0.0` but instead act maliciously when built.

In summary, usage of the `package` key to rename dependencies in `Cargo.toml`
is ignored in Rust 1.25.0 and prior. When Rust 1.25.0 and prior is used Cargo
will ignore `package` and download the wrong dependency, which could be
squatted on crates.io to be a malicious package. This not only affects
manifests that you write locally yourself, but also manifests published to
crates.io. If you published a crate, for example, that depends on `serde1` to
crates.io then users who depend on you may also be vulnerable if they use Rust
1.25.0 and prior.

## Affected Versions

Rust 1.0.0 through Rust 1.25.0 is affected by this advisory because Cargo will
ignore the `package` key in manifests. Rust 1.26.0 through Rust 1.30.0 are not
affected and typically will emit an error because the `package` key is
unstable. Rust 1.31.0 and after are not affected because Cargo understands the
`package` key.

In terms of Cargo versions, this affects Cargo up through Cargo 0.26.0. All
future versions of Cargo are unaffected.

## Mitigations

We strongly recommend that users of the affected versions update their compiler
to the latest available one. Preventing this issue from happening requires
updating your compiler to either Rust 1.26.0 or newer.

We will not be issuing a patch release for Rust versions prior to 1.26.0. Users
of Rust 1.19.0 to Rust 1.25.0 can instead apply [the provided patches][4] to
mitigate the issue.

An audit of existing crates published to crates.io using the `package` key has
been performed and there is no evidence that this vulnerability has been
exploited in the wild. Our audit only covers the crates currently published on
crates.io: if you notice crates exploiting this vulnerability in the future
please don't hesitate to email secu...@rust-lang.org in accordance with [our
security policy][5].

## Timeline of events

* Wed, Sep 18, 2019 at 13:54 UTC - Bug reported to secu...@rust-lang.org
* Wed, Sep 18, 2019 at 15:35 UTC - Response confirming the report
* Wed, Sep 18, 2019 - Cargo, Core, and crates.io teams confer on how best to
handle this
* Thu, Sep 19, 2019 - Confirmed with Elichai plan of action and continued to
audit existing crates
* Mon, Sep 23, 2019 - Advisory drafted, patches developed, audit completed
* Mon, Sep 30, 2019 - Advisory published, security list informed of this issue

## Acknowledgments

Thanks to Elichai Turkel, who found this bug and reported it to us in accordance
with our [security policy][5].

## Links

[0]: https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2019-16760
[1]: https://blog.rust-lang.org/2018/12/06/Rust-1.31-and-rust-2018.html#cargo-features
[2]: https://doc.rust-lang.org/cargo/reference/specifying-dependencies.html#renaming-dependencies-in-cargotoml
[3]: https://github.com/rust-lang/cargo/pull/4953
[4]: https://gist.github.com/pietroalbini/0d293b24a44babbeb6187e06eebd4992
[5]: https://www.rust-lang.org/policies/security
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