Re: The U.S. Has Killed More Than 20 Million People in 37 “Victim Nations” Since World War II

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The U.S. Has Killed More Than 20 Million People in 37 “Victim Nations”
Since World War II

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First published on November 15, 2015, this incisive report was among
Global Research’s most popular articles. As a result of media censorship
it is no longer featured by the search engines .

GR Editor’s Note .

Let us put this in historical perspective: the commemoration of the War
to End All Wars acknowledges that 15 million lives were lost in the
course of World War I (1914-18).

The loss of life in the second World War (1939-1945) was on a much large
scale, when compared to World War I: 60 million lives both military and
civilian were lost during World War II. (Four times those killed during
World War I).

The largest WWII casualties were China and the Soviet Union, 26 million
in the Soviet Union, China estimates its losses at approximately 20
million deaths.

Ironically, these two countries (allies of the US during WWII) which
lost a large share of their population during WWII are now under the
Biden-Harris administration categorized as “enemies of America”, which
are threatening the Western World.

NATO-US Forces are at Russia’s Doorstep. A so-called “preemptive war”
against China and Russia is currently contemplated.

Germany and Austria lost approximately 8 million people during WWII,
Japan lost more than 2.5 million people. The US and Britain respectively
lost more than 400,000 lives.

This carefully researched article by James A. Lucas documents the more
than 20 million lives lost resulting from US led wars, military coups
and intelligence ops carried out in the wake of what is euphemistically
called the “post-war era” (1945- ).

The extensive loss of life in Lebanon, Syria, Yemen and Libya is not
included in this study.

Continuous US led warfare (1945- ): there was no “post-war era“.

Michel Chossudovsky, Global Research, Martin Luther King Day, January
17, 2022


After the catastrophic attacks of September 11 2001 monumental sorrow
and a feeling of desperate and understandable anger began to permeate
the American psyche. A few people at that time attempted to promote a
balanced perspective by pointing out that the United States had also
been responsible for causing those same feelings in people in other
nations, but they produced hardly a ripple. Although Americans
understand in the abstract the wisdom of people around the world
empathizing with the suffering of one another, such a reminder of wrongs
committed by our nation got little hearing and was soon overshadowed by
an accelerated “war on terrorism.”

But we must continue our efforts to develop understanding and compassion
in the world. Hopefully, this article will assist in doing that by
addressing the question “How many September 11ths has the United States
caused in other nations since WWII?” This theme is developed in this
report which contains an estimated numbers of such deaths in 37 nations
as well as brief explanations of why the U.S. is considered culpable.

The causes of wars are complex. In some instances nations other than the
U.S. may have been responsible for more deaths, but if the involvement
of our nation appeared to have been a necessary cause of a war or
conflict it was considered responsible for the deaths in it. In other
words they probably would not have taken place if the U.S. had not used
the heavy hand of its power. The military and economic power of the
United States was crucial.

This study reveals that U.S. military forces were directly responsible
for about 10 to 15 million deaths during the Korean and Vietnam Wars and
the two Iraq Wars. The Korean War also includes Chinese deaths while the
Vietnam War also includes fatalities in Cambodia and Laos.

The American public probably is not aware of these numbers and knows
even less about the proxy wars for which the United States is also
responsible. In the latter wars there were between nine and 14 million
deaths in Afghanistan, Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo, East
Timor, Guatemala, Indonesia, Pakistan and Sudan.

But the victims are not just from big nations or one part of the world.
The remaining deaths were in smaller ones which constitute over half the
total number of nations. Virtually all parts of the world have been the
target of U.S. intervention.

The overall conclusion reached is that the United States most likely has
been responsible since WWII for the deaths of between 20 and 30 million
people in wars and conflicts scattered over the world.

To the families and friends of these victims it makes little difference
whether the causes were U.S. military action, proxy military forces, the
provision of U.S. military supplies or advisors, or other ways, such as
economic pressures applied by our nation. They had to make decisions
about other things such as finding lost loved ones, whether to become
refugees, and how to survive.

And the pain and anger is spread even further. Some authorities estimate
that there are as many as 10 wounded for each person who dies in wars.
Their visible, continued suffering is a continuing reminder to their
fellow countrymen.

It is essential that Americans learn more about this topic so that they
can begin to understand the pain that others feel. Someone once observed
that the Germans during WWII “chose not to know.” We cannot allow
history to say this about our country. The question posed above was “How
many September 11ths has the United States caused in other nations since
WWII?” The answer is: possibly 10,000.

Comments on Gathering These Numbers

Generally speaking, the much smaller number of Americans who have died
is not included in this study, not because they are not important, but
because this report focuses on the impact of U.S. actions on its

An accurate count of the number of deaths is not easy to achieve, and
this collection of data was undertaken with full realization of this
fact. These estimates will probably be revised later either upward or
downward by the reader and the author. But undoubtedly the total will
remain in the millions.

The difficulty of gathering reliable information is shown by two
estimates in this context. For several years I heard statements on radio
that three million Cambodians had been killed under the rule of the
Khmer Rouge. However, in recent years the figure I heard was one
million. Another example is that the number of persons estimated to have
died in Iraq due to sanctions after the first U.S. Iraq War was over 1
million, but in more recent years, based on a more recent study, a lower
estimate of around a half a million has emerged.

Often information about wars is revealed only much later when someone
decides to speak out, when more secret information is revealed due to
persistent efforts of a few, or after special congressional committees
make reports

Both victorious and defeated nations may have their own reasons for
underreporting the number of deaths. Further, in recent wars involving
the United States it was not uncommon to hear statements like “we do not
do body counts” and references to “collateral damage” as a euphemism for
dead and wounded. Life is cheap for some, especially those who
manipulate people on the battlefield as if it were a chessboard.

To say that it is difficult to get exact figures is not to say that we
should not try. Effort was needed to arrive at the figures of six
million Jews killed during WWII, but knowledge of that number now is
widespread and it has fueled the determination to prevent future
holocausts. That struggle continues.

The author can be contacted at



The U.S. is responsible for between 1 and 1.8 million deaths during the
war between the Soviet Union and Afghanistan, by luring the Soviet Union
into invading that nation. (1,2,3,4)

The Soviet Union had friendly relations its neighbor, Afghanistan, which
had a secular government. The Soviets feared that if that government
became fundamentalist this change could spill over into the Soviet Union.

In 1998, in an interview with the Parisian publication Le Novel
Observateur, Zbigniew Brzezinski, adviser to President Carter, admitted
that he had been responsible for instigating aid to the Mujahadeen in
Afghanistan which caused the Soviets to invade. In his own words:

According to the official version of history, CIA aid to the
Mujahadeen began during 1980, that is to say, after the Soviet army
invaded Afghanistan on 24 December 1979. But the reality, secretly
guarded until now, is completely otherwise. Indeed, it was July 3, 1979
that President Carter signed the first directive for secret aid to the
opponents of the pro-Soviet regime in Kabul. And that very day, I wrote
a note to the President in which I explained to him that in my opinion
this aid was going to induce a Soviet military intervention. (5,1,6)

Brzezinski justified laying this trap, since he said it gave the Soviet
Union its Vietnam and caused the breakup of the Soviet Union. “Regret
what?” he said. “That secret operation was an excellent idea. It had the
effect of drawing the Russians into the Afghan trap and you want me to
regret it?” (7)

The CIA spent 5 to 6 billion dollars on its operation in Afghanistan in
order to bleed the Soviet Union. (1,2,3) When that 10-year war ended
over a million people were dead and Afghan heroin had captured 60% of
the U.S. market. (4)

The U.S. has been responsible directly for about 12,000 deaths in
Afghanistan many of which resulted from bombing in retaliation for the
attacks on U.S. property on September 11, 2001. Subsequently U.S. troops
invaded that country. (4)


An indigenous armed struggle against Portuguese rule in Angola began in
1961. In 1977 an Angolan government was recognized by the U.N., although
the U.S. was one of the few nations that opposed this action. In 1986
Uncle Sam approved material assistance to UNITA, a group that was trying
to overthrow the government. Even today this struggle, which has
involved many nations at times, continues.

U.S. intervention was justified to the U.S. public as a reaction to the
intervention of 50,000 Cuban troops in Angola. However, according to
Piero Gleijeses, a history professor at Johns Hopkins University the
reverse was true. The Cuban intervention came as a result of a CIA –
financed covert invasion via neighboring Zaire and a drive on the
Angolan capital by the U.S. ally, South Africa1,2,3). (Three estimates
of deaths range from 300,000 to 750,000 (4,5,6)

Argentina: See South America: Operation Condor

Bangladesh: See Pakistan


Hugo Banzer was the leader of a repressive regime in Bolivia in the
1970s. The U.S. had been disturbed when a previous leader nationalized
the tin mines and distributed land to Indian peasants. Later that action
to benefit the poor was reversed.

Banzer, who was trained at the U.S.-operated School of the Americas in
Panama and later at Fort Hood, Texas, came back from exile frequently to
confer with U.S. Air Force Major Robert Lundin. In 1971 he staged a
successful coup with the help of the U.S. Air Force radio system. In the
first years of his dictatorship he received twice as military assistance
from the U.S. as in the previous dozen years together.

A few years later the Catholic Church denounced an army massacre of
striking tin workers in 1975, Banzer, assisted by information provided
by the CIA, was able to target and locate leftist priests and nuns. His
anti-clergy strategy, known as the Banzer Plan, was adopted by nine
other Latin American dictatorships in 1977. (2) He has been accused of
being responsible for 400 deaths during his tenure. (1)

Also see: See South America: Operation Condor

Brazil: See South America: Operation Condor


U.S. bombing of Cambodia had already been underway for several years in
secret under the Johnson and Nixon administrations, but when President
Nixon openly began bombing in preparation for a land assault on Cambodia
it caused major protests in the U.S. against the Vietnam War.

There is little awareness today of the scope of these bombings and the
human suffering involved.

Immense damage was done to the villages and cities of Cambodia, causing
refugees and internal displacement of the population. This unstable
situation enabled the Khmer Rouge, a small political party led by Pol
Pot, to assume power. Over the years we have repeatedly heard about the
Khmer Rouge’s role in the deaths of millions in Cambodia without any
acknowledgement being made this mass killing was made possible by the
the U.S. bombing of that nation which destabilized it by death ,
injuries, hunger and dislocation of its people.

So the U.S. bears responsibility not only for the deaths from the
bombings but also for those resulting from the activities of the Khmer
Rouge – a total of about 2.5 million people. Even when Vietnam latrer
invaded Cambodia in 1979 the CIA was still supporting the Khmer Rouge.

Also see Vietnam


An estimated 40,000 people in Chad were killed and as many as 200,000
tortured by a government, headed by Hissen Habre who was brought to
power in June, 1982 with the help of CIA money and arms. He remained in
power for eight years. (1,2)

Human Rights Watch claimed that Habre was responsible for thousands of
killings. In 2001, while living in Senegal, he was almost tried for
crimes committed by him in Chad. However, a court there blocked these
proceedings. Then human rights people decided to pursue the case in
Belgium, because some of Habre’s torture victims lived there. The U.S.,
in June 2003, told Belgium that it risked losing its status as host to
NATO’s headquarters if it allowed such a legal proceeding to happen. So
the result was that the law that allowed victims to file complaints in
Belgium for atrocities committed abroad was repealed. However, two
months later a new law was passed which made special provision for the
continuation of the case against Habre.


The CIA intervened in Chile’s 1958 and 1964 elections. In 1970 a
socialist candidate, Salvador Allende, was elected president. The CIA
wanted to incite a military coup to prevent his inauguration, but the
Chilean army’s chief of staff, General Rene Schneider, opposed this
action. The CIA then planned, along with some people in the Chilean
military, to assassinate Schneider. This plot failed and Allende took
office. President Nixon was not to be dissuaded and he ordered the CIA
to create a coup climate: “Make the economy scream,” he said.

What followed were guerilla warfare, arson, bombing, sabotage and
terror. ITT and other U.S. corporations with Chilean holdings sponsored
demonstrations and strikes. Finally, on September 11, 1973 Allende died
either by suicide or by assassination. At that time Henry Kissinger,
U.S. Secretary of State, said the following regarding Chile: “I don’t
see why we need to stand by and watch a country go communist because of
the irresponsibility of its own people.” (1)

During 17 years of terror under Allende’s successor, General Augusto
Pinochet, an estimated 3,000 Chileans were killed and many others were
tortured or “disappeared.” (2,3,4,5)

Also see South America: Operation Condor

China An estimated 900,000 Chinese died during the Korean War.

For more information, See: Korea.


One estimate is that 67,000 deaths have occurred from the 1960s to
recent years due to support by the U.S. of Colombian state terrorism. (1)

According to a 1994 Amnesty International report, more than 20,000
people were killed for political reasons in Colombia since 1986, mainly
by the military and its paramilitary allies. Amnesty alleged that “U.S.-
supplied military equipment, ostensibly delivered for use against
narcotics traffickers, was being used by the Colombian military to
commit abuses in the name of “counter-insurgency.” (2) In 2002 another
estimate was made that 3,500 people die each year in a U.S. funded
civilian war in Colombia. (3)

In 1996 Human Rights Watch issued a report “Assassination Squads in
Colombia” which revealed that CIA agents went to Colombia in 1991 to
help the military to train undercover agents in anti-subversive
activity. (4,5)

In recent years the U.S. government has provided assistance under Plan
Colombia. The Colombian government has been charged with using most of
the funds for destruction of crops and support of the paramilitary group.


In the Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba on April 18, 1961 which ended after
3 days, 114 of the invading force were killed, 1,189 were taken
prisoners and a few escaped to waiting U.S. ships. (1) The captured
exiles were quickly tried, a few executed and the rest sentenced to
thirty years in prison for treason. These exiles were released after 20
months in exchange for $53 million in food and medicine.

Some people estimate that the number of Cuban forces killed range from
2,000, to 4,000. Another estimate is that 1,800 Cuban forces were killed
on an open highway by napalm. This appears to have been a precursor of
the Highway of Death in Iraq in 1991 when U.S. forces mercilessly
annihilated large numbers of Iraqis on a highway. (2)

Democratic Republic of Congo (formerly Zaire)

The beginning of massive violence was instigated in this country in 1879
by its colonizer King Leopold of Belgium. The Congo’s population was
reduced by 10 million people over a period of 20 years which some have
referred to as “Leopold’s Genocide.” (1) The U.S. has been responsible
for about a third of that many deaths in that nation in the more recent
past. (2)

In 1960 the Congo became an independent state with Patrice Lumumba being
its first prime minister. He was assassinated with the CIA being
implicated, although some say that his murder was actually the
responsibility of Belgium. (3) But nevertheless, the CIA was planning to
kill him. (4) Before his assassination the CIA sent one of its
scientists, Dr. Sidney Gottlieb, to the Congo carrying “lethal
biological material” intended for use in Lumumba’s assassination. This
virus would have been able to produce a fatal disease indigenous to the
Congo area of Africa and was transported in a diplomatic pouch.

Much of the time in recent years there has been a civil war within the
Democratic Republic of Congo, fomented often by the U.S. and other
nations, including neighboring nations. (5)

In April 1977, Newsday reported that the CIA was secretly supporting
efforts to recruit several hundred mercenaries in the U.S. and Great
Britain to serve alongside Zaire’s army. In that same year the U.S.
provided $15 million of military supplies to the Zairian President
Mobutu to fend off an invasion by a rival group operating in Angola. (6)

In May 1979, the U.S. sent several million dollars of aid to Mobutu who
had been condemned 3 months earlier by the U.S. State Department for
human rights violations. (7) During the Cold War the U.S. funneled over
300 million dollars in weapons into Zaire (8,9) $100 million in military
training was provided to him. (2) In 2001 it was reported to a U.S.
congressional committee that American companies, including one linked to
former President George Bush Sr., were stoking the Congo for monetary
gains. There is an international battle over resources in that country
with over 125 companies and individuals being implicated. One of these
substances is coltan, which is used in the manufacture of cell phones. (2)

Dominican Republic

In 1962, Juan Bosch became president of the Dominican Republic. He
advocated such programs as land reform and public works programs. This
did not bode well for his future relationship with the U.S., and after
only 7 months in office, he was deposed by a CIA coup. In 1965 when a
group was trying to reinstall him to his office President Johnson said,
“This Bosch is no good.” Assistant Secretary of State Thomas Mann
replied “He’s no good at all. If we don’t get a decent government in
there, Mr. President, we get another Bosch. It’s just going to be
another sinkhole.” Two days later a U.S. invasion started and 22,000
soldiers and marines entered the Dominican Republic and about 3,000
Dominicans died during the fighting. The cover excuse for doing this was
that this was done to protect foreigners there. (1,2,3,4)

East Timor

In December 1975, Indonesia invaded East Timor. This incursion was
launched the day after U.S. President Gerald Ford and Secretary of State
Henry Kissinger had left Indonesia where they had given President
Suharto permission to use American arms, which under U.S. law, could not
be used for aggression. Daniel Moynihan, U.S. ambassador to the UN. said
that the U.S. wanted “things to turn out as they did.” (1,2) The result
was an estimated 200,000 dead out of a population of 700,000. (1,2)

Sixteen years later, on November 12, 1991, two hundred and seventeen
East Timorese protesters in Dili, many of them children, marching from a
memorial service, were gunned down by Indonesian Kopassus shock troops
who were headed by U.S.- trained commanders Prabowo Subianto (son in law
of General Suharto) and Kiki Syahnakri. Trucks were seen dumping bodies
into the sea. (5)

El Salvador

The civil war from 1981 to1992 in El Salvador was financed by $6 billion
in U.S. aid given to support the government in its efforts to crush a
movement to bring social justice to the people in that nation of about 8
million people. (1)

During that time U.S. military advisers demonstrated methods of torture
on teenage prisoners, according to an interview with a deserter from the
Salvadoran army published in the New York Times. This former member of
the Salvadoran National Guard testified that he was a member of a squad
of twelve who found people who they were told were guerillas and
tortured them. Part of the training he received was in torture at a U.S.
location somewhere in Panama. (2)

About 900 villagers were massacred in the village of El Mozote in 1981.
Ten of the twelve El Salvadoran government soldiers cited as
participating in this act were graduates of the School of the Americas
operated by the U.S. (2) They were only a small part of about 75,000
people killed during that civil war. (1)

According to a 1993 United Nations’ Truth Commission report, over 96 %
of the human rights violations carried out during the war were committed
by the Salvadoran army or the paramilitary deaths squads associated with
the Salvadoran army. (3)

That commission linked graduates of the School of the Americas to many
notorious killings. The New York Times and the Washington Post followed
with scathing articles. In 1996, the White House Oversight Board issued
a report that supported many of the charges against that school made by
Rev. Roy Bourgeois, head of the School of the Americas Watch. That same
year the Pentagon released formerly classified reports indicating that
graduates were trained in killing, extortion, and physical abuse for
interrogations, false imprisonment and other methods of control. (4)


The CIA began to destabilize Grenada in 1979 after Maurice Bishop became
president, partially because he refused to join the quarantine of Cuba.
The campaign against him resulted in his overthrow and the invasion by
the U.S. of Grenada on October 25, 1983, with about 277 people dying.
(1,2) It was fallaciously charged that an airport was being built in
Grenada that could be used to attack the U.S. and it was also
erroneously claimed that the lives of American medical students on that
island were in danger.


In 1951 Jacobo Arbenz was elected president of Guatemala. He
appropriated some unused land operated by the United Fruit Company and
compensated the company. (1,2) That company then started a campaign to
paint Arbenz as a tool of an international conspiracy and hired about
300 mercenaries who sabotaged oil supplies and trains. (3) In 1954 a
CIA-orchestrated coup put him out of office and he left the country.
During the next 40 years various regimes killed thousands of people.

In 1999 the Washington Post reported that an Historical Clarification
Commission concluded that over 200,000 people had been killed during the
civil war and that there had been 42,000 individual human rights
violations, 29,000 of them fatal, 92% of which were committed by the
army. The commission further reported that the U.S. government and the
CIA had pressured the Guatemalan government into suppressing the
guerilla movement by ruthless means. (4,5)

According to the Commission between 1981 and 1983 the military
government of Guatemala – financed and supported by the U.S. government
– destroyed some four hundred Mayan villages in a campaign of genocide. (4)

One of the documents made available to the commission was a 1966 memo
from a U.S. State Department official, which described how a “safe
house” was set up in the palace for use by Guatemalan security agents
and their U.S. contacts. This was the headquarters for the Guatemalan
“dirty war” against leftist insurgents and suspected allies. (2)


From 1957 to 1986 Haiti was ruled by Papa Doc Duvalier and later by his
son. During that time their private terrorist force killed between
30,000 and 100,000 people. (1) Millions of dollars in CIA subsidies
flowed into Haiti during that time, mainly to suppress popular
movements, (2) although most American military aid to the country,
according to William Blum, was covertly channeled through Israel.

Reportedly, governments after the second Duvalier reign were responsible
for an even larger number of fatalities, and the influence on Haiti by
the U.S., particularly through the CIA, has continued. The U.S. later
forced out of the presidential office a black Catholic priest, Jean
Bertrand Aristide, even though he was elected with 67% of the vote in
the early 1990s. The wealthy white class in Haiti opposed him in this
predominantly black nation, because of his social programs designed to
help the poor and end corruption. (3) Later he returned to office, but
that did not last long. He was forced by the U.S. to leave office and
now lives in South Africa.


In the 1980s the CIA supported Battalion 316 in Honduras, which
kidnapped, tortured and killed hundreds of its citizens. Torture
equipment and manuals were provided by CIA Argentinean personnel who
worked with U.S. agents in the training of the Hondurans. Approximately
400 people lost their lives. (1,2) This is another instance of torture
in the world sponsored by the U.S. (3)

Battalion 316 used shock and suffocation devices in interrogations in
the 1980s. Prisoners often were kept naked and, when no longer useful,
killed and buried in unmarked graves. Declassified documents and other
sources show that the CIA and the U.S. Embassy knew of numerous crimes,
including murder and torture, yet continued to support Battalion 316 and
collaborate with its leaders.” (4)

Honduras was a staging ground in the early 1980s for the Contras who
were trying to overthrow the socialist Sandinista government in
Nicaragua. John D. Negroponte, currently Deputy Secretary of State, was
our embassador when our military aid to Honduras rose from $4 million to
$77.4 million per year. Negroponte denies having had any knowledge of
these atrocities during his tenure. However, his predecessor in that
position, Jack R. Binns, had reported in 1981 that he was deeply
concerned at increasing evidence of officially sponsored/sanctioned
assassinations. (5)


In 1956 Hungary, a Soviet satellite nation, revolted against the Soviet
Union. During the uprising broadcasts by the U.S. Radio Free Europe into
Hungary sometimes took on an aggressive tone, encouraging the rebels to
believe that Western support was imminent, and even giving tactical
advice on how to fight the Soviets. Their hopes were raised then dashed
by these broadcasts which cast an even darker shadow over the Hungarian
tragedy.“ (1) The Hungarian and Soviet death toll was about 3,000 and
the revolution was crushed. (2)


In 1965, in Indonesia, a coup replaced General Sukarno with General
Suharto as leader. The U.S. played a role in that change of government.
Robert Martens,a former officer in the U.S. embassy in Indonesia,
described how U.S. diplomats and CIA officers provided up to 5,000 names
to Indonesian Army death squads in 1965 and checked them off as they
were killed or captured. Martens admitted that “I probably have a lot of
blood on my hands, but that’s not all bad. There’s a time when you have
to strike hard at a decisive moment.” (1,2,3) Estimates of the number of
deaths range from 500,000 to 3 million. (4,5,6)

From 1993 to 1997 the U.S. provided Jakarta with almost $400 million in
economic aid and sold tens of million of dollars of weaponry to that
nation. U.S. Green Berets provided training for the Indonesia’s elite
force which was responsible for many of atrocities in East Timor. (3)


Iran lost about 262,000 people in the war against Iraq from 1980 to
1988. (1) See Iraq for more information about that war.

On July 3, 1988 the U.S. Navy ship, the Vincennes, was operating withing
Iranian waters providing military support for Iraq during the Iran-Iraq
war. During a battle against Iranian gunboats it fired two missiles at
an Iranian Airbus, which was on a routine civilian flight. All 290
civilian on board were killed. (2,3)


A. The Iraq-Iran War lasted from 1980 to 1988 and during that time there
were about 105,000 Iraqi deaths according to the Washington Post. (1,2)

According to Howard Teicher, a former National Security Council
official, the U.S. provided the Iraqis with billions of dollars in
credits and helped Iraq in other ways such as making sure that Iraq had
military equipment including biological agents This surge of help for
Iraq came as Iran seemed to be winning the war and was close to Basra.
(1) The U.S. was not adverse to both countries weakening themselves as a
result of the war, but it did not appear to want either side to win.

B: The U.S.-Iraq War and the Sanctions Against Iraq extended from 1990
to 2003.

Iraq invaded Kuwait on August 2, 1990 and the U.S. responded by
demanding that Iraq withdraw, and four days later the U.N. levied
international sanctions.

Iraq had reason to believe that the U.S. would not object to its
invasion of Kuwait, since U.S. Ambassador to Iraq, April Glaspie, had
told Saddam Hussein that the U.S. had no position on the dispute that
his country had with Kuwait. So the green light was given, but it seemed
to be more of a trap.

As a part of the public relations strategy to energize the American
public into supporting an attack against Iraq the daughter of the
Kuwaiti ambassador to the U.S. falsely testified before Congress that
Iraqi troops were pulling the plugs on incubators in Iraqi hospitals.
(1) This contributed to a war frenzy in the U.S.

The U.S. air assault started on January 17, 1991 and it lasted for 42
days. On February 23 President H.W. Bush ordered the U.S. ground assault
to begin. The invasion took place with much needless killing of Iraqi
military personnel. Only about 150 American military personnel died
compared to about 200,000 Iraqis. Some of the Iraqis were mercilessly
killed on the Highway of Death and about 400 tons of depleted uranium
were left in that nation by the U.S. (2,3)

Other deaths later were from delayed deaths due to wounds, civilians
killed, those killed by effects of damage of the Iraqi water treatment
facilities and other aspects of its damaged infrastructure and by the

In 1995 the Food and Agriculture Organization of the U.N. reported that
U.N sanctions against on Iraq had been responsible for the deaths of
more than 560,000 children since 1990. (5)

Leslie Stahl on the TV Program 60 Minutes in 1996 mentioned to Madeleine
Albright, U.S. Ambassador to the U.N. “We have heard that a half million
children have died. I mean, that’s more children than died in Hiroshima.
And – and you know, is the price worth it?” Albright replied “I think
this is a very hard choice, but the price – we think is worth it.” (4)

In 1999 UNICEF reported that 5,000 children died each month as a result
of the sanction and the War with the U.S. (6)

Richard Garfield later estimated that the more likely number of excess
deaths among children under five years of age from 1990 through March
1998 to be 227,000 – double those of the previous decade. Garfield
estimated that the numbers to be 350,000 through 2000 (based in part on
result of another study). (7)

However, there are limitations to his study. His figures were not
updated for the remaining three years of the sanctions. Also, two other
somewhat vulnerable age groups were not studied: young children above
the age of five and the elderly.

All of these reports were considerable indicators of massive numbers of
deaths which the U.S. was aware of and which was a part of its strategy
to cause enough pain and terror among Iraqis to cause them to revolt
against their government.

C: Iraq-U.S. War started in 2003 and has not been concluded

Just as the end of the Cold War emboldened the U.S. to attack Iraq in
1991 so the attacks of September 11, 2001 laid the groundwork for the
U.S. to launch the current war against Iraq. While in some other wars we
learned much later about the lies that were used to deceive us, some of
the deceptions that were used to get us into this war became known
almost as soon as they were uttered. There were no weapons of mass
destruction, we were not trying to promote democracy, we were not trying
to save the Iraqi people from a dictator.

The total number of Iraqi deaths that are a result of our current Iraq
against Iraq War is 654,000, of which 600,000 are attributed to acts of
violence, according to Johns Hopkins researchers. (1,2)

Since these deaths are a result of the U.S. invasion, our leaders must
accept responsibility for them.

Israeli-Palestinian War

About 100,000 to 200,000 Israelis and Palestinians, but mostly the
latter, have been killed in the struggle between those two groups. The
U.S. has been a strong supporter of Israel, providing billions of
dollars in aid and supporting its possession of nuclear weapons. (1,2)

Korea, North and South

The Korean War started in 1950 when, according to the Truman
administration, North Korea invaded South Korea on June 25th. However,
since then another explanation has emerged which maintains that the
attack by North Korea came during a time of many border incursions by
both sides. South Korea initiated most of the border clashes with North
Korea beginning in 1948. The North Korea government claimed that by 1949
the South Korean army committed 2,617 armed incursions. It was a myth
that the Soviet Union ordered North Korea to attack South Korea. (1,2)

The U.S. started its attack before a U.N. resolution was passed
supporting our nation’s intervention, and our military forces added to
the mayhem in the war by introducing the use of napalm. (1)

During the war the bulk of the deaths were South Koreans, North Koreans
and Chinese. Four sources give deaths counts ranging from 1.8 to 4.5
million. (3,4,5,6) Another source gives a total of 4 million but does
not identify to which nation they belonged. (7)

John H. Kim, a U.S. Army veteran and the Chair of the Korea Committee of
Veterans for Peace, stated in an article that during the Korean War “the
U.S. Army, Air Force and Navy were directly involved in the killing of
about three million civilians – both South and North Koreans – at many
locations throughout Korea…It is reported that the U.S. dropped some
650,000 tons of bombs, including 43,000 tons of napalm bombs, during the
Korean War.” It is presumed that this total does not include Chinese

Another source states a total of about 500,000 who were Koreans and
presumably only military. (8,9)


From 1965 to 1973 during the Vietnam War the U.S. dropped over two
million tons of bombs on Laos – more than was dropped in WWII by both
sides. Over a quarter of the population became refugees. This was later
called a “secret war,” since it occurred at the same time as the Vietnam
War, but got little press. Hundreds of thousands were killed. Branfman
make the only estimate that I am aware of , stating that hundreds of
thousands died. This can be interpeted to mean that at least 200,000
died. (1,2,3)

U.S. military intervention in Laos actually began much earlier. A civil
war started in the 1950s when the U.S. recruited a force of 40,000
Laotians to oppose the Pathet Lao, a leftist political party that
ultimately took power in 1975.

Also See Vietnam


Between 8,000 and 12,000 Nepalese have died since a civil war broke out
in 1996. The death rate, according to Foreign Policy in Focus, sharply
increased with the arrival of almost 8,400 American M-16 submachine guns
(950 rpm) and U.S. advisers. Nepal is 85 percent rural and badly in need
of land reform. Not surprisingly 42 % of its people live below the
poverty level. (1,2)

In 2002, after another civil war erupted, President George W. Bush
pushed a bill through Congress authorizing $20 million in military aid
to the Nepalese government. (3)


In 1981 the Sandinistas overthrew the Somoza government in Nicaragua,
(1) and until 1990 about 25,000 Nicaraguans were killed in an armed
struggle between the Sandinista government and Contra rebels who were
formed from the remnants of Somoza’s national government. The use of
assassination manuals by the Contras surfaced in 1984. (2,3)

The U.S. supported the victorious government regime by providing covert
military aid to the Contras (anti-communist guerillas) starting in
November, 1981. But when Congress discovered that the CIA had supervised
acts of sabotage in Nicaragua without notifying Congress, it passed the
Boland Amendment in 1983 which prohibited the CIA, Defense Department
and any other government agency from providing any further covert
military assistance. (4)

But ways were found to get around this prohibition. The National
Security Council, which was not explicitly covered by the law, raised
private and foreign funds for the Contras. In addition, arms were sold
to Iran and the proceeds were diverted from those sales to the Contras
engaged in the insurgency against the Sandinista government. (5)
Finally, the Sandinistas were voted out of office in 1990 by voters who
thought that a change in leadership would placate the U.S., which was
causing misery to Nicaragua’s citizenry by it support of the Contras.


In 1971 West Pakistan, an authoritarian state supported by the U.S.,
brutally invaded East Pakistan. The war ended after India, whose economy
was staggering after admitting about 10 million refugees, invaded East
Pakistan (now Bangladesh) and defeated the West Pakistani forces. (1)

Millions of people died during that brutal struggle, referred to by some
as genocide committed by West Pakistan. That country had long been an
ally of the U.S., starting with $411 million provided to establish its
armed forces which spent 80% of its budget on its military. $15 million
in arms flowed into W. Pakistan during the war. (2,3,4)

Three sources estimate that 3 million people died and (5,2,6) one source
estimates 1.5 million. (3)


In December, 1989 U.S. troops invaded Panama, ostensibly to arrest
Manuel Noriega, that nation’s president. This was an example of the U.S.
view that it is the master of the world and can arrest anyone it wants
to. For a number of years before that he had worked for the CIA, but
fell out of favor partially because he was not an opponent of the
Sandinistas in Nicaragua. (1) It has been estimated that between 500 and
4,000 people died. (2,3,4)

Paraguay: See South America: Operation Condor


The Philippines were under the control of the U.S. for over a hundred
years. In about the last 50 to 60 years the U.S. has funded and
otherwise helped various Philippine governments which sought to suppress
the activities of groups working for the welfare of its people. In 1969
the Symington Committee in the U.S. Congress revealed how war material
was sent there for a counter-insurgency campaign. U.S. Special Forces
and Marines were active in some combat operations. The estimated number
of persons that were executed and disappeared under President Fernando
Marcos was over 100,000. (1,2)

South America: Operation Condor

This was a joint operation of 6 despotic South American governments
(Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay and Uruguay) to share
information about their political opponents. An estimated 13,000 people
were killed under this plan. (1)

It was established on November 25, 1975 in Chile by an act of the
Interamerican Reunion on Military Intelligence. According to U.S.
embassy political officer, John Tipton, the CIA and the Chilean Secret
Police were working together, although the CIA did not set up the
operation to make this collaboration work. Reportedly, it ended in 1983. (2)

On March 6, 2001 the New York Times reported the existence of a recently
declassified State Department document revealing that the United States
facilitated communications for Operation Condor. (3)


Since 1955, when it gained its independence, Sudan has been involved
most of the time in a civil war. Until about 2003 approximately 2
million people had been killed. It not known if the death toll in Darfur
is part of that total.

Human rights groups have complained that U.S. policies have helped to
prolong the Sudanese civil war by supporting efforts to overthrow the
central government in Khartoum. In 1999 U.S. Secretary of State
Madeleine Albright met with the leader of the Sudan People’s Liberation
Army (SPLA) who said that she offered him food supplies if he would
reject a peace plan sponsored by Egypt and Libya.

In 1978 the vastness of Sudan’s oil reservers was discovered and within
two years it became the sixth largest recipient of U.S, military aid.
It’s reasonable to assume that if the U.S. aid a government to come to
power it will feel obligated to give the U.S. part of the oil pie.

A British group, Christian Aid, has accused foreign oil companies of
complicity in the depopulation of villages. These companies – not
American – receive government protection and in turn allow the
government use of its airstrips and roads.

In August 1998 the U.S. bombed Khartoum, Sudan with 75 cruise míssiles.
Our government said that the target was a chemical weapons factory owned
by Osama bin Laden. Actually, bin Laden was no longer the owner, and the
plant had been the sole supplier of pharmaceutical supplies for that
poor nation. As a result of the bombing tens of thousands may have died
because of the lack of medicines to treat malaria, tuberculosis and
other diseases. The U.S. settled a lawsuit filed by the factory’s owner.

Uruguay: See South America: Operation Condor


In Vietnam, under an agreement several decades ago, there was supposed
to be an election for a unified North and South Vietnam. The U.S.
opposed this and supported the Diem government in South Vietnam. In
August, 1964 the CIA and others helped fabricate a phony Vietnamese
attack on a U.S. ship in the Gulf of Tonkin and this was used as a
pretext for greater U.S. involvement in Vietnam. (1)

During that war an American assassination operation,called Operation
Phoenix, terrorized the South Vietnamese people, and during the war
American troops were responsible in 1968 for the mass slaughter of the
people in the village of My Lai.

According to a Vietnamese government statement in 1995 the number of
deaths of civilians and military personnel during the Vietnam War was
5.1 million. (2)

Since deaths in Cambodia and Laos were about 2.7 million (See Cambodia
and Laos) the estimated total for the Vietnam War is 7.8 million.

The Virtual Truth Commission provides a total for the war of 5 million,
(3) and Robert McNamara, former Secretary Defense, according to the New
York Times Magazine says that the number of Vietnamese dead is 3.4
million. (4,5)


Yugoslavia was a socialist federation of several republics. Since it
refused to be closely tied to the Soviet Union during the Cold War, it
gained some suport from the U.S. But when the Soviet Union dissolved,
Yugoslavia’s usefulness to the U.S. ended, and the U.S and Germany
worked to convert its socialist economy to a capitalist one by a process
primarily of dividing and conquering. There were ethnic and religious
differences between various parts of Yugoslavia which were manipulated
by the U.S. to cause several wars which resulted in the dissolution of
that country.

From the early 1990s until now Yugoslavia split into several
independent nations whose lowered income, along with CIA connivance, has
made it a pawn in the hands of capitalist countries. (1) The dissolution
of Yugoslavia was caused primarily by the U.S. (2)

Here are estimates of some, if not all, of the internal wars in
Yugoslavia. All wars: 107,000; (3,4)

Bosnia and Krajina: 250,000; (5) Bosnia: 20,000 to 30,000; (5) Croatia:
15,000; (6) and

Kosovo: 500 to 5,000. (7)



1.Mark Zepezauer, Boomerang (Monroe, Maine: Common Courage Press, 2003),

2.Chronology of American State Terrorism


3.Soviet War in Afghanistan

4.Mark Zepezauer, The CIA’S Greatest Hits (Monroe, Maine: Common Courage
Press, 1994), p.76

5.U.S Involvement in Afghanistan, Wikipedia Afghanistan)

6.The CIA’s Intervention in Afghanistan, Interview with Zbigniew
Brzezinski, Le Nouvel Observateur, Paris, 15-21 January 1998, Posted at 15 October 2001,

7.William Blum, Rogue State (Monroe, Maine: Common Courage Press, 2000), p.5

8.Unknown News,


1.Howard W. French “From Old Files, a New Story of the U.S. Role in the
Angolan War” New York Times 3/31/02

2.Angolan Update, American Friends Service Committee FS, 11/1/99 flyer.

3.Norman Solomon, War Made Easy, (John Wiley & Sons, 2005) p. 82-83.

4.Lance Selfa, U.S. Imperialism, A Century of Slaughter, International
Socialist Review Issue 7, Spring 1999 (as appears in Third world
Traveler www.

5. Jeffress Ramsay, Africa , (Dushkin/McGraw Hill Guilford Connecticut),
1997, p. 144-145.

6.Mark Zepezauer, The CIA’S Greatest Hits (Monroe, Maine: Common Courage
Press, 1994), p.54.

Argentina : See South America: Operation Condor


1. Phil Gunson, Guardian, 5/6/02, /article/0,4273,41-07884,00.html

2.Jerry Meldon, Return of Bolilvia’s Drug – Stained Dictator,

Brazil See South America: Operation Condor


1.Virtual Truth Commissiion .

2.David Model, President Richard Nixon, Henry Kissinger, and the Bombing
of Cambodia excerpted from the book Lying for Empire How to Commit War
Crimes With A Straight Face, Common Courage Press, 2005,

3.Noam Chomsky, Chomsky on Cambodia under Pol Pot,


1.William Blum, Rogue State (Monroe, Maine: Common Courage Press, 2000),
p. 151-152 .

2.Richard Keeble, Crimes Against Humanity in Chad, Znet/Activism


1.Parenti, Michael, The Sword and the Dollar (New York, St. Martin’s
Press, 1989) p. 56.

2.William Blum, Rogue State (Monroe, Maine: Common Courage Press, 2000),
p. 142-143.

3.Moreorless: Heroes and Killers of the 20th Century, Augusto Pinochet

4.Associated Press,Pincohet on 91st Birthday, Takes Responsibility for
Regimes’s Abuses, Dayton Daily News 11/26/06

5.Chalmers Johnson, Blowback, The Costs and Consequences of American
Empire (New York: Henry Holt and Company, 2000), p. 18.

China: See Korea


1.Chronology of American State Terrorism, p.2

2.William Blum, Rogue State (Monroe, Maine: Common Courage Press, 2000),
p. 163.

3.Millions Killed by Imperialism Washington Post May 6,

4.Gabriella Gamini, CIA Set Up Death Squads in Colombia Times Newspapers
Limited, Dec. 5,

5.Virtual Truth Commission, 1991

Human Rights Watch Report: Colombia’s Killer Networks–The
Military-Paramilitary Partnership).


1.St. James Encyclopedia of Popular Culture – on Bay of Pigs


Democratic Republic of Congo (Formerly Zaire)

1.F. Jeffress Ramsey, Africa (Guilford Connecticut, 1997), p. 85

2. Anup Shaw The Democratic Republic of Congo,

3.Kevin Whitelaw, A Killing in Congo, U. S. News and World

4.William Blum, Killing Hope (Monroe, Maine: Common Courage Press,
1995), p 158-159.

5.Ibid.,p. 260

6.Ibid.,p. 259


8.David Pickering, “World War in Africa, 6/26/02,

9.William D. Hartung and Bridget Moix, Deadly Legacy; U.S. Arms to
Africa and the Congo War, Arms Trade Resource Center, January ,

Dominican Republic

1.Norman Solomon, (untitled) Baltimore Sun April 26, 2005

Intervention Spin Cycle


3.William Blum, Killing Hope (Monroe, Maine: Common Courage Press,
1995), p. 175.

4.Mark Zepezauer, The CIA’S Greatest Hits (Monroe, Maine: Common Courage
Press, 1994), p.26-27.

East Timor

1.Virtual Truth Commission,

2.Matthew Jardine, Unraveling Indonesia, Nonviolent Activist, 1997)

3.Chronology of American State

4.William Blum, Killing Hope (Monroe, Maine: Common Courage Press,
1995), p. 197.

5.US trained butchers of Timor, The Guardian, London. Cited by The
Drudge Report, September 19, 1999.

El Salvador

1.Robert T. Buckman, Latin America 2003, (Stryker-Post Publications
Baltimore 2003) p. 152-153.

2.William Blum, Rogue State (Monroe, Maine: Common Courage Press, 2000),
p. 54-55.

3.El Salvador,

4.Virtual Truth Commissiion


1.Mark Zepezauer, The CIA’S Greatest Hits (Monroe, Maine: Common Courage
Press, 1994), p. 66-67.

2.Stephen Zunes, The U.S. Invasion of
Grenada, .


1.Virtual Truth Commissiion


3.Mark Zepezauer, The CIA’S Greatest Hits (Monroe, Maine: Common Courage
Press, 1994), p.2-13.

4.Robert T. Buckman, Latin America 2003 (Stryker-Post Publications
Baltimore 2003) p. 162.

5.Douglas Farah, Papers Show U.S. Role in Guatemalan Abuses, Washington
Post Foreign Service, March 11, 1999, A 26



2.Mark Zepezauer, The CIA’S Greatest Hits (Monroe, Maine: Common Courage
Press, 1994), p 87.

3.William Blum, Haiti 1986-1994: Who Will Rid Me of This Turbulent


1.William Blum, Rogue State (Monroe, Maine: Common Courage Press, 2000),
p. 55.

2.Reports by Country: Honduras, Virtual Truth

3.James A. Lucas, Torture Gets The Silence Treatment, Countercurrents,
July 26, 2004.

4.Gary Cohn and Ginger Thompson, Unearthed: Fatal Secrets, Baltimore
Sun, reprint of a series that appeared June 11-18, 1995 in Jack
Nelson-Pallmeyer, School of Assassins, p. 46 Orbis Books 2001.

5.Michael Dobbs, Negroponte’s Time in Honduras at Issue, Washington
Post, March 21, 2005


1.Edited by Malcolm Byrne, The 1956 Hungarian Revoluiton: A history in
Documents November 4,

2.Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia,


1.Virtual Truth Commission

2.Editorial, Indonesia’s Killers, The Nation, March 30, 1998.

3.Matthew Jardine, Indonesia Unraveling, Non Violent Activist Sept–Oct,
1997 (Amnesty) 2/7/07.

4.Sison, Jose Maria, Reflections on the 1965 Massacre in Indonesia, p.

5.Annie Pohlman, Women and the Indonesian Killings of 1965-1966: Gender
Variables and Possible Direction for Research,

6.Peter Dale Scott, The United States and the Overthrow of Sukarno,
1965-1967, Pacific Affairs, 58, Summer 1985, pages

7.Mark Zepezauer, The CIA’S Greatest Hits (Monroe, Maine: Common Courage
Press, 1994), p.30.


1.Geoff Simons, Iraq from Sumer to Saddam, 1996, St. Martins Press, NY
p. 317.

2.Chronology of American State

3.BBC 1988: US Warship Shoots Down Iranian
Airliner )


Iran-Iraq War

1.Michael Dobbs, U.S. Had Key role in Iraq Buildup, Washington Post
December 30, 2002, p A01

2.Global Security.Org , Iran Iraq War

U.S. Iraq War and Sanctions

1.Ramsey Clark, The Fire This Time (New York, Thunder’s Mouth), 1994,

2.Ibid., p. 52-54

3.Ibid., p. 43

4.Anthony Arnove, Iraq Under Siege, (South End Press Cambridge MA 2000).
p. 175.

5.Food and Agricultural Organizaiton, The Children are Dying, 1995 World
View Forum, Internationa Action Center, International Relief
Association, p. 78

6.Anthony Arnove, Iraq Under Siege, South End Press Cambridge MA 2000.
p. 61.

7.David Cortright, A Hard Look at Iraq Sanctions December 3, 2001, The

U.S-Iraq War 2003-?

1.Jonathan Bor 654,000 Deaths Tied to Iraq War Baltimore Sun , October


Israeli-Palestinian War

1.Post-1967 Palestinian & Israeli Deaths from Occupation & Violence May
16, 2006

2.Chronology of American State Terrorism


1.James I. Matray Revisiting Korea: Exposing Myths of the Forgotten War,
Korean War Teachers Conference: The Korean War, February 9,

2.William Blum, Killing Hope (Monroe, Maine: Common Courage Press,
1995), p. 46

3.Kanako Tokuno, Chinese Winter Offensive in Korean War – the Debacle of
American Strategy, ICE Case Studies Number 186, May,

4.John G. Stroessinger, Why Nations go to War, (New York; St. Martin’s
Press), p. 99)

5.Britannica Concise Encyclopedia, as reported in

6.Exploring the Environment: Korean

7.S. Brian Wilson, Who are the Real Terrorists? Virtual Truth

8.Korean War Casualty Statistics www.century

9.S. Brian Wilson, Documenting U.S. War Crimes in North Korea (Veterans
for Peace Newsletter) Spring, 2002)


1.William Blum Rogue State (Maine, Common Cause Press) p. 136

2.Chronology of American State

3.Fred Branfman, War Crimes in Indochina and our Troubled National Soul


1.Conn Hallinan, Nepal & the Bush Administration: Into Thin Air,
February 3, 2004

2.Human Rights Watch, Nepal’s Civil War: the Conflict Resumes, March 2006 )

3.Wayne Madsen, Possible CIA Hand in the Murder of the Nepal Royal
Family, India Independent Media Center, September 25,


1.Virtual Truth Commission

2.Timeline Nicaragua

3.Chronology of American State Terrorism,

4.William Blum, Nicaragua 1981-1990 Destabilization in Slow Motion

5.Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia,


1.John G. Stoessinger, Why Nations Go to War, (New York: St. Martin’s
Press), 1974 pp 157-172.

2.Asad Ismi, A U.S. – Financed Military Dictatorship, The CCPA Monitor,
June 2002, Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives

3.Mark Zepezauer, Boomerang (Monroe, Maine: Common Courage Press, 2003),
p.123, 124.

4.Arjum Niaz ,When America Look the Other Way by,

5.Leo Kuper, Genocide (Yale University Press, 1981), p. 79.

6.Bangladesh Liberation War , Wikipedia, the Free


1.Mark Zepezauer, The CIA’s Greatest Hits, (Odonian Press 1998) p. 83.

2.William Blum, Rogue State (Monroe, Maine: Common Courage Press, 2000),

3.U.S. Military Charged with Mass Murder, The Winds

4.Mark Zepezauer, CIA’S Greatest Hits (Monroe, Maine: Common Courage
Press, 1994), p.83.

Paraguay See South America: Operation Condor


1.Romeo T. Capulong, A Century of Crimes Against the Filipino People,
Presentation, Public Interest Law Center, World Tribunal for Iraq Trial
in New York City on August 25,2004.

2.Roland B. Simbulan The CIA in Manila – Covert Operations and the CIA’s
Hidden Hisotry in the Philippines Equipo Nizkor Information – Derechos,

South America: Operation Condor

1.John Dinges, Pulling Back the Veil on Condor, The Nation, July 24, 2000.

2.Virtual Truth Commission, Telling the Truth for a Better



1.Mark Zepezauer, Boomerang, (Monroe, Maine: Common Courage Press,
2003), p. 30, 32,34,36.

2.The Black Commentator, Africa Action The Tale of Two Genocides: The
Failed US Response to Rwanda and Darfur, 11 August

Uruguay See South America: Operation Condor


1.Mark Zepezauer, The CIA’S Greatest Hits (Monroe, Maine:Common Courage
Press,1994), p 24

2.Casualties – US vs NVA/VC,

3.Brian Wilson, Virtual Truth Commission

4.Fred Branfman, U.S. War Crimes in Indochiona and our Duty to Truth
August 26, 2004

5.David K Shipler, Robert McNamara and the Ghosts of


1.Sara Flounders, Bosnia Tragedy:The Unknown Role of the Pentagon in
NATO in the Balkans (New York: International Action Center) p. 47-75

2.James A. Lucas, Media Disinformation on the War in Yugoslavia: The
Dayton Peace Accords Revisited, Global Research, September 7, 2005


3.Yugoslav Wars in 1990s

4.George Kenney, The Bosnia Calculation: How Many Have Died? Not nearly
as many as some would have you think., NY Times Magazine, April 23, 1995


5.Chronology of American State Terrorism


6.Croatian War of Independence, Wikipedia

7.Human Rights Watch, New Figures on Civilian Deaths in Kosovo War,
(February 7,
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