rec.roller-coaster FAQ, part 1/3: General info & introduction

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Geoff Allen

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Nov 20, 1995, 3:00:00 AM11/20/95
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Archive-name: roller-coaster-faq/part1
Last-modified: Wed Jul 19, 1995; 21:47:41 MDT


WELCOME TO THE WORLD OF ROLLER-COASTER FANATICISM!
==================================================

This article is posted regularly to rec.roller-coaster, news.answers, and
rec.answers by Geoff Allen. It is also available in a hypertext version on
the World Wide Web as http://www.eecs.wsu.edu/~geoff/coaster_faq. The
original conversion to hypertext was done by Darlene Fladager.

This article is the main info posting for rec.roller-coaster, the net's own
asylum for coaster fanatics. In this article, you'll find everything (or,
almost everything) you need to know to be a coaster fanatic, too.

Enjoy your ride!!!!


Contents:
---------

Part 1: General info & introduction
1.1: About rec.roller-coaster
1.2: About Usenet
1.3: About this document
Part 2: Coaster info, organizations, and references
2.1: Common abbreviations
2.2: Definitions of Roller-Coaster terms
2.3: American Coaster Enthusiasts - ACE
2.4: Mid-Atlantic Coaster Club - MACC
2.5: Western New York Coaster Club - WNYCC
2.6: Great Ohio Coaster Club - GOCC
2.7: First Drop - U.K. Coaster Club
2.8: National Amusement Park Historical Association - NAPHA
2.9: National Carousel Association - NCA
2.10: Books on Roller Coasters and Amusement Parks
2.11: Magazines
2.12: FTP site
2.13: Other Stuff of Interest
2.14: Amusement Industry Jobs
Part 3: Lists and statistics
3.1: Roller Coaster Designer Info
3.2: Roller Coaster Record Holders
3.3: ACE's Classic Coaster Roster
3.4: Inside Track ``Top Coasters'' Readers Survey
3.5: Amusement Park Attendance Statistics
3.6: Coming Attractions -- new coasters for 95 and beyond!
3.7: List of Endangered Coasters in USA

Recent changes
--------------

October, 1995

* Updated the email address of ACE membership director Brian Peters
* Added email addresses to the "Magazines" section.
* Some changes to the "Coaster Designers" section.
* Added "Screechin Eagle" to ACE Classic Coaster roster.
* Some major changes to the "Coming attractions" section.
* (Perhaps most important!) Fixed the posting bug, and am posting ahead of
time (on Oct. 5) so everyone can get their hands on a real, live,
up-to-date version. It'll also be auto-posted at the regular time on the
20th. Hopefully, we're back on track for regularly posting.

June, 1995

* Yes, I'm a day late posting this month. My auto-poster failed due to a
slight configuration problem. But never fear, if you're reading this,
I've got the problem fixed.
* Updated the Inside Track survey listing, adding the 1994 results.
(Thanks to Bill Buckley for providing the info.)
* Added "Point of View" to the abbreviations and the definitions sections.
* I had planned to add park operating dates and coming coaster events to
this month's edition, but haven't had a chance. Hopefully they'll be
here next month. Again, thanks to Bill Buckley for providing the info.
* I have several additions to the book section, courtesy of Mark M. Oship.
Again, I haven't had time to include them this month, but hope to next
month.

May, 1995

* Added info on Great Ohio Coaster Club
* Renumbered the sections (and changed the numbering scheme while I was at
it).
* Added Pepsi Max to the "steepest steel" records section
* Updated the status of the Vancouver Playland Coaster and added the
Conneaut Lake Blue Streak to the "endangered coasters" section.
* Corrected the name "David Pickstone" in the New-4-95 section.
* Updated several items in the New-4-96 section.
* Added info for _The Ride_ magazine.
* Updated (finally!) the description of the Coaster Calendar from Moor
publishing. I have the calendar, but never managed to sit down and type
in descriptions of this year's calendar. Thanks to Bill Buckley for
doing it.
* Updated pricing and contact info for NAPHA.


1.1: About rec.roller-coaster
-----------------------------

The official definition of rec.roller-coaster is:

rec.roller-coaster -- Roller coasters and other amusement park rides.

rec.roller-coaster is an unmoderated newsgroup which passed its vote for
creation by 184:72 as reported in news.announce.newsgroups on 21 July 1991.

This newsgroup is for the discussion of any amusement park rides, including
(but certainly not limited to) roller coasters. Other topics include park
operating times/season schedules, admission prices, latest attractions,
future expansion efforts, etc. You might also want to read rec.parks.theme
for pertinent discussions.


1.2: Usenet info
----------------
If you're new to Usenet, I'd really recommend reading the newsgroups
news.announce.newusers and news.newusers.questions for a while. You can
learn a lot of useful things, and maybe even some not so useful things.


1.3: About this document
------------------------

The rec.roller-coaster FAQ is posted on the 20th of every month to
rec.roller-coaster, rec.answers, and news.answers. Why the 20th, you ask?
Because the patent for LaMarcus Thompson's Switchback Railway was issued on
January 20, 1885. The Switchback Railway is widely considered to the the
first modern roller coaster. (Thanks to Dave Altoff for his list of coaster
dates which helped me pick a good date to commemorate with the FAQ.)

The rec.roller-coaster FAQ is also available in a hypertext version on the
World Wide Web as http://www.eecs.wsu.edu/~geoff/coaster_faq/.

The plain text version of this document comes in three parts. Part 1 offers
a table of contents to the posts, plus a general introduction. Part 2
offers general roller-coaster info -- abbreviations, definitions,
information on organizations, and references for the roller
coaster/amusement park enthusiast. Part 3 contains lists and statistics
relating to coasters. It is also the most volatile section, more likely
than the others to be changed.

The rec.roller-coaster FAQ was originally compiled by Dave Rounds
(da...@bcco.com), then maintained by Bill Buckley
(buc...@powdml.enet.dec.com), and has now fallen into my hands (Geoff
Allen, ge...@eecs.wsu.edu). Comments and questions are most welcome via
e-mail to Geoff.

You can get a copy of the latest version of this document via anonymous FTP
from the "official" roller-coaster FTP site, gboro.rowan.edu, in directory
/pub/Coasters (more on the site later). You can also get a copy from the
official archive of news.answers, which is on rtfm.mit.edu in the directory
/pub/usenet-by-group/rec.roller-coaster. (A lot of other interesting FAQs
are there, too. The name under which a FAQ is archived appears in the
Archive-name: line at the top of the article. This FAQ, for example, is
archived as roller-coaster-faq/part1, 2, and 3. If you just want to browse
there, try directory /pub/usenet-by-hierarchy, where the dots in newsgroup
names represent directories. So these documents are in
/pub/usenet-by-hierarchy/rec/roller-coaster.)

If you don't know how to use FTP, or don't even know if you can at your site
(not all sites can), ask a knowledgeable user at your site.

Special thanks to all the contributors, commentators, error-correctors and
others who've helped to make this FAQ possible. They are (in no particular
order):

* Mark Wyatt (of Inside Track magazine)
* William "Buck" Buckley (buc...@powdml.enet.dec.com)
* Me, Geoff Allen, ge...@eecs.wsu.edu
* Ronnie Swain, sw...@aludra.usc.edu
* Tom Obszanski, Tom_-_O...@cup.portal.com
* bet...@apollo.hp.com
* Ken Denton, SY...@elan.glassboro.edu
* little gator aka s. mudgett, s...@harvee.billerica.ma.us
* Kara L. Robinson, KROB...@Kentvm.Kent.edu
* Michael A. Cornell, ma...@po.CWRU.Edu
* Chris Toomer, too...@cs.colostate.edu
* Paul Asente, ase...@mv.us.adobe.com
* Patty Winter, win...@apple.com
* Tom Maglione, magl...@media.mit.edu
* Bill Figie, w...@controls.ccd.harris.com
* Sharon Crichton, sha...@meaddata.com
* maniac, MAN...@ozone.com
* Justin Garvanovic (of First Drop Coaster Club),
Jus...@frstdrop.demon.co.uk
* Martin I Lewison, mil...@pitt.edu
* Matthew Crowther, crow...@crl.com
* Brian Peters, bpe...@pit.legent.com or coast...@aol.com
* Jeffrey L. Seifert, Jeffr...@AOL.COM
* Ty Fluharty, na...@pgh.nauticom.net
* Jan Fitzurka, jan...@city-net.com
* Jim Whelan, 73467...@compuserve.com
* Bill Bishop, wdbi...@dictator.uwaterloo.ca
* Nora G.

And now.... On with the show!!!!!!!

--
Geoff Allen, Washington State Univ, School of EE & CS, sysadmin support guy
(ge...@eecs.wsu.edu || ge...@wsu.edu) && http://www.eecs.wsu.edu/~geoff/
___________________________________________________________________________
Please remain seated and keep your hands and arms above your head
at all times. Enjoy your ride.

Geoff Allen

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Nov 20, 1995, 3:00:00 AM11/20/95
to
Archive-name: roller-coaster-faq/part2
Last-modified: Thu Oct 05, 1995; 14:48:42 MDT


This is part 2 of the rec.roller-coaster FAQ....

2.1: Common abbreviations
-------------------------

A lot of things discussed on rec.roller-coaster are in acronym form. This
is because writing out "Six Flags Over Texas" several times in a posting is
tedious, at best; ``SFoT'' is much easier to write. Here are some
abbreviations you're likely to see in discussions on rec.roller-coaster.
Some entries are hypertext links, which can take you to explanations of the
terms or organizations mentioned here. In the plain-text version, these
items are enclosed in angle brackets <<like this>> to let you know to look
for an explanation elsewhere.

ACE - <<American Coaster Enthusiasts>>
BGT - Busch Gardens Tampa, Tampa, FL
BGW - Busch Gardens Williamsburg, Williamsburg, VA
BTW - By the way
CI - Coney Island, Brooklyn, NY
CP - Cedar Point, Sandusky, OH
DL - Disneyland, Anaheim, CA
ERT - <<Exclusive Ride Time>>
FYI - For your information
GASM - Great American Scream Machine (roller coaster at SFGA, Jackson,
NJ)
GP - <<General Public>>
IAAPA - International Assoc. of Amusement Parks and Attractions
IMHO - In my humble opinion
IT - Inside Track magazine
MACC - <<Mid-Atlantic Coaster Club>>
NAPHA - <<National Amusement Park Historical Association>>
PCW - Paramount's Canada's Wonderland, Vaughn, Ontario, Canada (note
that many people think PCW is Paramount's Carowinds, but I don't think
we've settled on an acronym for it yet)
PGA - Paramount's Great America, Santa Clara, CA
PKD - Kings Dominion, Doswell, VA
PKI - Kings Island, Kings Mills, OH
POP - <<Pay One Price>>
POV - <<Point of View>>
RC - Roller Coaster
SBNO - <<Standing But Not Operating>>
SCBB - Santa Cruz Beach Boardwalk, Santa Cruz, CA
SFGAd - Six Flags Great Adventure, Jackson, NJ
SFGAm - Six Flags Great America, Gurnee, IL
SFAW - Six Flags Astroworld, Houston, TX
SFMM - Six Flags Magic Mountain, Valencia, CA
SFoG - Six Flags over Georgia, Atlanta, GA
SFoMA - Six Flags over Mid-America, Eureka, MO
SFoT - Six Flags over Texas, Arlington, TX
TC - Texas Cyclone, Astroworld, Houston, TX
TPM - <<Theme Park Mentality>>
WDW - Walt Disney World, Orange County, FL
WNYCC - Western New York Coaster Club
WoF - Worlds of Fun, Kansas City, MO


2.2: Definitions of Roller-Coaster terms

----------------------------------------

Discussions among coaster enthusiasts can soon become awash in jargon.
Below is a list of coaster terms used by enthusiasts when discussing their
favorite subject. This should help in following along with the discussions
live and in rec.roller-coaster. It'll also help you impress friends and
relatives with your knowledge of roller coasters. Cross-references to other
definitions in the list are enclosed in angle brackets <<like this>> in the
plain-text version, and are working hypertext links in the World Wide Web
version.

References to images at the ftp site, gboro.rowan.edu, which do a good job
of illustrating the point being defined are listed in square brackets, like
[Images: WHATEVER.GIF]. In the hypertext version, many of the image
references have a hyperlink; in these cases, the image displayed is a
modified (often smaller) version of the actual photo. This is not an
exhaustive list of all images that show a "whatever," but indicates those
images which do the best job of illustrating the definition.

Airtime
Describes the sensation of coming out of your seat when riding a
coaster. This effect is usually felt while riding in a front seat when
cresting a hill or in a back seat when descending.

Banked Turn
A turn in which the tracks are tilted laterally to allow trains to turn
at high speeds without undue discomfort to the riders due to <<lateral
gravity>>. Note, of course, that enthusiasts _like_ lateral gravity.
[Images: CB_CYC01.GIF, GA_CYC01.GIF]

Batwing
Arrow's name for an element just like a <<Boomerang>>, but a mirror
image of Vekoma's design.

B&M's version of a Batwing differs greatly from Arrow's. It features
two inversions as well, but it consists of two loops, both angled at 45
degrees and which face each other in a mirror-image arrangement.

Block
A section of track which is divided from other sections by brakes, chain
lift, or some other mean of preventing forward progress of the
<<train>>. The safety system prevents two trains from occupying a block
at the same time.

Boomerang
There are two different meanings for this term.

1. A type of coaster manufactured by Vekoma. It is a variation of the
<<shuttle loop>> where you are hoisted up an incline, released and
sent through the loading station into a semi-loop arrangement (as in
definition 2 below) that inverts you twice, then into a <<vertical
loop>>. After this the train heads up another incline and stops.
The train is then pulled further up the second incline and released
backwards, goes back through the loop and semi-loop and returns to
the station.
2. An element used in a looping steel coaster that inverts you twice
and also acts as a turnaround. You enter going up and to the left,
then the train twists upside down and follows through in an upright
U-shape, you twist upside down and to the left again, exiting
upright heading back in the direction you came from.

[Images: DRACHEN2.GIF]

Booster Wheels
The rotating wheels used to move the train near the station, pushing it
along on flat track.

Bowtie
An element similar to a <<boomerang>>, but which you exit in the same
direction entered, rather than making a 180 turn as in a Boomerang.

Brakes
Every coasteraholic's nightmare! ...used to slow the train, they are
located strategically in the circuit to control speeds in areas where
excessive speed may be undesirable (note that "undesirable" and "unsafe"
are not necessarily synonymous in this case, see also <<Theme Park
Mentality>>). Brakes are usually located in the center of the trackwork,
and not on the cars themselves. There are several different types of
brakes used on a coaster, they are:

Check Brake
A safety device that allows more than two trains to be on the same
circuit, as part of the "block" safety system. These are usually
brakes on a ride which don't necessarily slow down the train, but
separate one block from another. Should a train try to enter another
block when it is occupied, the safety system will <<set-up>> the
ride.

Scarf Brake
Used only to slow down a train, and are usually pre-set. The
difference between a Scarf brake and a Trim Brake is that a Trim
Brake can stop a train if needed, while a Scarf brake can only slow
one down.

Trim Brake
A brake used to slow the train running the track. This is used when
the coaster exceeds recommended operating margins. It is also used
when the train is causing too much wear on the track from excessive
speed.

Brake Run
A flat stretch of track, usually two to three train lengths, at the
station approach, where in-bound trains are halted. Since it is very
difficult to stop a train with wet brakes, this area is usually covered
to keep the brakes dry during a rainstorm.

Camel Back
A series of two or more hills, each slightly smaller than the preceding
one.

Also, B&M's reference to an "in-line" inversion element which can be
found on their Sit-down and Stand-up roller coasters.

Car
A unit or part of a coaster train, it usually carries between two and
eight passengers.

Chain Dogs
A catch or pawl device beneath the train cars which engages into the
chain lift.

Chain Lift
The rolling chain that carries the train to the crest of the lift hill.

Check Brake
A safety device that allows more than two trains to be on the same
course. If there is a problem in one "block" of track, the check brake
will not allow the following train(s) to continue the trackwork.

Circuit
A completed journey on a coaster track.

Classic Coaster
A term used to describe a coaster which is operated and maintained in a
"classic" sense. These coasters usually run traditional trains, void of
ratcheting lap bars, seat dividers, head rests, side bars, and other
modern restraint/safety devices. "Classic Coaster" is also an official
status given by the American Coaster Enthusiasts to coasters operating
in the above manner. (The <<list of ACE's Classic Coasters>> appears
later in this FAQ.)
[Images: JKRABT_C.GIF]

Cobra Roll
B&M's version of a <<boomerang>> element, slightly altered to
accommodate B&M 4-across trains. B&M has slightly different versions of
the Cobra Roll for their sit-down and <<inverted>> coasters.

Corkscrew
A coaster configuration that includes a horizontal spiral or helix in
which riders are turned upside down one or more times.

Cutback
An Arrow-designed element which consists of a single inversion in a
180-degree turnaround.

Diving Loop
A B&M designed element whose inspiration was taken from a stunt plane
maneuver. Riders enter the loop in a forward motion as the trains turn
to the side in a constant arc motion. Eventually the track inverts
before riders continue their parabolic curve back towards the ground.
The Diving Loop can be found on B&M's Stand-up and Sit-Down roller
coasters, but which is referred to as the "Immelman" Loop when used on
their <<Inverted>> coasters.

Dog Leg
A left or right jog or offset in the otherwise straight, flat portion or
trackwork.

Double Dip
A hill that has been divided into two separate drops by a flattening out
of the drop midway down the hill.

Elevated Curve
A type of curve, usually found on an Out-and-Back, where the curve
descends in height as it curves. These curves are normally banked as
well (See <<Banked Turn>>).
[Images: WILDONE4.GIF]

Exclusive Ride Time
Usually part of an organized Coaster Club's event. An "ERT" consists of
a block of time, usually before and/or after a park is available to the
<<general public>>, in which only the members of the coaster club are
allowed to ride. This allows the hard-core enthusiast more rides in less
time. Parks usually make sure their coaster(s) are running better for
such events, making them even more appealing.

Fan Curve
There are two somewhat different meanings of "fan curve" floating about.
A curved called a "fan curve" could actually meet definition 1 below, or
definition 2, or both. Confused? Good. ;^)

1. A curve with spoke reinforcements radiating from a central point to
the circumference of the track.

[Images: RUSA.GIF]

2. A curve that enters the turn while ascending, and exits the turn
while descending. These are usually more thrilling than a flat turn
(See <<Elevated Curve>>).

[Images: CB_CYC02.GIF]

Figure Eight
Layout of a coaster resembling the numeral eight, thus allowing both
right and left turns.

Fine' Del Capo
A portion of track that quickly ducks under an overhead support in such
a way as to give the rider a feeling of imminent decapitation. Can also
refer to the portion of track that first enters a tunnel or covered
brake run. Those of you who've studied music or Italian may recognize
the term as Latin for "end of the head." :^)
[Images: WILDONE2.GIF]

First Drop
Usually the highest and most exciting drop on a coaster, most often
following immediately after the chain lift. First drops are usually
angled at about 50 degrees.
[Images: BEASTPC.GIF, RATTLER1.GIF, HERC1.GIF]

Flat Spin
B&M's reference for a highly banked, high speed helix. This element can
be found on their Sit-down, Stand-up and <<Inverted>> roller coasters.

Flat Turn
A turn in which the trackwork remains virtually flat (i.e. the opposite
of a <<banked turn>>). It usually gives the riders the feeling that the
coaster may tip over, due to <<lateral gravity>>.
[Images: RUSA.GIF]

Flying Turns
A term from the original trackless coaster design. This coaster
resembles a bobsled run with the trains running in a U shaped trough.
The flying turns from the 1920s and 30s used Cypress wood for its trough
and maintenance was high. Newer versions of this type use steel for the
trough.

General Public
Literally refers to the non-enthusiasts who attend a park. The term is
used to connote those park patrons who like their roller coasters a
little (or a lot) less wild than the average enthusiast does.

Gully Coaster
A coaster that makes use of the natural terrain and gives an added
feeling of speed by keeping the track close to the ground through the
ups and downs.
[Images: BEASTPC.GIF]

Heartline Coaster
TOGO's steel coaster in which the center of gravity is designed around
the riders "Heartline". Formerly referred to as the "MEGA Coaster",
TOGO's Heartline Coaster contains drops and inversions very similar to
Arrow's <<Pipeline>> coaster, but its trains ride on top of the rails as
opposed to between them.

Heartline Flip
An element on B&M <<Inverted>> coasters which rotates the train in a
very small diameter corkscrew, producing a rotation about the rider's
"heartline". This is very similar to a barrel roll or B&M's "Camel
Back" inversion.

Helix
Corkscrew-shaped loops on either a vertical or horizontal plane. The
usual meaning is of spiral turns either descending (like going down the
bathtub drain) or ascending.
[Images: WILDONE5.GIF]

Hump
Sometimes used in reference to a coaster hill.

Immelman Loop
B&M's term for their "Diving Loop" as used on their <<Inverted>>
coasters. This new element is named after the German stunt pilot whos
famous air acrobatics inspired this coaster maneuver.

Incline Loop
B&M's new twist on a vertical loop, which is angled at a 45 degree
elevation. This is one-half of B & M's "Batwing" element.

Inversion
Any part of a steel roller coaster <<circuit>> that turns you upside
down.
[Images: DRACHEN3.GIF and many others]

Inverted
A coaster that rides below the track rather than on the track. The cars
on this type of coaster are rigidly connected to their wheel assembly
(Compare with <<Suspended>>).
[Images: BATMAN01-05.GIF, GADVBAT1-6.GIF, TOPGUN01-03.GIF]

Interlocking Loop
Two <<vertical loops>> that intertwine like two links on a chain. An
example would be the two loops on the Loch Ness Monster at Busch Gardens
in Williamsburg, Virginia.
[Images: NESSC01.GIF]

Lateral Gravity
Those forces which pull you to the side of the car (or slam you, as the
case may be), often found on <<flat turns>>, and often eliminated with
<<banked turns>> (especially on newer roller coasters).

Loading Platform
Portion of the station where passengers board the coaster trains.
[Images: CYCSTAT.GIF]

Long Line
3600 people waiting in front of you to ride a coaster!
[Images: MSTREAKC.GIF, TOPGUN01.GIF]

Machine
Term sometimes used in reference to a roller coaster.

Manual Brake
A hand-operated <<station brake>>, where the train is stopped by the
muscle power of the operator. Most often found on <<classic coasters>>.
Sometimes, the operator may not apply enough force and the train will
overshoot the station. If you're on board when this happens, you'll be
one of the lucky ones getting a free ride!

Negative G's
(Short for "Negative Gravity") See <<Airtime>>.

Out and Back
A style of roller coaster. The name describes the general configuration
of the ride, basically an elongated oval in which the train goes out to
a turnaround and then returns to the station. The truest form of this
would have no other curves besides the turnaround. Another way to do
this would be to put a couple of 90 degree turns (see <<dog leg>>) in
the ride giving it a L-shape. In general out and backs have higher
speeds than designs with more tight turns.

Parabolic
A coaster hill that has an almost continuous curve and very little, if
any, straight track.

Pay One Price
An amusement park admission which includes all rides and shows. The
alternative is for every ride to require a separate ticket (or tickets,
as the case may be).

Point of View
A view of a roller coaster as seen from the rider's point of view. This
is often done from the front seat, but can be from any seat on the
train. Both still and moving pictures can be "Point of View." Roller
coaster designers often create Point of View animations of roller
coasters that haven't been built yet, to give parks an idea of what the
ride will be like.
Pipeline
A coaster design by Arrow Dynamics in which the cars ride between the
rails, allowing such maneuvers as "barrel rolls" to be performed. No
pipeline coasters have been built yet, but similar designs are the TOGO
Ultra Twister and <<Heartline Coaster>>. B&M's <<Inverted>> coasters
feature a <<"heartline">> flip, which is similar to a barrel roll,
though not exactly the same.

Positive G's
Those forces which pull you downward, often appearing at the bottom of
hills, and in steel looping elements.

Racer
Any coaster that runs two trains that leave the station at the same time
and "race" other, most often on parallel tracks.
[Images: RACER*.GIF, RUSA.GIF, ROLLTH01.GIF]

Ratchet
A claw-toothed steel bar running on certain inclines that prevents a
train from rolling backwards. The ratchet causes the clanking sound
associated with the chain lift (also referred to as the "anti-rollback"
device or "Ratchet Dogs"). The ratchet itself does not stop the train.
This is done by a device affixed to the bottom of the car which catches
in the ratchet.

Set-Up
Any occurrence which causes trains to stop outside of the station. This
may include shutdowns initiated by the safety system, the operator, or
some other cause.

Shuttle Loop
A type of coaster where the train travels forward out of the station
through a vertical loop then up an incline of track that ascends high
into the air. The train then plummets backwards through the loop and
through the station, usually to another steep incline, which returns the
train to the brake run.
[Images: PYTHON1.GIF]

Side Friction
A coaster with guide rails located above and on the outside edge of the
running rails, instead of using guide <<wheels>>.

Sidewinder
One half of Arrow's version of a <<boomerang>> element, which makes a
90-degree turn.

Slammer
A very abrupt, rough drop that sometimes occurs after a major hill (an
extreme example of <<Airtime>>).

Speed Dip
A small hill taken at high speeds usually lifting riders off their seats
(see <<Airtime>>).

Speed Run
A series of speed dips, usually on the way back from the turnaround on
an <<Out and Back>> coaster.

Spiral
A 360-degree turn.

Standing But Not Operating
A roller coaster which is no longer operating but has not been
destroyed. Preservation efforts by the American Coaster Enthusiasts, and
others, often will focus on these coasters because of their status. They
could be torn down at any time, and the lack of maintenance will cause
their condition to deteriorate rapidly.
[Images: CI_TBOLT.GIF]

Stand-Up
A steel roller coaster, often with one or more inversions, where cars
are designed for the riders to ride standing up instead of sitting down.
[Images: SHOCK.GIF]

Station
A building that houses: ride operators, brake and chain lift controls,
brake run, loading and unloading platforms, train storage area, and
often, the train maintenance workshop.

Station Brake
Standard gear on EVERY coaster. Used for deceleration on return to the
station (See <<Brake Run>>).

Steel Coaster
Generally, any coaster with tubular steel rails supported with steel
framing. Some coasters classified as steel actually have wooden framing.
Cars usually have nylon wheels that impart a smooth, quiet ride.
[Images: GASM01A.GIF and many others]

Suspended
A coaster that rides below the track rather than on the track. The cars
on this type of coaster are designed such that they are free to swing
relative to their wheel assembly (Compare with <<Inverted>>).
[Images: BBWOLFC.GIF]

Suspended Looping Coaster
Vekoma's version of B&M's popular <<Inverted>> coaster. The major
differences are two-across seating vs. B&M's 4-across, and the track
fabrication is similar to that found on sit-down Vekoma or Arrow looping
coasters.

To date, Vekoma's Suspended Looping Coaster (SLC) are only available as
production model rides, and not available in custom configurations,
although two models are available: a SLC "Boomerang" coaster, and a
5-inversion SLC (which appears to be Vekoma's take on B&M's "Batman"
<<Inverted>> coaster.

Swoop Turn
A fast turn that incorporates a dip and a return to the crest of the
next hill while turning.

Theme Park
A park, usually of large size, which has one or more "themed" areas,
with Rides and Attractions keyed to the theme of their location within
the park. Disneyland, Walt Disney World, and Fiesta Texas are all
excellent examples of theme parks.

Theme Park Mentality
A derogatory (but sometimes applicable) term which implies a set of
overly strict, safety conscious rules and operation procedures.

These policies are there to please the <<general public>> and the park's
insurance company, not the hard-core enthusiast. :^)

Note that a park does not have to be a <<theme park>> to suffer from
"Theme Park Mentality." There are traditional parks which suffer from a
lot of TPM, and there are theme parks which suffer from little or no
TPM.

Traditional Amusement Park
A park which still holds aspects of its origins in today's modern
society. Most Traditional Parks grew out of "Picnic Parks" which were
located at the end of trolley lines. Kennywood, Whalom Park, and
Lakeside are all excellent examples of Traditional Parks.

Train
A series of two to seven cars hooked together to make a circuit of the
coaster track.
[Images: RACER2.GIF]

Turnaround
Usually the turn located farthest from the station (usually on an
<<Out-and-Back>> style coaster) after which the trains begin their
return.

Twister
Just like it sounds. The configuration of this type of coaster is varied
and has multiple turns, often in a Figure 8 layout. The Coney Island
Cyclone, the Riverside Cyclone, Mr. Twister, and the Texas Giant are
good examples of a twister. You can expect the unexpected. A good
twister will disorient you!
[Images: TWISTER.GIF, RBLGHT01.GIF]

Unloading Platform
Portion of the station where passengers unload from the coaster train.
Modern coasters have combined the loading and unloading platforms into
one quick-moving operation.

Vertical Loop
A nearly closed vertical turn of 360 degrees in which riders are turned
upside down in a transitional curve in a near-vertical plane.
[Images: PHANTOM3.GIF]

Wheels
A coaster car uses 3 different types of wheels:

* Guide Wheel - A set of wheels which guide the train so that it does
not leave the track sideways (also known as Side-Friction wheels).

* Road Wheel - A wheel that actually rides on the top of the track.

* Upstop wheel - A set of wheels which ride underneath the track to
keep the train from jumping off or leaving the trackwork (also
referred to as "Undershot" or "Underside" Friction wheels).

Wild Mouse
A small steel coaster featuring small cars (big enough for two adults);
sharp, unbanked turns; quick, steep drops (heavy on the airtime); and,
in general, a very rough and wild ride.

Wingover
An element on B&M coasters similar to a <<corkscrew>>, but more like an
extended <<vertical loop>>.

Wooden Coaster
Generally, any coaster with laminated wooden rails, to which flat steel
rails are attached. Supporting members are usually wooden, however, some
coasters classified as wooden actually have steel framing (e.g. Crystal
Beach Cyclone, Coney Island Cyclone, and Frontier City's Wildcat!).
[Images: CYCLONE1.GIF]


2.3: American Coaster Enthusiasts - ACE

---------------------------------------

The American Coaster Enthusiasts (ACE) is a non-profit organization that was
established to promote roller coasters, and their preservation,
documentation, and information. The annual fee is $50 for an individual.
The rate for a couple is $65. (ACE has a very loose definition of couple --
two people living at the same address.) Additional family members can be
added for $5 each. Membership includes four high-quality magazines a year
and newsletters approximately every six to eight weeks.

Get-togethers include an annual convention and usually two or three
conferences. In many cases these events coincide with the opening of a new
roller coaster and they almost always will feature some Exclusive Ride Time.

Several parks provide free or discounted admission to ACE members. Parks
providing free admission are Frontier City, Oklahoma City, OK; Magic
Springs, Hot Springs, AR; and Worlds of Fun, Kansas City, MO.

The ACE application is available from a few places on the internet. You can
get it from:

* ftp://netinfo.ini.andrew.cmu.edu/pub/ACE_Application.ps
* ftp://gboro.rowan.edu/pub/Coasters/ace_appl.ps
* http://www.contrib.andrew.cmu.edu/usr/ga25/home.html (The home page of
former ACE Membership director Gary Aulfinger.)
* email to current ACE Membership director Brian Peters at
coast...@aol.com
* email to Bill Buckley, ACE Regional Representative for the New England
region at buc...@powdml.enet.dec.com

The slowest way is to write to:

American Coaster Enthusiasts
P.O. Box 8226
Chicago, IL 60680

If you don't have a postscript printer, you'll have to contact one of the
ACE representatives listed above or write directly to ACE to get a hard-copy
version of the application.

Remember that all of this work is done on a volunteer basis, so if you don't
hear from them right away, be patient.


2.4: Mid-Atlantic Coaster Club - MACC

-------------------------------------
The Mid-Atlantic Coaster Club is a fairly good-sized regional club. It is
based out of the Virginia area, but members are welcomed from any state.
There is a monthly newsletter called The Front Seat which keeps members up
to date on club activities, etc.

Among these activities is the annual Screamfest convention, usually held in
early Spring, as well as a late Summer event of some sort. As usual, the
highlight of this event is the exclusive ride time available only to club
members.

The annual membership fee is only $15 for an individual, and $20 for a
couple (family rates may be available, but you'd have to inquire). For
membership, please send a check (payable to Steve Thompson) to the following
address:

Steve Thompson
7532 Murillo Street
Springfield, Virginia 22151

ATTN: MACC


2.5: Western New York Coaster Club - WNYCC

------------------------------------------

The Western New York Coaster Club (WNYCC) is a fairly good-sized regional
club. It is based in the Buffalo/Rochester area, but there are many members
from just about every state.

Meetings are held in various areas of western NY state. There is a monthly
newsletter called the Gravity Gazette that keeps members up to date on club
activities. The Gravity Gazette centers around articles written by the
members themselves, giving a very intimate, inclusive feeling to the
newsletter.

Among these activities are an annual Coasterfest (usually on Memorial Day
weekend). As with events of other clubs, you can expect to get in some
exclusive ride time. Most of the time there is *at least* one dinner
included in the registration fee.

The annual membership fee is only $15 for an individual and $20 for a
couple.

The membership address is:

Mr. Rick Taylor
WNYCC Membership Director
4731 Forest Grove
Ft. Wayne, IN 46835


2.6: Great Ohio Coaster Club - GOCC

-----------------------------------

The Great Ohio Coaster Club is a non-profit, social organization for the
simple enjoyment of the roller coaster and amusement parks. It is based
around the Cleveland, Akron, Youngstown area but members are from all over
Ohio plus Pennsylvannia, Michigan and Texas. To keep gatherings and events
friendly the membership is limited to 200 members. Currently there are about
50 members.

The club plans four or five trips each year plus a Christmas Party.
Membership dues are $20.00 individual, $30.00 couple. The club's newsletter
The Streak is published six times a year.

The address to write for membership is:

Jeffrey L. Seifert
9600 Cove Dr #4
North Royalton, Ohio 44133-2769

e-mail: Jeffr...@AOL.COM


2.7: First Drop - U.K. Coaster Club

-----------------------------------

Coaster clubs are not confined to the U.S.! There is a club in the United
Kingdom with a bi-monthly newsletter, which keep tabs on all the coasters
across ``the pond''. There has actually been quite a bit going on in the
U.K.

The address is:

First Drop
Coaster House
16 Charles Street
Hillingdon
Middlesex
UB10 0SY
England

The membership rate, payable in check, postal order, or International money
order to FIRST DROP is:

U.K.: 15 pounds
Europe: 17.50 pounds
USA and Canada: 20 pounds
Rest of the world: 22.50 pounds
Corporate: 35 pounds (UK and Europe)
40 pounds (Rest of the World)

Additional family members (at same address) are 2.50 pounds
each.

If you pay in U.S. funds, add $3.00 for bank handling fees.


2.8: National Amusement Park Historical Association -
NAPHA

-----------------------------------------------------

NAPHA Is a non-profit organization formed in 1978 to preserve and display
items of amusement park memorabilia (past and present), document park
history, enable people with common interest in parks to meet and exchange
ideas, and in the future, to open the Amusement Park Historical Society.

Membership per year is $30.00/individual, $40.00 for Family or corporate
membership (USA). International rates are $40.00 individual, and $50 for
family and corporate memberships. Check or money order can be made payable
to ``N.A.P.H.A.'' Membership includes 6 newsletters/year, park discount
tickets, and an annual convention, usually held in IL.

For membership, write to:

National Amusement Park Historical Association

P.O. Box 83,
Mt. Prospect, IL 60056

More information on NAPHA, including a membership application, is available
at http://www.nauticom.net/users/napha/ or via email to
na...@pgh.nauticom.net.


2.9: National Carousel Association - NCA

----------------------------------------

The National Carousel Association is a non-profit organization dedicated to
the appreciation and conservation of the hand-carved wooden carousels. This
group is not really coaster-related, but an item of nostalgia which may be
of interest to readers.

The NCA's annual membership fee is $30.00 (at least $5 of this goes directly
to carousel preservation), and the club offers a magazine/ newsletter
arrangement similar to the ACE schedule: 4 magazines/year
(Merry-go-Roundup), and 6 newsletters/year. A yearly convention is also
standard fare.

Inquires for more information on the organization, or for membership
requests, should be sent to:

National Carousel Association
P.O. Box 4333
Evansville, IN 47724-0333


2.10: Books on Roller Coasters and Amusement Parks

--------------------------------------------------

_GUIDE TO RIDE_
Published by ACE in 1991. Lists the _major_ roller coasters located in
North America. Features photos of most rides, and a full description of
each.

Ordering info:

$17.95 US and Canada
$21.95 all other countries

American Coaster Enthusiasts
c/o John Page
6108 Sherman Drive
Woodridge, IL 60517

_THE AMUSEMENT PARK GUIDE_
Written by Tim O'Brien. Lists nearly every amusement park on this
continent! Lists parks alphabetically by state then Canada and Mexico.
Published mid-1991 but includes some rides to open in 1992.

Ordering info:

Cost: $12.95

The Globe Pequot Press
"A Voyager Book"
ISBN 0-87106-300-x

_GUIDE TO NORTH AMERICAN THEME PARKS_
Published by AAA. Lists selected Amusement and Theme parks. Not all
parks in either category are listed. Parks are listed by region. Lists
all rides and attractions by name including description. Published
Spring 1990. Available in most book stores in the TRAVEL section.

_THE AMERICAN AMUSEMENT PARK INDUSTRY: A History of Technology and _
_Thrill_
Written by Judith A. Adams, this traces the history of amusement parks
from Bartholemew's Fair in 1614 to current. Covers the rise and decline
of trolley parks, offers an in-depth critical look at the Disney Parks,
and covers the current success of theme parks. Often viewed from a
socio-economic perspective, it can be a trifle dry at times, but
contains a lot of historical data.

Twayne's Evolution of Business Series
Twayne Publishers
ISBN 0-8057-9833-6

_THE INCREDIBLE SCREAM MACHINE: A History of the Roller Coaster_
by Robert Cartmell. This book traces the roller-coaster from its origins
in Russia and Paris to America. It discusses the early rides, and how
John Miller revolutionized coasters. It goes on to talk about Traver
and Theme Parks in general. This book is illustrated with many
photographs, including photos of Miller's rides, Traver's twisted (some
might say ``demented'') metal coasters with wooden tracks, and the old
switchback railways.

Bowling Green State University Popular Press
(419) 372-7865
Price: $42.95 (hardback) $25.95 (paperback)

_THE GREAT AMERICAN AMUSEMENT PARKS: A Pictorial History_
by Gary Kyriazi. Published in 1976 by Castle Books. This is an older
book with loads of facts and photos (somewhat dated, of course, but
reportedly worth it if you can find a copy). I don't have any other
info on this book. Feel free to contribute!

_ROLLER COASTERS: an illustrated guide to the rides in the United States and
Canada, with a history_
by Todd H. Throgmorton, published 1993 by McFarland & Co., Jefferson,
NC.

I don't have nay more info about this book, but thanks to Martin I
Lewison (mil...@pitt.edu) for providing this much.
_Kennywood: Roller Coaster Capital of the World_
by Charles J. Jacques, Jr. (1994) published by Amusement Park Journal,
is available from the publisher (for about $20) at:

Amusement Park Journal
P.O. Box 157
Natrona Heights, PA 15065

_Cedar Point: The Queen of American Watering Places_
by David Francis and Diane Francis (1988) published by Summertime
Publications, P.O. Box 16, Wadsworth, Ohio, 44281. This book is
apparently sold at Cedar Point.

A place to try for ordering some of these books if your local bookstore
doesn't have them or can't get them in, is:

Gunther Hall, Limited
P.O. Box 140
Alton Bay, New Hampshire 03810
(603) 875-2248

Call or write and ask for their list of coaster products. You also might try
bookstores specializing in out of print books and/or used bookstores for
some of the older books mentioned here.


2.11: Magazines
---------------

_Rollercoaster!_
is the quarterly magazine of the American Coaster Enthusiasts and is
included with ACE membership. See the section on <<ACE>> above for
further info.

_ACE News_
is the newsletter that is included with ACE membership. This is where
you'll read about the latest happenings in the coaster industry. ACE
News comes out about every 6 weeks.

ACE News can be reached on the Internet at "ACE...@aol.com"

_Inside Track_
is a magazine that is worthwhile for new information on roller coasters
and amusement parks in general. It is a newspaper format, published
monthly, and very professionally done.

Along with news on new coasters, there is info on park closings, coaster
designers and amusement ride innovations, and a section called APtv
(Amusement Park Television) that'll give you info on videos and feature
movies with coasters and parks in them. Inside Track is highly
recommend for those that want to keep tabs on what's happening in the
Amusement Park Industry.

For a subscription in the US send your address and $20 to:

Mark Wyatt, Editor & Publisher
Inside Track
P.O. Box 7956
Newark, DE 19714-7956

The subscription rate for those outside the US is $30.

Inside Track can be reached on the Internet at "Insi...@aol.com"


_The Ride_
is a newsletter magazine, published quarterly, which maintains an
international focus on amusement parks, roller coasters, and the latest
industry technology. _The Ride_ is acquiring a reputation for breaking
the latest/hottest news in the Amusement Park industry. The newsletter
mirrors the look, layout and laid-back feel of the original _Inside
Track_. The magazine's "Hit List" publication annually generates quite a
buzz in the industry -- a survey like no other, one has to read it to
appreciate its unique approach to what's hot and what's not!

For subscription information, please contact:

Steve Urbanowicz
Editor-in-Chief
THE RIDE
P.O. Box 8345
Jersey City, NJ 07306

THE RIDE can be reached on the Internet at "TheR...@aol.com"


_First Drop_
is the magazine of the <<First Drop Roller Coaster Club>>. It's a very
well-done magazine that is something of a combination of newsletter and
glossy magazine. It also has a wonderfully informal, "you're among
friends here" feel.

_At the Park_
is published by Yellow Dot Publishing, and is by-and-large the
brainstorm of long-time ACE corporate member Allen Ambrosini. This is
more a journal for the amusement park industry than for the average
coaster enthusiast; however, the magazine is TOP NOTCH in design and
format (contains excellent 4-color photographs of today's top coasters
and parks!), with very well-written articles, and a sensible, enjoyable
layout. You'll learn much more about the industry as a whole. It's a
highly recommended as an addition to ACE News or Inside Track. A one
year subscription (5 issues) costs:

USA: $24.95
Canada and Mexico: $31.95
Outside North America: (Please inquire with publisher)

Send your name and address to:

At The Park Magazine
P.O. BOX 597783
Chicago, IL 60659-7783

_E Ticket_
is published two or three times per year, and features stories focused
primarily on the Disneyland of the 50s and 60s. (The full title of the
magazine is ``The `E' Ticket -- Collecting Theme Park Memories.'')
Though Disneyland is the primary focus, the magazine covers other
California parks as well, such as Pacific Ocean Park and Knott's Berry
Farm. Each issue is about 35 pages long. For a sample issue, send $6
to:

The ``E'' Ticket
20560 Alaminos Drive
Saugus, CA 91350

If anyone has info about ordering from outside the US, I'd be happy to
add it.

_Amusement Business_
a weekly publication which covers ALL aspects of the entertainment
industry: water parks, amusement parks, theme parks, traveling
carnivals, state fairs, concerts, sporting events, trade shows, ANYTHING
to do with public supplied entertainment!

AB is always on the ball about the latest and hottest news!! AB is a bit
pricey, though. There are a large variety of prices, but here are a few
examples:

Subscription -- pre-paid billed
USA, 6 month -- $75 $85
USA, 1 year -- $99 $119
Canada, 1 yr, airmail -- $169 $189
Canada, 1 yr, surface -- $115 $135
(and too many other options to mention here...)

Inquiries, information, and subscriptions can be sent to:

Amusement Business
Subscription Dept.
P.O. Box 5022
Brentwood, TN 37024-9771

Subscriptions: (800) 999-3322
Other info: (615) 321-4250
FAX: (615) 327-1575

Amusement Business can be reached on the Internet at "A...@aol.com"

2.12: FTP site
--------------

The ``official'' ftp site for rec.roller-coaster is gboro.rowan.edu. The
good stuff is in directory /pub/Coasters. You'll find all sorts of goodies,
including images (in JPG and GIF formats), descriptions/reviews of parks and
coasters, track definition files for Disney's "Coaster" program, and this
FAQ. Check the file Coasters.lis, which is an index of what's available.

Please limit your ftp usage to after hours, Eastern Time.

If you have anything to contribute to the FTP archive, send it to Ken
Denton, sy...@elan.rowan.edu.


2.13: Other stuff of interest
-----------------------------

This section lists some other things available "out there" that you may find
of interest. No guarantee is implied by their mention here, but you may want
to check them out.

Windows screen saver

There is a screen saver for Microsoft Windows that runs a simulation of a
roller coaster. It's available by anonymous ftp from ftp.cica.indiana.edu
as /pub/pc/win3/desktop/scoast.zip.

Calendar

A Roller Coaster Calendar is published by Moor Publishing. For ordering
info contact:

Moor Publishing
1209 Hill Road North
Suite 127
Pickerington OH 43147-8600

Cost: $11.95 + Shipping and handling

The 1995 calendar features the following coasters:

Jan Great American Scream Machine, Six Flags over Georgia (daytime)
Feb Batman The Ride, Six Flags Magic Mountain (daytime)
Mar Hurler, Paramount's Carowinds (daytime)
April The Bat, Paramount Canada's Wonderland (daytime)
May Thunderbolt, Kennywood (daytime)
June Desperado, Buffalo Bill's (daytime)
July American Eagle, Six Flags Great America (daytime)
Aug Nemesis, Alton Towers (daytime)
Sep Le Monstre, Le Ronde (daytime)
Oct King Cobra, Paramount's Kings Island (daytime)
Nov Top Gun, Paramount's Great America (daytime)
Dec Vortex, Paramount's Carowinds (night)

Special thanks to Bill Buckley for these descriptions!


2.14: Amusement Industry Jobs
-----------------------------

A lot of us would love to be a roller coaster designer. We often see posts
from people asking how to get such a job. Here are some
comments/advice/etc. on coaster-designing jobs, mostly from people who don't
have such jobs, so take it all with a few grains of salt.

* A lot more people want to design roller coasters than can find jobs
doing it. Be aware of that before setting your hopes too high. Don't
quit your day job, as they say. For example, Arrow Dynamics employs
about a dozen engineers, and has low turnover. The other coaster
designers are probably similar.
* Mechanical and electrical engineering are the most used disciplines.
Arrow also has two civil engineers.
* Get some industry design experience first. Remember these companies are
small, and don't have the ability to train new-hires like a Boeing or
IBM would.
* If you _do_ get a job with an amusement design company, recognize that
you're probably not going to start off designing the next big bad roller
coaster. You may design a spinning kiddie ride. Or an insignificant
component of a spinning kiddie ride.
* You can get company addresses from the ACE Directory, phone books, the
Thomas Register of Suppliers, and no doubt other sources. Make friends
with your local librarian. They like looking things up --that's why
they're librarians. It'll cost you $0.32 + paper and time to send a
resume.
* Do as much research as you can before you fire off resumes! Join ACE.
Go to the ACE conventions. Talk to people. Go to the IAAPA Convention
(but be forewarned that this is a *business* convention, and if you go
barging in with your resume in hand you may not make too good an
impression; talk to people and see if you can make appointments; do this
*before* going to the convention). Subscribe to Amusement Business.
* If you're still in school, get a summer job at an amusement park. Try
for operations or maintenance (sorry, experience in food service won't
do you too much good ;^) ). Learn everything you can about the rides and
how they're operated and maintained.

Still want to do it? Good luck! We look forward to riding your creations.

Geoff Allen

unread,
Nov 20, 1995, 3:00:00 AM11/20/95
to
Archive-name: roller-coaster-faq/part3
Last-modified: Thu Oct 05, 1995; 13:23:03 MDT


This is part 3 of the rec.roller-coaster FAQ....

3.1: Roller Coaster Designer Info

---------------------------------

Designers of Wooden Coasters

CURRENT:

* Custom Coasters International, Inc. (Denise Dinn-Larrick) -- Builders
* and Designers
* Great Coasters International, Inc. (Clair Hain) -- Builders and
Designers
* Intamin AG
* International Coasters, Inc. -- Builders and Designers
* MACK GmbH & Co. -- Builders and Designers
* Michael Black and Associates -- Builder
* RCCA/TOGO -- Builders and Designers of International coasters
* Serious Gravity, Inc. -- Designers
* TNT Graphix, Inc. -- Builders and Designers

PAST:

* Allen, John -- Designer and Builder
* Baker -- Designer and Builder
* Bitler, Oscar --
* Cobb, William J. -- Designer and Builder
* Dinn, Charlie (Dinn Corp.) - Builder
* Fehr, Carl --
* Harton, T.M. --
* Hoover, Frank --
* IAD (International Amusement Devices) -- Designers and Builder
* Keenan, Vernon -- Designer and Builder
* Leis, Edward --
* Looff -- Designer
* Lorenz & Williams --
* Miler -- Designer
* Miller, John -- Designer and Builder
* Mitchell, James T. --
* Moran, George --
* NAD (National Amusement Devices) -- Designers and Builders
* Pierce, Fred --
* Pierce, John F. -- Designer and Builder (retired)
* Prior and Church -- Designers
* PTC (Philadelphia Toboggan Company)-- Designers and Builders
* Rosser -- Designer
* Schmeck, Herbert -- Designer and Builder
* Sink, Amandus --
* Summers, Curtis D. -- Designer
* Thompson, Marcus A. --
* (Harry G.) Traver Engineering Co. -- Builders and Designers
* Vaszin, Aurel --
* Vesco, Paul --
* Vettel, Andrew --
* Vettel, Edwin -- Designer and Builder

Designers of Steel Coasters

* Arrow Dynamics International, Ltd. (Ron Toomer)
* Bollinger & Mabillard (B&M)
* Intamin AG
* MACK GmbH & Co.
* OD Hopkins
* S&MC (formerly SDC Corp. of Italy)
* Schwarzkopf, Anton
* Schwarzkopf Rides and Amusements (Anton's son, Wieland)
* Sensei (no longer in business)
* TOGO International, Inc.
* Vekoma International, b.v.
* Zamperla
* Zierer GmbH


3.2: Roller Coaster Record Holders

----------------------------------

Current Wooden Coaster Record Holders:

STEEPEST

1. 58.6 degrees: Cyclone - Astroland/Coney Island; Brooklyn, NY
2. 54 degrees: Cyclone - Riverside Park; Agawam, MA
3. 53 degrees: Cyclone - Six Flags over Georgia; Atlanta, GA

HIGHEST

1. 179 ft, 6 in: Rattler - Fiesta Texas; San Antonio, TX
2. 160 ft: Mean Streak - Cedar Point; Sandusky, OH
3. 143 ft: Texas Giant - SF over Texas; Arlington, TX

LONGEST DROP

1. 155 ft: Mean Streak - Cedar Point; Sandusky, OH
2. 148 ft: Hercules - Dorney Park; Allentown, PA
3. 137 ft: Texas Giant - Six Flags over Texas; Arlington, TX

FASTEST

1. 65 mph: Mean Streak - Cedar Point; Sandusky, OH
2. 65 mph: Texas Giant - Six Flags over Texas; Arlington, TX
3. 64.77 mph: The Beast - Kings Island; Kings Mills, OH

LONGEST CIRCUIT

1. 7400 ft: The Beast - Kings Island; Kings Mills, OH
2. 5530 ft: Rattler - Fiesta Texas; San Antonio, TX
3. 5427 ft: Mean Streak - Cedar Point; Sandusky, OH

OLDEST (listing more than 3 because this is such a worthy category...)

1. 1902: Leap The Dips - Lakemont Park; Altoona, PA
2. 1912: Scenic Railway - Luna Park, Melbourne, Australia
3. 1915: Tivoli Rutchbanen - Copenhagen, Denmark
4. 1919: Jack Rabbit - Clemonton Lake; Clemonton, NJ
5. 1920: Jack Rabbit - Kennywood; W Mifflin, PA

MOST FAMOUS (yeah, it's subjective, but these coasters are somewhat
legendary...)

1. 1927 Cyclone - Astroland/Coney Island; Brooklyn, NY
2. 1927 Cyclone Racer - The Pike; Long Beach, CA
3. 1924 Bobs - Riverview; Chicago, IL

Current Steel Coaster Record Holders

STEEPEST

1. 90 Degrees: Ultra Twister - SF Astroworld; Houston, TX
2. 65 Degrees: Pepsi Max, The Big One - Blackpool Pleasure Beach;
Blackpool, UK
3. 60 degrees: Magnum XL-200 - Cedar Point; Sandusky, OH
4. 60 degrees: Excalibur - ValleyFair!;

HIGHEST

1. 209 ft: Desperado - Buffalo Bill's; Jean, NV
2. 207 ft: Moonsault Scramble - Fujikyu Highland Park, Japan
(This is a shuttle loop, and is the height of the highest car, rather
than the height the actual train drops, so it's kind of a bogus number,
unless you're in the seat the goes 207 feet high, I guess.)
3. 205 ft: Magnum XL-200 - Cedar Point; Sandusky, OH
4. 201 ft: Pepsi Max, The Big one - Blackpool Pleasure Beach; Blackpool, UK

LONGEST DROP

1. 225 ft: Steel Phantom - Kennywood; W Mifflin, PA
2. 225 ft: Desperado - Buffalo Bill's; Jean, NV
3. 207 ft: Moonsault Scramble - Fujikyu Highland Park, Japan
(Again, this cheats and is the height of the highest car, rather than a
height that the entire train drops.)
4. 205 ft: Pepsi Max, The Big one - Blackpool Pleasure Beach; Blackpool, UK

FASTEST

1. 80 mph: Steel Phantom - Kennywood; W Mifflin, PA
2. 79 mph: Desperado - Buffalo Bill's; Jean, NV
3. 76 mph: Pepsi Max-The Big One; Blackpool Pleasure Beach; UK

LONGEST CIRCUIT

1. 7450 ft: The Ultimate - Lightwater Valley; UK
2. 6100 ft: Desperado - Buffalo Bill's; Jean, NV
3. 5500 ft: Dragon Mountain - Marineland; Niagara Falls, Ontario

TALLEST LOOPING COASTER

1. 188 ft: Viper - SF Magic Mountain; Valencia, CA
2. 173 ft: GASM - SF Great Adventure; Jackson, NJ
3. 170 ft: Shockwave - SF Great America; Gurnee, IL

BIGGEST (CIRCULAR, NOT JUST HEIGHT!) LOOP ON A COASTER

119 ft: Dragon Kahn - Port Aventura; Salou, Spain

MOST INVERSIONS - (8)

Dragon Kahn - Port Aventura; Salou, Spain

HIGHEST G FORCES - (+6.5g)

* Mindbender, Fantasyland, Edmonton, AB
* Drier Looping, Germany (Fairs)
* Moonslaut Scramble, Fujikyu Highland Park, Japan

MOST TRAINS ON CIRCUIT

1. 5: Thriller; German Fairs

MOST DEMENTED SHUTTLE LOOP (yeah, another subjective one!)

* Wiener Looping, Flamingoland (UK)


3.3: ACE's Classic Coaster Roster

---------------------------------

Big Dipper - Camden Park; Huntington, W. VA
Big Dipper - Geauga Lake; Aurura, OH
Blue Streak - Cedar Point; Sandusky, OH
Blue Streak - Conneaut Lake Park; Conneaut Lake, PA
Coaster - Arnolds Park; Iowa
Coaster - Playland; Vancouver, BC, Canada
Cyclone - Astroland; Coney Island, NY
Cyclone - Lakeside Park; Denver, CO
Cyclone - William's Grove Park; Mechanicsburg, PA
Jack Rabbit - Kennywood Park; W. Mifflin, PA
Kiddy Coaster - Playland; Rye, NY
Lil' Dipper - Camden Park; Huntington, W. VA
Little Dipper - Kiddie Land; Melrose Park, IL
Little Dipper - Hillcrest Park; Lemont, IL
Roller Coaster - Joyland; Wichita, KS
Roller Coaster - Western Washington Fair; Puyallup, WA
Rollo Coaster - Idlewild Park; Ligonier, PA
Sea Dragon - Wynadot Lake Park; Powell, OH
Screechin Eagle - Americana; Middletown, OH
Starliner - Miracle Strip; Panama City, FL
Thunderbolt - Kennywood Park; W. Mifflin, PA


3.4: Inside Track "Top Coasters" Readers Survey

-----------------------------------------------

Many people want to know which is the best/wildest/awesomest/scariest
coaster in the world (or at least US). We can't answer that for you, but we
can pass on to you the results of the Inside Track magazine reader's survey.
This is an annual survey, the most recent version of which was published in
the September 1994 issue of Inside Track. Just because a coaster is
highly-ranked on this list doesn't mean *you* will think it's best, but it
does mean that lot of coaster enthusiasts like it, and you probably will
too. Rankings from past years are given as well, to give you some idea of
how things change from year to year. If a column contains '-', it indicates
that coaster didn't place in the rankings for that year, for whatever reason
(it was new, it didn't get enough votes, etc.). Also note that the 1992,
1993, and 1994 surveys list the top 50, while 1991 listed the top 40, and
1990 listed the top 20.

+--------------------------------------- 1994 Rank
| +----------------------------------- 1994 Vote Total
| | +----------------------------- 1993 Rank
| | | +-------------------------- 1992 Rank
| | | | +----------------------- 1991 Rank
| | | | | +-------------------- 1990 Rank
| | | | | | +----------------- Ride name, Park, Location
V V V V V V V

1 (2034) 1 2 2 4 Magnum XL-200, Cedar Point, OH
2 (1856) 2 1 3 3 Texas Giant, Six Flags over Texas, TX
3 (1802) - - - - Raptor, Cedar Point, OH (New in '94)
4 (1788) 3 3 5 1 The Beast, Paramount's Kings Island, OH
5 (1641) 4 5 7 5 Phoenix, Knoebel's, PA
6 (1344) 8 8 10 7 Thunderbolt, Kennywood, PA
7 (1319) 5 4 1 2 Timber Wolf, Worlds of Fun, MO
8 (1225) 12 12 16 14 Grizzly, Paramount's Kings Dominion, VA
9 (1080) 15 - - - Kumba, Busch Gardens Tampa Bay, FL (New in '93)
10 (1012) 13 11 16 - Steel Phantom, Kennywood, PA (New in '91)
11 ( 934) 6 6 - - Batman -- The Ride, SF Great America, IL (New in '92)
12 ( 921) 18 17 35 19 Georgia Cyclone, Six Flags over Georgia, GA
( 921) 10 14 13 11 Big Bad Wolf, Busch Gardens, VA
14 ( 837) 37 27 - - Screamin' Eagle, Six Flags over Mid-America, MO
15 ( 735) 24 16 11 18 Giant Dipper, Beach Boardwalk, Santa Cruz, CA
16 ( 712) - - - - Comet, Great Escape, NY (New in '94)
17 ( 655) 30 49 39 - Thunderhawk, Dorney Park, PA
18 ( 643) 14 - - - Batman -- The Ride, SF Great Adventure, NJ (New in '93)
19 ( 602) 15 13 9 8 Mister Twister, Elitch Gardens, CO
20 ( 588) 9 15 34 - Mean Streak, Cedar Point, OH
21 ( 561) 7 7 6 6 Cyclone, Coney Island, NY
( 561) 11 10 - - The Rattler, Fiesta Texas (New in '92)
23 ( 509) - - - - Batman -- The Ride, SF Magic Mountain, CA (New in '94)
24 ( 467) 28 22 12 12 Mind Bender, Fantasyland, Alberta
25 ( 464) 17 42 25 - Loch Ness Monster, Busch Gardens, VA
26 ( 385) 21 20 - 20 Wild One, Wild World, MD
( 385) - - 30 - Swamp Fox, Family Kingdom, SC (New in 92)
( 385) 41 18 29 - Roller Coaster, Playland, BC
29 ( 259) 38 - - - Outlaw, Adventureland, IA (New in '93)
30 ( 237) 27 27 19 13 Viper, Six Flags Magic Mountain, CA
31 ( 235) 18 31 22 12 Riverside Cyclone, Riverside Park, MA
32 ( 225) 20 41 - - Vortex, Paramount's Kings Island, OH
33 ( 203) 18 26 - - Drachen Fire, Busch Gardens, VA (New in 92)
34 ( 185) - - - - Hoosier Hurricane, Indiana Beach, IN (New in '94)
( 185) 31 21 14 - Blue Streak, Cedar Point, OH
( 185) 37 12 8 9 Predator, Darien Lake, NY
( 185) 37 23 11 10 Hercules, Dorney Park, PA
38 ( 162) - - - - Judge Roy Scream, SF over Texas, TX
39 ( 123) 49 47 39 - Grand National, Blackpool, UK
40 ( 98) 42 44 - - Rebel Yell, Paramount's Kings Dominion, VA
( 98) - - - - Zingo, Bells Amusement Park, OK
42 ( 90) 22 9 4 - Thunder Run, Kentucky Kingdom, KY
( 90) 34 25 22 - Ninja, Six Flags Magic Mountain, CA
44 ( 84) 37 30 21 18 G.A.S.M., Six Flags Great Adventure, NJ
45 ( 75) 36 29 30 - Yankee Cannonball, Canobie Lake, NH
( 75) - - - - Hurler, Paramount's Kings Dominion, VA (New in '94)
47 ( 61) 25 24 - - Arkansas Twister, Magic Springs, AK (New in 92)
48 ( 57) 46 36 18 - Screechin Eagle, Americana, OH
( 57) 42 33 40 - Space Mountain, Walt Disney World, FL
50 ( 52) 32 23 17 - Vortex, Paramount's Canada's Wonderland, Canada
16 32 33 15 Mindbender, Six Flags over Georgia, GA
19 28 20 - Iron Wolf, Six Flags Great America, IL
23 48 - - Jack Rabbit, Kennywood, PA
29 38 32 - Big Dipper, Geauga Lake, OH
30 22 23 16 Racer, Paramount's Kings Island, OH
33 19 24 - Blue Streak, Conneaut Lake, PA
34 27 14 - Giant Dipper, Belmont Park, CA
35 - - - G.A.S.M., Six Flags over Georgia, GA
39 50 - - Le Monstre, La Ronde, Canada
40 - - - Top Gun, Paramount's Great America, CA (New in '93)
43 45 28 - La Montana Rusa, Chapultapec Park, Mexico City
44 - 38 - Gemini, Cedar Point, OH
45 39 31 17 Shockwave, Six Flags Great America, IL
47 - - - Racer, Kennywood, PA
48 - - - Batman The Escape, Six Flags AstroWorld, TX (New in '93)
50 47 - - Thriller, European Fairs, Germany
- - - Space Mountain, Disneyland, CA
- 20 32 - Cyclone, Lakeside, CO
- 30 30 - Matterhorn Bobsled, Disneyland, CA
- 34 - - Ultra Twister, Six Flags AstroWorld, TX
- 35 29 - Anaconda, Paramount's Kings Dominion, VA
- 35 - - Adventure Express, Paramount's Kings Island, OH
- 37 38 - Big Thunder Mtn Railroad, Disney, FL
- 37 36 - Comet, Hersheypark, PA
- 38 - - Vortex, Carowinds, NC (New in 92)
- 40 - - Greezed Lightnin, Six Flags AstroWorld, TX
- 41 33 - Colossus, Six Flags Magic Mountain, CA
- 43 40 - Roller Coaster, Arnolds Park, IA
- 45 33 - Montezooma's Revenge, Knott's, CA
- 46 - - Wildcat, Elitch Gardens, CO
- 46 - - Tornado, Adventureland, IA
- 47 26 - Texas Tornado, Wonderland, TX
- 50 - - Big Dipper, Blackpool, UK
- 50 - - Sea Serpent, Wildwood, NJ
- 50 - - Excalibur, Valleyfair!, MN
- - 15 - Revolution, Six Flags Magic Mountain, CA
- - 33 - Dragon Mountain, Marineland, Canada
- - 37 - Wildcat, Lake Compounce, CT
- - 39 - Space Center, Phantasialand, Germany
- - 40 - Bandit, Yomiuriland, Tokyo, Japan
- - 40 - Psyclone, Six Flags Magic Mountain, CA
- - 40 - Sidewinder, Hersheypark, PA


3.5: Amusement Park Attendance Statistics

-----------------------------------------

The following list of the top 50 North American Amusement/Theme Parks,
ranked by attendance, is from Amusement Business. These statistics show how
the top parks fared during 1993, and the percent change in attendance from
the 1992 season. Global Amusement/Theme parks have been added to the list
for comparisons, but available data on the foreign parks is not complete
enough to effectively merge the two lists as one.

_Note_: Policies at some parks forbid release of attendance figures. An
asterisk (*) appearing after the attendance figure indicates the figure is
an estimate, based on information gathered by reliable AB sources. In the
event of a tie, a non-estimated figure gets the higher placement over an
estimated figure. Parks that either did not report or did not qualify on
the basis of reported figures in 1990 through 1992 are indicated with '-'.
'+' indicates a tie.

93 92 91 90 PARK, LOCATION ATTENDANCE % CHANGE
== == == == =============== ========== ========
. . . . Tokyo Disneyland 15,815,000
Tokyo, Japan
1 1 1 1 Magic Kingdom at WDW 12,000,000* Up 4%
Lake Buena Vista, FL
2 2 2 2 Disneyland 11,400,000* Down slightly
Anaheim, CA
3 1 1 1 EPCOT at WDW 10,000,000* No change
Lake Buena Vista, FL
. . . . EuroDisney 10,000,000
Marne la Vallee, France
. . . . Jaya Ancol Dreamland 9,500,000
Jakarta, Indonesia
4 1 1 1 Disney-MGM Studios at WDW 8,000,000* No change
Lake Buena Vista, FL
5 3 3 12 Universal Studios Florida 7,400,000* Up 10%
Orlando, FL
. . . . Blackpool Pleasure Beach 6,800,000
Blackpool, UK
. . . . Lotte World 5,000,000
Seoul, Korea
6 4 4 4 Universal Studios Hollywood 4,950,000* Up 3%
Universal City, CA
. . . . Toshimaen Amusement Park 4,806,000
Tokyo, Japan
7 5 6 5 Sea World of Florida 4,500,000* Up 5%
Orlando, FL
8 6 7 6 Sea World of California 4,000,000* No change
San Diego, CA
. . . . Tivoli Gardens 4,000,000
Copenhagen, Denmark
. . . . Huis Ten Boach 3,751,300
Sasebo, Japan
9 7 5 3 Knott's Berry Farm 3,700,000* Down 5%
Buena Park, CA
10 11 9 10 Cedar Point 3,600,000* Up 15%
Sandusky, OH
11+ 12 11 15 Six Flags Great Adventure 3,500,000* Up 13%
Jackson, NJ
11+ 13 12 9 Busch Gardens Tampa 3,500,000* Up 13%
Tampa, FL
13 9 8 8 Six Flags Magic Mountain 3,300,000* Up 3%
Valencia, CA
. . . . Ocean Park 3,300,000
Hong Kong
14 8 13 7 Paramount's Kings Island 3,250,000* No change
Kings Falls, OH
15 10 15 14 Six Flags Great America 3,000,000* Down slightly
Gurnee, IL
. . . . Seoul Land 3,000,000
Seoul, Korea
. . . . Nagashima Spa Land 2,967,000
Kuwana, Japan
16+ 14 14 11 Six Flags over Texas 2,900,000* Down slightly
Arlington, TX
16+ 15 10 13 Beach Boardwalk 2,900,000* Down slightly
Santa Cruz, CA
. . . . Chapultepec Park 2,800,000
Mexico City, Mexico
. . . . Takarazuka Family Land 2,788,682
Takarazuka, Japan
. . . . De Efteling 2,717,249
Kaatsheuvel, The Netherlands
18 16 20 16 Six Flags over Georgia 2,700,000* Up 4%
Atlanta, GA
19 18 16 19 Paramount's Canada's Wonderland 2,600,000* Up 13%
Maple, Ont.
. . . . Alton Towers 2,600,000
North Staffordshire, England
. . . . Korakuen 2,550,000
Tokyo, Japan
20+ 17 17 17 Paramount's Great America 2,500,000* Up 6%
Santa Clara, CA
20+ 19 18 18 Paramount's Kings Dominion 2,500,000* Up 11%
Doswell, VA
20+ - - - Knott's Camp Snoopy 2,500,000* (New park)
Bloomington, MN
. . . . Playcenter 2,500,000
Sao Paulo, Brazil
. . . . Dunia Funtasi 2,500,000
Indonesia
. . . . Liseberg Park 2,400,000
Gothenburg, Sweden
. . . . Toei Uzumasa Eigamura 2,307,820
Kyoto, Japan
. . . . Europa-Park 2,300,000
Rust, Germany
23+ 23 23 23 Six Flags Astroworld 2,200,000* Up 10%
Houston, TX
23+ 20 21 21 Busch Gardens Williamsburg 2,200,000* Up slightly
Williamsburg, VA
. . . . Bakken 2,100,000
Klampenborg, Germany
. . . . Heidi Park 2,100,000
Soltau, Germany
. . . . Siam Park 2,088,000
Bangkok, Thailand
. . . . Expoland 2,020,000
Suita, Japan
25+ 25 27 28 Dollywood 2,000,000 Up 11%
Pigeon Forge, TN
25+ 21 22 20 Opryland 2,000,000 No change
Nashville, TN
. . . . Beijing Amusement Park 2,000,000
Beijing, China
. . . . Luna Park 2,000,000
Rome, Italy
. . . . Phantasialand 1,900,000
Bruhl, Germany
27 24 29 31 Marine World-Africa USA 1,870,000 Down slightly
Vallejo, CA
28 22 - - Fiesta Texas 1,800,000* Down 11%
San Antonio, TX
29 27 26 27 Silver Dollar City 1,770,000 Up slightly
Branson, MO
30 28 24 25 Hersheypark 1,700,000 Up 5%
Hershey, PA
31+ 33 32 30 Paramount's Carowinds 1,600,000* Up 20%
Charlotte, NC
31+ 26 28 26 Six Flags over Mid-America 1,600,000* Down 11%
Eureka, MO
. . . . Reino Aventura 1,600,000
Mexico City, Mexico
. . . . Parque Da Monica 1,600,000
Sao Paulo, Brazil
. . . . Selva Magica 1,500,000
Guadalajara, Mexico
33 32 - - Sea World of Ohio 1,450,000* Up 10%
Aurora, OH
34 30 25 29 Sea World of Texas 1,400,000* Down 6%
San Antonio, TX
. . . . Beta Carrero 1,300,000
Santa Catarina, Brazil
35 34 33 37 Kennywood 1,216,000* No change
West Mifflin, PA
36+ 36 33 37 Geauga Lake 1,200,000 Up 8%
Aurora, OH
36+ 35 34 33 LaRonde 1,200,000 No change
Montreal, Quebec
36+ - - - Dorney Park 1,200,000* (New listing)
Allentown, PA
. . . . Fantasiland 1,200,000
Santiago, Chile
39 31 31 33 Worlds of Fun 1,197,287 Down 10%
Kansas City, MO
40 39 35 35 Darien Lake 1,115,000 Up 15%
Corfu, NY
41 - - - Kentucky Kingdom 1,048,262 (New listing)
Louisville, KY
42 40 - - Lagoon 1,006,273 Up 6%
Farmington, UT
43 - - - Riverside Park 999,000 (New listing)
Agawam, MA
44 38 37 39 Knoebels Amusement Resort 990,000 Up slightly
Elysburg, PA
45 - - - Rye Playland 931,415 (New listing)
Rye, NY
46 37 36 36 Valleyfair! 913,000* Down 15%
Shakopee, MN
. . . . Interama 900,000
Buenos Aires, Argentina
47 - - - Elitch Gardens 800,000 (New listing)
Denver, CO
. . . . Tivoli Park 800,000
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
. . . . Divertido 800,000
Mexico City, Mexico
48+ - - - Indiana Beach 750,000* (New listing)
Monticello, IN
48+ - - - Adventureland 750,000* (New listing)
East Farmingdale, NY
50 - - - Great Escape Theme Park 710,000* (New listing)
Lake George, NY


3.6: Coming Attractions -- new coasters for 96 and
beyond!
--------------------------------------------------

A common question on rec.roller-coaster is ``What new coaster is park X
getting for 1996?'' Here is the list of coasters to be built in the next
couple of years.

Some of the listings have been announced, some are just rumors. If a
coaster is rumored, it's listed with a '?' in the first column; if it's been
officially announced, or is a very well-substantiated rumor, it will have a
'!' in the first column. Some also may have footnotes, explaining the
source(s) for the information.

Note that there are still no Arrow Pipeline coasters on the list!

NEW/RELOCATED WOODEN COASTERS FOR 1995:

COASTER TYPE PARK
DESIGNER LOCATION
======= ======== ============================
"unnamed" W, Figure 8 Gulliver's World
Allot & Lomax Warrington, Cheshire, Great Britan
Cannonball W, Out and Back Waterville USA
CCI Gulf Shores, AL
Cyclops W, Terrain Big Chief
CCI Wisconsin Dells, WI
Raven W, Terrain Holiday World
CCI Santa Claus, IN
Twister W, Twister Elitch Gardens
Pierce/Allen Denver, CO
Viper W, Twister Six Flags Great America
Starkey/In-House Gurnee, IL

?+ Red Streaker W, Jr. Out-Back <unknown>
PTC <unknown>

+ This coaster was recently purchased from the defunct Willow Mill park in
Mechanicsburg, PA, by David Pickstone, a British ride owner/operator.
He has not received permission from his "home" park in the UK to install
this coaster, due to outstanding royalty issues. The coaster has been
completely dismantled, and is currently in storage in Carlisle, PA. Mr.
Pennington, is back in the United Kingdom, but is currently search for a
U.S.-based park to _lease_ the ride to (he does not want to see this ride).

NEW/RELOCATED STEEL COASTERS FOR 1995:

COASTER TYPE PARK
DESIGNER LOCATION
======= ======== ============================

Big Dipper S, Double Loop Luna Park
Arrow Australia
El Diablo S, Mine Train Port Aventura
Arrow Salou, Spain

Batman S, Inverted Six Flags over Mid-America
B&M St. Louis, MO
Dragon Kahn S, Multi-element Port Aventura
B&M Salou, Spain
"unnamed" S, Inverted Himeji Park
B&M Himeji, Japan

Euro Star S, Inverted Herr Bruch (Private Owner)
Intamin AG Andernach, West Germany
Viper S, Shuttle Loop Six Flags over Georgia
Intamin AG Atlanta, GA
Le Cobra S, Stand-up La Ronde
Intamin AG Montreal, Quebec, Canada
"unnamed" S, Twister Future World
Intamin AG Bangkok, Thailand
"unnamed" S, Twister Lotte World
Intamin AG Seoul, Korea

"unnamed" S, Mine Train Plaza Sesamo
MACK Monterrey, Mexico

Scandia S, Med. Oval Scandia Fun Center
Screamer Miler Ontario, CA

"unnamed" S, Mine Train Drayton Manor
Pinfari Tamworth, Staffordshire, G.B.

Windstorm S, Twister Playland
S&MC Rye, NY

Green Dragon S, Junior Oval Brean Leisure Park
Shiff Brean, Somerset, Great Britan

Viper S, Heartline Six Flags Great Adventure
TOGO Jackson, NJ

Lethal Weapon S, Inverted Movie World
Vekoma Queensland, Australia
Hangman S, Inverted Adventure World
Vekoma Largo, MD
Hangman S, Inverted Opryland
Vekoma Nashville, TN
T(2) S, Inverted Kentucky Kingdom
Vekoma Louisville, KY
Top Gun S, Inverted Paramount Canada's Wonderland
Vekoma Vaughn, Toronto, Canada
The Great S, Inverted Morey's Pier
Nor'Eastor Vekoma Wildwood, NJ
"unnamed" S, Inverted Nasu Highland Park
Vekoma/Meisho Japan
"unnamed" S, Inverted Glucks Konigreich
Vekoma Hokkaido, Japan
"unnamed" S, Inverted Odakyu Gotenba Familyland
Vekoma Odakyu, Japan
"unnamed" S, Suspended (unannounced)
Vekoma Japan
"unnamed" S, Boomerang Enchanted Kingdom
Vekoma Manila, Phillappines
"unnamed" S, Boomerang Tashkent Park
Vekoma Uzbekistan, Soviet Republic
"unnamed" S, Jr. Twister Enchanted Kingdom
Vekoma Manila, Phillappines
Mayan S, Jr. Twister Six Flags AstroWorld
Mindbender Vekoma Houston, TX
"unnamed" S, Jr. Twister San Paulo Marketplace
Vekoma San Paulo, Brazil
"unnamed" S, Jr. Twister SamaWorld
Vekoma Malaysia
Space Mountain S, Enc. Looper Disneyland Paris
Vekoma Marne La Vallee Cedex, France
Gadget's Go S, Jr. Twister Tokyo Disneyland
Coaster Vekoma Tokyo, Japan

"unnamed" S, Mine Train Ocean Park
Zamperla Hong Kong, China
"unnamed" S, Jr. Twister Knott's Camp Snoopy
Zamperla Bloomington, MN

The Hornet S, Twister Flambards Village
Zierer Helston, Cornwall, Great Britan
Jaguar S, Twister Knott's Berry Farm
Zierer Buena Park, CA
"unnamed" S, Mine Train Navel Land
Zierer Kyusyu, Japan
"unnamed" S, Jr. Twister Perinorte Centro
Zierer Mexico CIty, Mexico
"unnamed" S, Jr. Twister Plaza Sesamo
Zierer Monterrey, Mexico
"unnamed" S, Jr. Twister Tolk-Schau
Zierer Germany
"unnamed" S, Jr. Twister Navel Land
Zierer Kyusyu, Japan
Wile E. Coyote's S, Mine Train Movie World
Coaster Canyon <unknown> Bottrop, Kirchhellen, Germany

NEW/RELOCATED ROLLER COASTERS FOR 1996:

It's hard to announce specific coaster contracts for 1996. There have been
many speculations, both by the press, the parks, and enthusiasts alike.
Below is a compilation of formally announced coaster project, followed by a
listing "probable" coaster installations, based upon ambiguous blurbs
published in Amusement Business magazine, and combined with "teasers" issued
verbally by park personnel:

COASTER TYPE/ PARK/
NAME DESIGNER LOCATION
======= ======== ========

*** WOOD ***

Wildcat W, Twister Hersheypark
GCI Hershey, PA
"unnamed" W, Twister Oakwood Park
CCI Wales, U.K.
"unnamed" W, Twister Silverwood Theme Park
In-House Athol, ID
Little Dipper W, Junior Stricker's Grove
In-House Ross, OH


*** STEEL ***

"Sphynx" S, Inverted Busch Gardens Tampa Bay
B&M Tampa Bay, FL
Banshee S, Stand-Up Cedar Point
B&M Sandusky, OH

Wild Thing S, Out/Back ValleyFair!
Morgan Mfg. Shakope, MN
"unnamed" S, Mine Train Santa Monica Pier
Morgan Mfg. Santa Monica, CA

High Roller S, Family Stratosphere Tower
S&MC Las Vegas, NV
Hurricane S, Twister Mirabilandia Park
S&MC Savio Ravenna, Italy
Outer Limits/ S, Enclosed Paramount's King's Island
Flight of Fear S&MC Cincinnati, OH
Outer Limits/ S, Enclosed Paramount's King's Dominion
Flight of Fear S&MC Doswell, VA

"unnamed" S, Loop/Corkscrew Fiesta Texas
Vekoma San Antonio, TX
"unnamed" S, Mine Train Phantasialand
Vekoma Bruehl, Germany

* Although previously announced that Morgan Manufacturing would be
building a new Mine Train ride for Hecker's Pass in Gilroy, CA in 1995,
the park is not slated to open it's "ride" section of this family picnic
park (similar to Stricker's Grove in Ohio) until 1997. No confirmation
to date if this project was indeed started this year, or if construction
is on hold?!

* Due to the drop in the peso, Reino Aventura; Mexico City, Mexico,
cancelled installation of their Vekoma Suspended Looping coaster for
1995. They are hoping to install the coaster for the 1996 operating
season.

* In other Reino Aventura news, Amusement Business reported that the park
had plans for a giant new coaster in 1996. They will install a new
Suspended Looping coaster from Vekoma, so possibly this is what the
report was talking about. The park does not have a wooden coaster to
compete with nearby La Feria, so maybe they will be installing wood in
the future as well! We'll have to wait and see.

* Steve Barberino, the new owner of Lake Compounce amusement park in
Bristol, CT, has gone on record several times that he wants to install a
300' tall, 100mph steel roller coaster off the side of the mountain
which abuts his park. The working name for this coaster is the "Big
Mountainside Coaster", and he hopes to have this up and running by 1997.
Mr. Barberino has been in contact with several steel coaster firms, but
to date, no formal contracts have been signed.

* Arrow Dynamics International Limited reports with new financial backing
from a Saudi Arabian-based investor, the company can now go ahead with
the finalization of their stalled "Pipeline" steel coaster project.
None of these rides have been sold to date, but Arrow reports they
should have the product ready to roll out their doors in 1996.

* In other Arrow news, a deal was signed at the 1994 IAAPA trade show in
Miami for a new steel looping coaster, to be built off a pier in St.
Petersburg, Florida. The firm looking to install the coaster is
currently trying to obtain proper permits from the city for construction
of the new ride, which looks to be very similar to the "Anaconda"
4-inversion coaster at Paramount's King's Dominion.

* Dorney Park; Allentown, PA, has applied for a zoning varience in South
Whitehall Township, to build a 225' tall steel roller coaster. Should
the variance receive approval, this project should be on target for
1997.

* Waldameer Park in Erie, PA, noted that it would like to rebuild it's
famous "Ravine Flyer" wooden terrain coaster. The park finally has
blueprint, a formal layout, and a contractor (CCI) for the project! The
park has not set an opening date for this ride, but is now estimating
the year 2000 for a possible opening!

* Wayne's World and "The Hurler" coaster may be coming to Paramount's
Great America in Santa Clara, CA. The ride was slated for installation
in 1995, but was "bumped" by Viacom for a Nickelodeon-themed children's
area. It could be this project will get the go-ahead in coming years,
but rumor has it that Paramount is "done" with the Wayne's World/Hurler
rides. Only time will tell?!

* In other Paramount news, it was reported that Paramount was doing guest
studies on the B&M designed "Top Gun" roller coaster at Paramount's
Great America in Santa Clara, CA. Paramount Communications wants to
install a duplicate of this ride at another one of their parks, but to
date, no specific park or year has been identified.

* No concrete news for Cedar Point, other than the fact that the park has
a three-ride contract with the Swiss steel coaster firm of Bolliger and
Mabillard. To date, two ride down, one to go! Given this contractual
fact, I think it's also safe to say that Cedar Point WILL NOT be getting
the Arrow "Pipeline" coaster in 1996 or thereafter -- the next major
steel coaster they receive *will* be manufactured by B&M!

Talk also continues of Cedar Point re-building their 1920s classic
"Cyclone" wooden twister roller coaster, but this is nothing more than
speculation at this point.

* Both SFoT and SFoG have issued ride proposals to the firm of B&M for new
Inverted coasters. Whether or not the proposals will be accepted by
B&M, and/or receive funding approval from Time Warner, Inc., remains to
be seen. However, word has it that the BATMAN coaster installed this
year at Six Flags over Mid-America was originally slated for SFoG, but
was re-directed after labor problems arose with the state of GA. This
could indicate that SFoG will get a BATMAN coaster for 1996, though that
is merely speculation at this point.


3.7: Endangered Coasters in USA
-------------------------------

Legend:
DAMA - Damaged and non-operational
DEMO - Demolished/Destroyed


SBNO - Standing But Not Operating

STOR - Dismantled and in storage
OPER - Currently operating, but possibly in danger

ASSURED TO BE SAVED
SBNO -Leap The Dips: Side Friction; Lakemont Park; Altoona, PA

(Lakemont is very committed to restoring this ancient treasure!)

COASTERS WITH A CHANCE
STOR -Jumper: 19?? Jr. Wood, West Point, PA
STOR -Red Streaker: 19?? Jr. Wood, Willow Mill; Mechanicsburg, PA
SBNO -Wildcat: 1926 Out-and-Back, Elitch Gardens; Denver, CO

(I got word just before sending this out that a park in Ohio has
bought the Wildcat. Hopefully, I'll get some more info and the next
version of this FAQ will have the Wildcat in the "assured to be
saved" section.)

COASTERS IN DANGER
OPER -Roller Coaster: 1958 Wood, Twister, Playland, Vancouver

(Latest word on Playland is that the Pacific National Exhibition has
been relocated to a different site in Vancouver, and is now detached
from Playland Amusement Park. If indeed the City has development
plans for this land, as they _have_ stated in the past they do, the
PNE is no longer blocking the city from closing the park and going
ahead with its development plans.)

OPER -Big Dipper: 1958 Wood, Figure 8, Camden Park
OPER -Lil Dipper: 1963 Jr. Wood, Camden Park
SBNO -Blue Streak: 19?? Out/Back, Connueat Lake Park, PA
SBNO -Twister: 1964 Twister, Elitch Gardens; Denver, CO (old site)
SBNO -Comet: 1946 Twister; Lincoln Park; N Dartmouth, MA
SBNO -Thunderbolt: 1925 Twister, Coney Island, NY
SBNO -Jack Rabbit: 1910 Out/Back, Idora Park; Youngstown, OH
DAMA -Wildcat: 1927 Twister, Idora Park; Youngstown, OH

COASTERS WE'VE RECENTLY LOST FOREVER
DEMO -Comet/Mighty Lightnin: 1958 Dbl. Out/Back, Rocky Glen; Moosic, PA
DEMO -Shooting Star: Out-and-Back (from Lakeside Park)
DEMO -CNE Flyer: 1956 Oval, CNE; Toronto, Canada
DEMO -Speedway: 1937 Out/Back, Eldridge Park; Elmira, NY
DEMO -Valley Volcano: 1956 Jr. Wood, Angela Park; Hazleton, PA
DEMO -Mountain Flyer: 1929 Out/Back, Mountain Park; Holyoke, MA
DEMO -Tornado: 1968 Out/Back, Panama City, FL
DEMO -Coaster: 1931 Out/Back, Harvey's Lake, PA

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