We figured out that this is related to a recent Windows Update - KB4487017 (February 12, 2019). It's only applied to instances running Windows 10 April 2018 Update (version 1803). It doesn't affect Windows 10 October 2018 Update (version 1809) on which RavenDB starts without issues.
The error is reported in Event Viewer like so:
CoreCLR Version: 4.6.27129.4
Description: The process was terminated due to an internal error in the .NET Runtime at IP 00007FF8E8693B8D (00007FF8E84F0000) with exit code c0000005
We've confirmed that it affects all RavenDB 4.x versions and uninstalling KB4487017 updates fixes the problem. We've reported that to Microsoft already.