Re: [LAStools] Waveforms in LAS-1.4+WDP data

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Martin Isenburg

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Apr 3, 2018, 6:02:57 PM4/3/18
to LAStools - efficient command line tools for LIDAR processing, PulseWaves - no pulse left behind
Hello Andres,

sorry for the very late reply but I just now got to install TarTool.exe on my Windows laptop to actually look at the fwf_test data that you have so nicely prepared. First let's look at the PulseWaves file (since that format is closer to my heart than the "ugly" LAS FWF extension (-;). 

This seems to be a relatively new data set (created on the 38th day of 2018) and created for a relatively new sensor (the RIEGL VQ-1560i) and exported by RiPROCESS version 1.8.5. The file contains 22 pulses and the header bounding box suggests that all samples of the digitized returning waveforms from all of these 22 pulses combined are said to reside within a bounding box ranging approximately from (x=690884 y=6466245 z=28) to (x=690887 y=6466263 z=62). The samples are digitized every 1.00503 nanoseconds and stored with 16 bit resolution (that's a first from RIEGL for me, all previous samples I've seen were stored with 8 bit resolution) and there are still two channels both of which have their amplitude conversion table that map the (non-linearly?) recorded sample value to a corrected amplitude on some (linear?) measurement scale of some (?!?) physical unit.

variable length header record 19 of 20:
  reserved             0
  user ID              'PulseWaves_Spec'
  record ID            200013
  length after header  196
  description          'PulseWaves 0.3 r11 (150617) by rapidlasso'
    PULSEdescriptor 13
      optical_center_to_anchor_point:  0x0 ('coincide')
      number_of_extra_waves_bytes:     0
      number_of_samplings:             1
      sample_units:                    1.00503 [nanoseconds]
      scanner_index:                   1
      compression:                     0
      description:                     'returns(s), vary'
        sampling[0]
          type:        1 ('outgoing')
          channel:     3
          bits_for_duration_from_anchor:            32
          scale_for_duration_from_anchor:            0.00165992
          offset_for_duration_from_anchor:           0
          bits_for_number_of_segments:               8
          bits_for_number_of_samples:               16
          number_of_segments:   0
          number_of_samples:    0
          bits_per_sample:      8
          lookup_table_index:   1
          sample_units:       1.0 [nanoseconds]
          compression:          0
          description:        'outgoing, reference, vary'

But then all 22 pulses use the PULSEdescriptor 13 (see pulseinfo report below) that is specified as having one (varying) sampling of the *outgoing* pulse (the one leaving the LiDAR system) as marked in red above. It also uses the most flexible way of specifying it where both the number of segments and the number of samples per segment can vary and an outgoing pulse is usually sampled the same way each time. That seems to be the first error of the export software. Recording only the outgoing waveform would make little sense. Because they are marked "outgoing" there are not actually rendered by pulseview so i have to press <SHIFT>+<r> in pulseview to plot them in red (see below). That is the first mistake and those plots (shown below) hint at the second mistake. A integer overflow due to new 16 bit instead of 8 bit samples.

The second mistake (marked above also in red) is that the number of bits per sample is set to 8 when in fact it seems to be 16 (see images below). And this is where I stop debugging. Clearly this export in PulseWaves does not use the specification as intended. I seem to remember the previous exporter results were run by me to check that the resulting PulseWaves where valid. This time - for a new system - it's the first time I see this 16 bit data that uses this flexible sampling (in terms of segments and samples per segment) and it seems that exporter needs some more work.

Check the images below and you see that all values above 255 are stored modulo 255 ... something typical happening when writing a 16 bit number to an 8 bit field. You also see the in the textual output created with pulse2pulse (also below) that no value is above 255.

Regards,

Martin @rapidlasso

=================

pulseinfo.exe -i fwf_test\pw\ku3.pls
reporting all PULSE header entries:
  file signature:             'PulseWavesPulse'
  global parameters:          0
  file source ID:             0
  project ID GUID data 1-4:   00000000-0000-0000-0000-000000000000
  system identifier:          'RiPROCESS 1.8.5'
  generating software:        'PulseWaves DLL 0.3 r11 (150617) by rapidlasso'
  file creation day/year:     38/2018
  version major.minor:        0.3
  header size:                352
  offset to pulse data:       25735
  number of pulses:           22
  pulse format:               0
  pulse attributes:           0
  pulse size:                 48
  pulse compression:          0
  number vlrs:                20
  number avlrs:               0
  scale factor and offset t:  1e-006 1000000000
  min max T:                  46001202200 46001202308
  scale factor x y z:         0.00025 0.00025 0.00025
  offset x y z:               689390 6466000 350
  min x y z:                  690884.25899999996 6466245.7077500001 28.692250000000001
  max x y z:                  690887.05724999995 6466263.1422499996 61.945249999999987
variable length header record 1 of 20:
  reserved             0
  user ID              'PulseWaves_Proj'
  record ID            34735
  length after header  216
  description          'PulseWaves 0.3 r11 (150617) by rapidlasso'
    GeoKeyDirectoryTag version 1.1.0 number of keys 26
      key 1024 tiff_tag_location 0 count 1 value_offset 1 - GTModelTypeGeoKey: ModelTypeProjected
      key 1025 tiff_tag_location 0 count 1 value_offset 2 - GTRasterTypeGeoKey: RasterPixelIsPoint
      key 1026 tiff_tag_location 34737 count 8 value_offset 0 - GTCitationGeoKey: L-EST97
      key 2048 tiff_tag_location 0 count 1 value_offset 32767 - GeographicTypeGeoKey: user-defined
      key 2049 tiff_tag_location 34737 count 7 value_offset 16 - GeogCitationGeoKey: ETRS89
      key 2050 tiff_tag_location 0 count 1 value_offset 32767 - GeogGeodeticDatumGeoKey: user-defined
      key 2051 tiff_tag_location 0 count 1 value_offset 32767 - GeogPrimeMeridianGeoKey: look-up for 32767 not implemented
      key 2052 tiff_tag_location 0 count 1 value_offset 9001 - GeogLinearUnitsGeoKey: Linear_Meter
      key 2054 tiff_tag_location 0 count 1 value_offset 9102 - GeogAngularUnitsGeoKey: Angular_Degree
      key 2056 tiff_tag_location 0 count 1 value_offset 32767 - GeogEllipsoidGeoKey: look-up for 32767 not implemented
      key 2057 tiff_tag_location 34736 count 1 value_offset 0 - GeogSemiMajorAxisGeoKey: 1.597830983e-202
      key 2059 tiff_tag_location 34736 count 1 value_offset 1 - GeogInvFlatteningGeoKey: 1.63308805e-194
      key 2060 tiff_tag_location 0 count 1 value_offset 9102 - GeogAzimuthUnitsGeoKey: Angular_Degree
      key 2061 tiff_tag_location 34736 count 1 value_offset 2 - GeogPrimeMeridianLongGeoKey: 1.64084296e-194
      key 3072 tiff_tag_location 0 count 1 value_offset 32767 - ProjectedCSTypeGeoKey: user-defined
      key 3073 tiff_tag_location 34737 count 8 value_offset 8 - PCSCitationGeoKey: L-EST97
      key 3074 tiff_tag_location 0 count 1 value_offset 32767 - ProjectionGeoKey: user-defined
      key 3075 tiff_tag_location 0 count 1 value_offset 8 - ProjCoordTransGeoKey: CT_LambertConfConic_2SP
      key 3076 tiff_tag_location 0 count 1 value_offset 9001 - ProjLinearUnitsGeoKey: Linear_Meter
      key 3078 tiff_tag_location 34736 count 1 value_offset 3 - ProjStdParallel1GeoKey: 1.637686649e-194
      key 3079 tiff_tag_location 34736 count 1 value_offset 4 - ProjStdParallel2GeoKey: 1.642891427e-194
      key 3084 tiff_tag_location 34736 count 1 value_offset 6 - ProjFalseOriginLongGeoKey: 1.639588797e-194
      key 3085 tiff_tag_location 34736 count 1 value_offset 5 - ProjFalseOriginLatGeoKey: 1.649956547e-194
      key 3086 tiff_tag_location 34736 count 1 value_offset 7 - ProjFalseOriginEastingGeoKey: 1.964487932e-315
      key 3087 tiff_tag_location 34736 count 1 value_offset 8 - ProjFalseOriginNorthingGeoKey: 0
      key 4099 tiff_tag_location 0 count 1 value_offset 9001 - VerticalUnitsGeoKey: Linear_Meter
variable length header record 2 of 20:
  reserved             0
  user ID              'PulseWaves_Proj'
  record ID            34736
  length after header  72
  description          'PulseWaves 0.3 r11 (150617) by rapidlasso'
    GeoDoubleParamsTag (number of doubles 9)
      1.59783e-202 1.63309e-194 1.64084e-194 1.63769e-194 1.64289e-194 1.64996e-194 1.63959e-194 1.96449e-315 0
variable length header record 3 of 20:
  reserved             0
  user ID              'PulseWaves_Proj'
  record ID            34737
  length after header  23
  description          'PulseWaves 0.3 r11 (150617) by rapidlasso'
    GeoAsciiParamsTag (number of characters 23)
      L-EST97|L-EST97|ETRS89|
variable length header record 4 of 20:
  reserved             0
  user ID              'PulseWaves_Spec'
  record ID            100001
  length after header  248
  description          'PulseWaves 0.3 r11 (150617) by rapidlasso'
    PULSEscanner 1
      instrument:                      'VQ-1560i'
      serial:                          'S2222679'
      wave_length:                     1064 [nanometer]
      outgoing_pulse_width:            0 [nanoseconds]
      scan_pattern:                    2 ('line')
      number_of_mirror_facets:         4
      scan_frequency:                  300.006 [hertz]
      scan_angle_min:                  61.1833 [degree]
      scan_angle_max:                  119.244 [degree]
      pulse_frequency:                 1000 [kilohertz]
      beam_diameter_at_exit_aperture:  0.0007 [millimeters]
      beam_divergence:                 2.5e-006 [milliradians]
      minimal_range:                   163.309 [meters]
      maximal_range:                   500.769 [meters]
      description:                     ''
variable length header record 5 of 20:
  reserved             0
  user ID              'PulseWaves_Spec'
  record ID            300001
  length after header  12700
  description          'PulseWaves 0.3 r11 (150617) by rapidlasso'
    PULSEtable 1
      number_tables:                   1
      description:                     'PulseWaves DLL 0.3 r11 (150617) by rapidlasso'
      PULSElookupTable 0
        number_entries:                3135
        unit_of_measurement:           1
        data_type:                     8 ('float')
        description:                   'amplitude conversion table for low channel'
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-154.9462 -154.9462 -154.9462 -154.9462 -154.9462 -154.9462 -154.9462 -154.9462
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-154.9462 -154.9462 -154.9462 -154.9462 -154.9462 -154.9462 -154.9462 -154.9462
-13.9681 -7.1428 -0.3174 6.5079 13.3332 20.1585 26.9838 33.8092
40.6345 47.4598 54.2851 61.1104 67.9358 74.7611 81.5864 88.4117
95.2370 102.0623 108.8877 115.7130 122.5383 129.3636 136.1889 143.0143
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1217.7634 1218.3584 1218.9928 1219.6272 1220.2617 1220.8961 1221.5305 1222.1650
1222.7994 1223.4338 1224.0684 1224.7028 1225.3372 1225.9717 1226.6061 1227.2405
1227.8749 1228.5094 1229.1438 1229.7782 1230.4127 1231.0471 1231.6815 1232.3160
1232.9504 1233.5848 1234.2194 1234.8538 1235.4882 1236.1227 1236.7571 1237.3915
1238.0254 1238.6283 1239.2312 1239.8341 1240.4370 1241.0400 1241.6429 1242.2458
1242.8488 1243.4517 1244.0546 1244.6575 1245.2604 1245.8633 1246.4662 1247.0691
1247.6720 1248.2749 1248.8778 1249.4807 1250.0836 1250.6865 1251.2894 1251.8923
1252.4952 1253.0981 1253.7010 1254.3040 1254.9069 1255.5098 1256.1128 1256.7157
1257.3127 1257.9020 1258.4911 1259.0803 1259.6694 1260.2587 1260.8478 1261.4370
1262.0261 1262.6152 1263.2045 1263.7936 1264.3828 1264.9719 1265.5612 1266.1503
1266.7395 1267.3286 1267.9177 1268.5070 1269.0961 1269.6853 1270.2744 1270.8636
1271.4528 1272.0420 1272.6311 1273.2203 1273.8094 1274.3986 1274.9878 1275.6132
1276.2399 1276.8666 1277.4933 1278.1200 1278.7467 1279.3734 1280.0001 1280.6268
1281.2535 1281.8802 1282.5070 1283.1337 1283.7604 1284.3871 1285.0138 1285.6405
1286.2672 1286.8939 1287.5206 1288.1473 1288.7740 1289.4008 1290.0275 1290.6542
1291.2809 1291.9076 1292.5343 1293.1610 1293.7877 1294.3929 1294.9818 1295.5707
1296.1595 1296.7484 1297.3373 1297.9261 1298.5150 1299.1039 1299.6927 1300.2816
1300.8704 1301.4592 1302.0481 1302.6370 1303.2258 1303.8147 1304.4036 1304.9924
1305.5813 1306.1702 1306.7590 1307.3479 1307.9368 1308.5256 1309.1145 1309.7032
1310.2921 1310.8810 1311.4698 1312.0587 1312.6476 1313.2645 1313.9354 1314.6064
1315.2773 1315.9484 1316.6193 1317.2902 1317.9612 1318.6321 1319.3031 1319.9740
1320.6450 1321.3159 1321.9868 1322.6578 1323.3287 1323.9998 1324.6707 1325.3416
1326.0126 1326.6835 1327.3545 1328.0254 1328.6963 1329.3673 1330.0382 1330.7092
1331.3801 1332.0511 1332.7220 1333.3929 1334.0675 1334.7793 1335.4912 1336.2030
1336.9148 1337.6267 1338.3385 1339.0503 1339.7622 1340.4740 1341.1858 1341.8977
1342.6095 1343.3214 1344.0332 1344.7450 1345.4569 1346.1687 1346.8805 1347.5924
1348.3042 1349.0160 1349.7279 1350.4397 1351.1515 1351.8634 1352.5752 1353.2870
1353.9989 1354.7107 1355.4225 1356.1312 1356.8251 1357.5189 1358.2128 1358.9067
1359.6006 1360.2944 1360.9883 1361.6823 1362.3761 1363.0699 1363.7638 1364.4576
1365.1516 1365.8455 1366.5393 1367.2332 1367.9270 1368.6210 1369.3148 1370.0087
1370.7025 1371.3964 1372.0903 1372.7842 1373.4780 1374.1719 1374.8657 1375.5597
1376.2535 1376.9474 1377.6412 1378.3284 1379.0076 1379.6868 1380.3660 1381.0450
1381.7242 1382.4034 1383.0826 1383.7618 1384.4410 1385.1202 1385.7994 1386.4786
1387.1578 1387.8370 1388.5162 1389.1954 1389.8746 1390.5538 1391.2330 1391.9122
1392.5914 1393.2706 1393.9498 1394.6290 1395.3082 1395.9874 1396.6665 1397.3457
1398.0249 1398.7041 1399.3833 1400.0665 1400.8060 1401.5454 1402.2848 1403.0243
1403.7637 1404.5031 1405.2426 1405.9819 1406.7213 1407.4608 1408.2002 1408.9396
1409.6791 1410.4185 1411.1580 1411.8973 1412.6367 1413.3762 1414.1156 1414.8550
1415.5945 1416.3339 1417.0732 1417.8127 1418.5521 1419.2915 1420.0310 1420.7704
1421.5098 1422.2493 1422.9886 1423.7280 1424.4498 1425.1603 1425.8708 1426.5813
1427.2919 1428.0023 1428.7129 1429.4235 1430.1339 1430.8445 1431.5549 1432.2655
1432.9760 1433.6865 1434.3971 1435.1075 1435.8181 1436.5286 1437.2391 1437.9496
1438.6602 1439.3707 1440.0812 1440.7917 1441.5022 1442.2128 1442.9233 1443.6338
1444.3444 1445.0548 1445.7654 1446.4580 1447.1409 1447.8236 1448.5065 1449.1892
1449.8721 1450.5548 1451.2377 1451.9204 1452.6033 1453.2860 1453.9689 1454.6516
1455.3345 1456.0172 1456.7001 1457.3828 1458.0657 1458.7484 1459.4313 1460.1140
1460.7969 1461.4796 1462.1625 1462.8453 1463.5281 1464.2109 1464.8937 1465.5765
1466.2593 1466.9421 1467.6249 1468.3297 1469.0653 1469.8008 1470.5364 1471.2720
1472.0074 1472.7430 1473.4785 1474.2141 1474.9496 1475.6852 1476.4207 1477.1563
1477.8917 1478.6273 1479.3628 1480.0984 1480.8339 1481.5695 1482.3049 1483.0405
1483.7760 1484.5116 1485.2471 1485.9827 1486.7181 1487.4537 1488.1892 1488.9248
1489.6603 1490.3959 1491.1315 1491.8669 1492.6656 1493.4808 1494.2960 1495.1113
1495.9265 1496.7417 1497.5569 1498.3721 1499.1873 1500.0026 1500.8177 1501.6329
1502.4481 1503.2633 1504.0785 1504.8938 1505.7090 1506.5242 1507.3394 1508.1545
1508.9698 1509.7850 1510.6002 1511.4154 1512.2306 1513.0458 1513.8611 1514.6763
1515.4915 1516.3066 1517.1218 1517.9371 1518.7849 1519.6360 1520.4871 1521.3381
1522.1892 1523.0403 1523.8914 1524.7424 1525.5935 1526.4446 1527.2957 1528.1467
1528.9978 1529.8489 1530.7000 1531.5510 1532.4021 1533.2532 1534.1042 1534.9553
1535.8064 1536.6575 1537.5085 1538.3596 1539.2107 1540.0618 1540.9128 1541.7639
1542.6150 1543.4661 1544.3171 1545.1682 1546.0193 1546.8374 1547.6534 1548.4695
1549.2855 1550.1016 1550.9176 1551.7338 1552.5498 1553.3658 1554.1819 1554.9979
1555.8141 1556.6301 1557.4462 1558.2622 1559.0782 1559.8943 1560.7104 1561.5265
1562.3425 1563.1586 1563.9746 1564.7906 1565.6068 1566.4229 1567.2389 1568.0549
1568.8710 1569.6870 1570.5032 1571.3192 1572.1353 1572.9513 1573.7106 1574.4646
1575.2186 1575.9727 1576.7267 1577.4806 1578.2346 1578.9886 1579.7427 1580.4967
1581.2507 1582.0048 1582.7588 1583.5128 1584.2668 1585.0209 1585.7749 1586.5288
1587.2828 1588.0369 1588.7909 1589.5449 1590.2990 1591.0530 1591.8070 1592.5610
1593.3151 1594.0691 1594.8231 1595.5770 1596.3311 1597.0851 1597.8391 1598.6001
1599.3636 1600.1273 1600.8909 1601.6545 1602.4182 1603.1818 1603.9454 1604.7091
1605.4727 1606.2363 1606.9999 1607.7635 1608.5272 1609.2908 1610.0544 1610.8180
1611.5817 1612.3453 1613.1089 1613.8726 1614.6361 1615.3998 1616.1635 1616.9270
1617.6907 1618.4542 1619.2179 1619.9816 1620.7451 1621.5088 1622.2723 1623.0353
1623.7787 1624.5220 1625.2654 1626.0087 1626.7521 1627.4954 1628.2388 1628.9821
1629.7255 1630.4688 1631.2122 1631.9554 1632.6989 1633.4421 1634.1855 1634.9288
1635.6722 1636.4155 1637.1589 1637.9022 1638.6456 1639.3890 1640.1323 1640.8757
1641.6190 1642.3624 1643.1057 1643.8491 1644.5924 1645.3358 1646.0791 1646.8225
1647.6045 1648.3993 1649.1940 1649.9888 1650.7834 1651.5782 1652.3729 1653.1677
1653.9624 1654.7571 1655.5519 1656.3466 1657.1414 1657.9360 1658.7308 1659.5255
1660.3203 1661.1150 1661.9098 1662.7045 1663.4993 1664.2939 1665.0887 1665.8834
1666.6782 1667.4729 1668.2677 1669.0624 1669.8572 1670.6519 1671.4467 1672.2413
1673.0361 1673.8673 1674.7003 1675.5332 1676.3662 1677.1991 1678.0321 1678.8650
1679.6980 1680.5310 1681.3639 1682.1969 1683.0298 1683.8628 1684.6957 1685.5287
1686.3616 1687.1946 1688.0275 1688.8605 1689.6935 1690.5264 1691.3594 1692.1923
1693.0253 1693.8582 1694.6912 1695.5240 1696.3571 1697.1899 1698.0229 1698.8560
1699.6888 1700.5219 1701.3573 1702.1974 1703.0375 1703.8776 1704.7177 1705.5577
1706.3979 1707.2380 1708.0781 1708.9182 1709.7583 1710.5984 1711.4385 1712.2786
1713.1187 1713.9587 1714.7988 1715.6389 1716.4790 1717.3191 1718.1592 1718.9993
1719.8394 1720.6796 1721.5197 1722.3597 1723.1998 1724.0399 1724.8800 1725.7201
1726.5602 1727.4003 1728.2404 1729.0797 1729.9052 1730.7306 1731.5560 1732.3815
1733.2069 1734.0323 1734.8578 1735.6832 1736.5087 1737.3341 1738.1595 1738.9850
1739.8104 1740.6359 1741.4613 1742.2867 1743.1122 1743.9376 1744.7631 1745.5885
1746.4139 1747.2394 1748.0648 1748.8903 1749.7157 1750.5411 1751.3666 1752.1920
1753.0175 1753.8429 1754.6683 1755.4938 1756.3180 1757.1398 1757.9615 1758.7833
1759.6051 1760.4269 1761.2487 1762.0704 1762.8922 1763.7140 1764.5358 1765.3575
1766.1793 1767.0011 1767.8229 1768.6447 1769.4664 1770.2882 1771.1100 1771.9318
1772.7535 1773.5753 1774.3971 1775.2189 1776.0406 1776.8624 1777.6842 1778.5060
1779.3278 1780.1495 1780.9713 1781.7931 1782.6149 1783.4366 1784.2631 1785.1031
1785.9432 1786.7833 1787.6234 1788.4635 1789.3036 1790.1437 1790.9838 1791.8239
1792.6639 1793.5040 1794.3442 1795.1843 1796.0244 1796.8645 1797.7046 1798.5447
1799.3848 1800.2249 1801.0649 1801.9050 1802.7451 1803.5852 1804.4254 1805.2655
1806.1056 1806.9457 1807.7858 1808.6259 1809.4659 1810.3060 1811.1461 1811.9862
1812.8169 1813.6471 1814.4772 1815.3074 1816.1375 1816.9675 1817.7977 1818.6278
1819.4580 1820.2881 1821.1182 1821.9484 1822.7784 1823.6086 1824.4387 1825.2688
1826.0990 1826.9291 1827.7593 1828.5894 1829.4194 1830.2496 1831.0797 1831.9099
1832.7400 1833.5701 1834.4003 1835.2303 1836.0604 1836.8906 1837.7207 1838.5509
1839.3810 1840.2202 1841.0898 1841.9595 1842.8291 1843.6987 1844.5684 1845.4380
1846.3076 1847.1772 1848.0469 1848.9165 1849.7863 1850.6559 1851.5255 1852.3951
1853.2648 1854.1344 1855.0040 1855.8737 1856.7433 1857.6129 1858.4825 1859.3522
1860.2218 1861.0914 1861.9611 1862.8307 1863.7003 1864.5699 1865.4396 1866.3092
1867.1788 1868.0486 1868.9182 1869.8379 1870.7657 1871.6935 1872.6213 1873.5491
1874.4769 1875.4047 1876.3325 1877.2604 1878.1881 1879.1160 1880.0437 1880.9716
1881.8993 1882.8271 1883.7549 1884.6827 1885.6105 1886.5383 1887.4661 1888.3939
1889.3218 1890.2495 1891.1774 1892.1051 1893.0330 1893.9607 1894.8885 1895.8163
1896.7441 1897.6719 1898.5997 1899.5275 1900.4438 1901.3455 1902.2471 1903.1487
1904.0503 1904.9519 1905.8534 1906.7550 1907.6566 1908.5582 1909.4598 1910.3615
1911.2631 1912.1646 1913.0662 1913.9678 1914.8694 1915.7710 1916.6726 1917.5742
1918.4757 1919.3773 1920.2789 1921.1805 1922.0822 1922.9838 1923.8853 1924.7869
1925.6885 1926.5901 1927.4917 1928.3933 1929.2949 1930.1964 1931.0963 1931.9519
1932.8076 1933.6633 1934.5190 1935.3748 1936.2305 1937.0862 1937.9419 1938.7976
1939.6533 1940.5090 1941.3646 1942.2203 1943.0760 1943.9318 1944.7875 1945.6432
1946.4989 1947.3546 1948.2103 1949.0660 1949.9218 1950.7773 1951.6331 1952.4888
1953.3445 1954.2002 1955.0559 1955.9116 1956.7673 1957.6230 1958.4788 1959.3345
1960.1794 1960.9852 1961.7909 1962.5967 1963.4025 1964.2083 1965.0139 1965.8197
1966.6255 1967.4312 1968.2369 1969.0427 1969.8484 1970.6542 1971.4600 1972.2657
1973.0714 1973.8772 1974.6830 1975.4886 1976.2944 1977.1002 1977.9060 1978.7117
1979.5175 1980.3232 1981.1289 1981.9347 1982.7405 1983.5461 1984.3519 1985.1577
1985.9635 1986.7692 1987.5199 1988.2441 1988.9683 1989.6924 1990.4165 1991.1406
1991.8647 1992.5889 1993.3130 1994.0371 1994.7612 1995.4854 1996.2095 1996.9336
1997.6577 1998.3818 1999.1061 1999.8302 2000.5543 2001.2784 2002.0026 2002.7267
2003.4508 2004.1749 2004.8990 2005.6232 2006.3473 2007.0714 2007.7955 2008.5197
2009.2438 2009.9679 2010.6921 2011.4203 2012.1520 2012.8837 2013.6154 2014.3470
2015.0787 2015.8104 2016.5421 2017.2738 2018.0055 2018.7372 2019.4689 2020.2006
2020.9323 2021.6639 2022.3956 2023.1273 2023.8590 2024.5907 2025.3224 2026.0541
2026.7858 2027.5175 2028.2491 2028.9808 2029.7126 2030.4443 2031.1760 2031.9077
2032.6394 2033.3711 2034.1028 2034.8345 2035.5713 2036.3101 2037.0488 2037.7876
2038.5264 2039.2651 2040.0039 2040.7427 2041.4814 2042.2202 2042.9590 2043.6978
2044.4364 2045.1752 2045.9139 2046.6527 2047.3915 2048.1304 2048.8689 2049.6077
2050.3464 2051.0852 2051.8240 2052.5627 2053.3015 2054.0403 2054.7791 2055.5178
2056.2566 2056.9954 2057.7341 2058.4729 2059.2117 2059.9504 2060.7024 2061.4568
2062.2112 2062.9656 2063.7200 2064.4744 2065.2288 2065.9832 2066.7375 2067.4919
2068.2461 2069.0005 2069.7549 2070.5093 2071.2637 2072.0181 2072.7725 2073.5269
2074.2813 2075.0356 2075.7900 2076.5442 2077.2986 2078.0530 2078.8074 2079.5618
2080.3162 2081.0706 2081.8250 2082.5793 2083.3337 2084.0881 2084.8423 2085.5967
2086.3696 2087.1707 2087.9714 2088.7722 2089.5730 2090.3738 2091.1746 2091.9753
2092.7764 2093.5771 2094.3779 2095.1787 2095.9795 2096.7803 2097.5813 2098.3821
2099.1829 2099.9836 2100.7844 2101.5852 2102.3860 2103.1870 2103.9878 2104.7886
2105.5894 2106.3901 2107.1909 2107.9919 2108.7927 2109.5935 2110.3943 2111.1951
2111.9958 2112.7969 2113.5703 2114.3342 2115.0984 2115.8625 2116.6267 2117.3909
2118.1548 2118.9189 2119.6831 2120.4473 2121.2114 2121.9756 2122.7395 2123.5037
2124.2678 2125.0320 2125.7961 2126.5601 2127.3242 2128.0884 2128.8525 2129.6167
2130.3806 2131.1448 2131.9089 2132.6731 2133.4373 2134.2012 2134.9653 2135.7295
2136.4937 2137.2578 2138.0220 2138.7859 2139.5439 2140.2983 2141.0527 2141.8071
2142.5613 2143.3157 2144.0701 2144.8245 2145.5789 2146.3333 2147.0876 2147.8420
2148.5964 2149.3508 2150.1052 2150.8594 2151.6138 2152.3682 2153.1226 2153.8770
2154.6313 2155.3857 2156.1401 2156.8945 2157.6489 2158.4033 2159.1575 2159.9119
2160.6663 2161.4207 2162.1750 2162.9294 2163.6838 2164.4382 2165.2156 2166.0974
2166.9790 2167.8608 2168.7427 2169.6245 2170.5063 2171.3879 2172.2698 2173.1516
2174.0334 2174.9153 2175.7969 2176.6787 2177.5605 2178.4424 2179.3242 2180.2061
2181.0876 2181.9695 2182.8513 2183.7332 2184.6150 2185.4966 2186.3784 2187.2603
2188.1421 2189.0239 2189.9055 2190.7874 2191.6692 2192.5510 2193.4329 2194.3147
2195.1980 2196.0889 2196.9795 2197.8704 2198.7612 2199.6519 2200.5427 2201.4336
2202.3242 2203.2151 2204.1060 2204.9966 2205.8875 2206.7783 2207.6689 2208.5598
2209.4507 2210.3413 2211.2322 2212.1230 2213.0137 2213.9045 2214.7952 2215.6860
2216.5769 2217.4675 2218.3584 2219.2493 2220.1399 2221.0308 2221.9216 2222.8123
2223.7031 2224.5940 2225.4827 2226.3696 2227.2566 2228.1436 2229.0305 2229.9175
2230.8044 2231.6914 2232.5781 2233.4651 2234.3521 2235.2390 2236.1260 2237.0129
2237.8999 2238.7869 2239.6738 2240.5608 2241.4478 2242.3347 2243.2217 2244.1086
2244.9956 2245.8823 2246.7693 2247.6563 2248.5432 2249.4302 2250.3171 2251.2041
2252.0911 2252.9780 2253.8650 2254.7520 2255.6550 2256.5667 2257.4785 2258.3904
2259.3022 2260.2139 2261.1257 2262.0376 2262.9495 2263.8611 2264.7729 2265.6848
2266.5967 2267.5083 2268.4202 2269.3320 2270.2439 2271.1555 2272.0674 2272.9792
2273.8911 2274.8027 2275.7146 2276.6265 2277.5383 2278.4500 2279.3618 2280.2737
2281.1855 2282.0972 2283.0090 2283.9209 2284.8328 2285.7717 2286.7156 2287.6597
2288.6035 2289.5474 2290.4915 2291.4353 2292.3792 2293.3232 2294.2671 2295.2109
2296.1548 2297.0989 2298.0427 2298.9866 2299.9307 2300.8745 2301.8184 2302.7625
2303.7063 2304.6501 2305.5942 2306.5381 2307.4819 2308.4260 2309.3699 2310.3137
2311.2578 2312.2017 2313.1455 2314.0896 2315.0334 2315.9773 2316.9353 2317.8936
2318.8518 2319.8098 2320.7681 2321.7261 2322.6843 2323.6426 2324.6006 2325.5588
2326.5168 2327.4751 2328.4331 2329.3914 2330.3496 2331.3076 2332.2659 2333.2239
2334.1821 2335.1404 2336.0984 2337.0566 2338.0146 2338.9729 2339.9309 2340.8892
2341.8474 2342.8054 2343.7637 2344.7217 2345.6799 2346.6379 2347.5962 2348.5354
2349.4634 2350.3914 2351.3193 2352.2473 2353.1753 2354.1033 2355.0313 2355.9592
2356.8870 2357.8149 2358.7429 2359.6709 2360.5989 2361.5269 2362.4548 2363.3828
2364.3108 2365.2388 2366.1667 2367.0945 2368.0225 2368.9504 2369.8784 2370.8064
2371.7344 2372.6624 2373.5903 2374.5183 2375.4463 2376.3743 2377.3020 2378.2300
2379.1580 2380.1045 2381.1406 2382.1768 2383.2129 2384.2490 2385.2849 2386.3210
2387.3572 2388.3933 2389.4292 2390.4653 2391.5015 2392.5376 2393.5735 2394.6096
2395.6458 2396.6819 2397.7180 2398.7539 2399.7900 2400.8262 2401.8623 2402.8982
2403.9343 2404.9705 2406.0066 2407.0427 2408.0786 2409.1147 2410.1509 2411.1870
2412.2229 2413.2590 2414.2664 2415.2119 2416.1575 2417.1030 2418.0486 2418.9944
2419.9399 2420.8855 2421.8311 2422.7766 2423.7222 2424.6677 2425.6133 2426.5588
2427.5044 2428.4500 2429.3955 2430.3413 2431.2869 2432.2324 2433.1780 2434.1235
2435.0691 2436.0146 2436.9602 2437.9058 2438.8513 2439.7969 2440.7424 2441.6882
2442.6338 2443.5793 2444.5249 2445.4309 2446.3005 2447.1702 2448.0398 2448.9094
2449.7791 2450.6487 2451.5183 2452.3879 2453.2576 2454.1272 2454.9968 2455.8665
2456.7361 2457.6057 2458.4753 2459.3450 2460.2146 2461.0842 2461.9539 2462.8235
2463.6931 2464.5627 2465.4324 2466.3020 2467.1716 2468.0413 2468.9111 2469.7808
2470.6504 2471.5200 2472.3896 2473.2593 2474.1299 2475.0063 2475.8828 2476.7593
2477.6355 2478.5120 2479.3884 2480.2649 2481.1414 2482.0178 2482.8943 2483.7708
2484.6470 2485.5234 2486.3999 2487.2764 2488.1528 2489.0293 2489.9058 2490.7822
2491.6584 2492.5349 2493.4114 2494.2878 2495.1643 2496.0408 2496.9172 2497.7937
2498.6699 2499.5464 2500.4229 2501.2993 2502.1758 2503.0598 2503.9956 2504.9314
2505.8674 2506.8032 2507.7390 2508.6750 2509.6108 2510.5466 2511.4827 2512.4185
2513.3542 2514.2903 2515.2261 2516.1619 2517.0979 2518.0337 2518.9695 2519.9055
2520.8413 2521.7771 2522.7129 2523.6489 2524.5847 2525.5205 2526.4565 2527.3923
2528.3281 2529.2642 2530.2000 2531.1357 2532.0718 2533.0081 2533.9714 2534.9348
2535.8984 2536.8618 2537.8252 2538.7888 2539.7522 2540.7156 2541.6792 2542.6426
2543.6060 2544.5696 2545.5330 2546.4963 2547.4600 2548.4233 2549.3867 2550.3503
2551.3137 2552.2771 2553.2407 2554.2041 2555.1675 2556.1311 2557.0945 2558.0579
2559.0215 2559.9849 2560.9482 2561.9119 2562.8752 2563.8386 2564.7380 2565.6306
2566.5232 2567.4158 2568.3083 2569.2009 2570.0935 2570.9861 2571.8787 2572.7712
2573.6638 2574.5564 2575.4490 2576.3416 2577.2341 2578.1267 2579.0193 2579.9119
2580.8044 2581.6970 2582.5896 2583.4822 2584.3748 2585.2673 2586.1599 2587.0525
2587.9451 2588.8376 2589.7300 2590.6226 2591.5151 2592.4077 2593.2927 2594.1658
2595.0388 2595.9119 2596.7849 2597.6580 2598.5310 2599.4041 2600.2771 2601.1499
2602.0229 2602.8960 2603.7690 2604.6421 2605.5151 2606.3882 2607.2612 2608.1343
2609.0073 2609.8804 2610.7534 2611.6265 2612.4995 2613.3726 2614.2456 2615.1187
2615.9917 2616.8647 2617.7375 2618.6106 2619.4836 2620.3567 2621.2534 2622.1958
2623.1384 2624.0811 2625.0237 2625.9663 2626.9087 2627.8513 2628.7939 2629.7366
2630.6792 2631.6218 2632.5642 2633.5068 2634.4495 2635.3921 2636.3347 2637.2773
2638.2197 2639.1624 2640.1050 2641.0476 2641.9902 2642.9329 2643.8752 2644.8179
2645.7605 2646.7031 2647.6458 2648.5881 2649.5308 2650.4734 2651.4314 2652.4080
2653.3845 2654.3611 2655.3376 2656.3142 2657.2908 2658.2673 2659.2439 2660.2205
2661.1970 2662.1736 2663.1501 2664.1267 2665.1030 2666.0796 2667.0562 2668.0327
2669.0093 2669.9858 2670.9624 2671.9390 2672.9155 2673.8921 2674.8687 2675.8452
2676.8218 2677.7983 2678.7749 2679.7515 2680.7278 2681.7043 2682.6809 2683.6650
2684.6519 2685.6387 2686.6255 2687.6123 2688.5994 2689.5862 2690.5730 2691.5598
2692.5469 2693.5337 2694.5205 2695.5073 2696.4944 2697.4812 2698.4680 2699.4548
2700.4417 2701.4287 2702.4155 2703.4023 2704.3892 2705.3762 2706.3630 2707.3499
2708.3367 2709.3237 2710.3105 2711.2974 2712.2842 2713.2710 2714.2581 2715.2517
2716.2605 2717.2693 2718.2781 2719.2866 2720.2954 2721.3042 2722.3127 2723.3215
2724.3303 2725.3391 2726.3477 2727.3564 2728.3652 2729.3740 2730.3826 2731.3914
2732.4001 2733.4087 2734.4175 2735.4263 2736.4351 2737.4436 2738.4524 2739.4612
2740.4700 2741.4785 2742.4873 2743.4961 2744.5046 2745.5134 2746.5222 2747.4951
2748.4387 2749.3826 2750.3262 2751.2698 2752.2134 2753.1570 2754.1006 2755.0444
2755.9880 2756.9316 2757.8752 2758.8188 2759.7627 2760.7063 2761.6499 2762.5935
2763.5371 2764.4807 2765.4246 2766.3682 2767.3118 2768.2554 2769.1990 2770.1426
2771.0864 2772.0300 2772.9736 2773.9172 2774.8608 2775.8044 2776.7483 2777.6880
2778.6267 2779.5657 2780.5044 2781.4431 2782.3818 2783.3206 2784.2593 2785.1980
2786.1370 2787.0757 2788.0144 2788.9531 2789.8918 2790.8306 2791.7695 2792.7083
2793.6470 2794.5857 2795.5244 2796.4631 2797.4019 2798.3408 2799.2795 2800.2183
2801.1570 2802.0957 2803.0344 2803.9734 2804.9121 2805.8508 2806.8003 2807.7512
2808.7024 2809.6536 2810.6045 2811.5557 2812.5066 2813.4578 2814.4089 2815.3599
2816.3110 2817.2620 2818.2131 2819.1641 2820.1152 2821.0664 2822.0173 2822.9685
2823.9194 2824.8706 2825.8218 2826.7727 2827.7239 2828.6748 2829.6260 2830.5769
2831.5281 2832.4792 2833.4302 2834.3813 2835.3074 2836.1882 2837.0693 2837.9504
2838.8313 2839.7124 2840.5933 2841.4744 2842.3552 2843.2363 2844.1174 2844.9983
2845.8794 2846.7603 2847.6414 2848.5222 2849.4033 2850.2844 2851.1653 2852.0464
2852.9272 2853.8083 2854.6892 2855.5703 2856.4514 2857.3323 2858.2134 2859.0942
2859.9753 2860.8562 2861.7373 2862.6184 2863.4993 2864.3813 2865.2646 2866.1479
2867.0310 2867.9143 2868.7974 2869.6807 2870.5640 2871.4470 2872.3303 2873.2136
2874.0967 2874.9800 2875.8633 2876.7463 2877.6296 2878.5129 2879.3960 2880.2793
2881.1624 2882.0457 2882.9290 2883.8120 2884.6953 2885.5786 2886.4617 2887.3450
2888.2283 2889.1113 2889.9946 2890.8777 2891.7610 2892.6311 2893.4966 2894.3621
2895.2275 2896.0930 2896.9585 2897.8240 2898.6895 2899.5549 2900.4204 2901.2859
2902.1514 2903.0168 2903.8823 2904.7478 2905.6133 2906.4788 2907.3442 2908.2097
2909.0752 2909.9409 2910.8064 2911.6719 2912.5374 2913.4028 2914.2683 2915.1338
2915.9993 2916.8647 2917.7302 2918.5957 2919.4788 2920.3743 2921.2695 2922.1650
2923.0603 2923.9558 2924.8511 2925.7466 2926.6418 2927.5374 2928.4326 2929.3281
2930.2234 2931.1189 2932.0142 2932.9097 2933.8049 2934.7004 2935.5957 2936.4912
2937.3865 2938.2820 2939.1772 2940.0725 2940.9680 2941.8633 2942.7588 2943.6541
2944.5496 2945.4448 2946.3403 2947.2212 2948.0737 2948.9265 2949.7793 2950.6318
2951.4846 2952.3372 2953.1899 2954.0425 2954.8953 2955.7478 2956.6006 2957.4531
2958.3059 2959.1584 2960.0112 2960.8640 2961.7166 2962.5693 2963.4219 2964.2747
2965.1272 2965.9800 2966.8325 2967.6853 2968.5378 2969.3906 2970.2432 2971.0959
2971.9487 2972.8013 2973.6194 2974.4275 2975.2354 2976.0435 2976.8513 2977.6594
2978.4673 2979.2751 2980.0833 2980.8911 2981.6992 2982.5071 2983.3149 2984.1230
2984.9309 2985.7390 2986.5469 2987.3550 2988.1628 2988.9707 2989.7788 2990.5867
2991.3948 2992.2026 2993.0107 2993.8186 2994.6265 2995.4346 2996.2424 2997.0505
2997.8584 2998.6665 2999.4609 3000.2466 3001.0322 3001.8179 3002.6035 3003.3892
3004.1748 3004.9604 3005.7461 3006.5317 3007.3174 3008.1030 3008.8884 3009.6741
3010.4597 3011.2454 3012.0310 3012.8167 3013.6023 3014.3879 3015.1736 3015.9592
3016.7449 3017.5305 3018.3162 3019.1018 3019.8875 3020.6731 3021.4587 3022.2444
3023.0300 3023.8157 3024.6013 3025.3926 3026.1892 3026.9858 3027.7825 3028.5791
3029.3757 3030.1724 3030.9692 3031.7659 3032.5625 3033.3591 3034.1558 3034.9524
3035.7490 3036.5457 3037.3423 3038.1389 3038.9355 3039.7322 3040.5288 3041.3254
3042.1223 3042.9189 3043.7156 3044.5122 3045.3088 3046.1055 3046.9021 3047.6987
3048.4954 3049.2920 3050.0886 3050.8853 3051.7344 3052.5896 3053.4451 3054.3003
3055.1555 3056.0110 3056.8662 3057.7214 3058.5767 3059.4321 3060.2874 3061.1426
3061.9980 3062.8533 3063.7085 3064.5637 3065.4192 3066.2744 3067.1296 3067.9851
3068.8403 3069.6956 3070.5508 3071.4063 3072.2615 3073.1167 3073.9722 3074.8274
3075.6826 3076.5378 3077.3933 3078.2544 3079.1296 3080.0046 3080.8796 3081.7549
3082.6299 3083.5051 3084.3801 3085.2554 3086.1304 3087.0054 3087.8806 3088.7556
3089.6309 3090.5059 3091.3811 3092.2561 3093.1311 3094.0063 3094.8813 3095.7566
3096.6316 3097.5068 3098.3818 3099.2568 3100.1321 3101.0071 3101.8823 3102.7573
3103.6326 3104.5076 3105.3936 3106.2908 3107.1877 3108.0847 3108.9817 3109.8787
3110.7759 3111.6729 3112.5698 3113.4668 3114.3640 3115.2610 3116.1580 3117.0549
3117.9521 3118.8491 3119.7461 3120.6431 3121.5403 3122.4373 3123.3342 3124.2312
3125.1282 3126.0254 3126.9224 3127.8193 3128.7163 3129.6135 3130.5105
variable length header record 6 of 20:
  reserved             0
  user ID              'PulseWaves_Spec'
  record ID            300002
  length after header  5484
  description          'PulseWaves 0.3 r11 (150617) by rapidlasso'
    PULSEtable 2
      number_tables:                   1
      description:                     'PulseWaves DLL 0.3 r11 (150617) by rapidlasso'
      PULSElookupTable 0
        number_entries:                1331
        unit_of_measurement:           1
        data_type:                     8 ('float')
        description:                   'amplitude conversion table for high channel'
3286.9573 3287.9089 3288.8782 3289.8472 3290.8164 3291.7854 3292.7546 3293.7236
3294.6929 3295.6619 3296.6311 3297.6001 3298.5693 3299.5383 3300.5076 3301.4766
3302.4458 3303.4148 3304.3840 3305.3530 3306.3223 3307.2913 3308.2605 3309.2295
3310.1987 3311.1677 3312.1370 3313.1060 3314.0752 3315.0442 3316.0134 3317.0552
3319.5320 3322.0088 3324.4856 3326.9624 3329.4395 3331.9163 3334.3931 3336.8699
3339.3467 3341.8235 3344.3003 3346.7771 3349.1648 3350.8315 3352.4983 3354.1648
3355.8315 3357.4983 3359.1648 3360.8315 3362.4983 3364.1650 3365.8315 3367.4983
3369.1650 3370.8315 3372.4983 3374.1650 3375.8318 3377.4983 3379.1650 3380.8318
3382.3865 3383.6882 3384.9900 3386.2917 3387.5938 3388.8955 3390.1973 3391.4990
3392.8008 3394.1025 3395.4043 3396.7061 3398.0078 3399.3096 3400.6113 3401.9133
3403.2151 3404.5168 3405.8186 3407.1204 3408.4221 3409.7239 3411.0256 3412.3274
3413.6292 3414.9309 3416.2327 3417.5347 3418.7124 3419.8328 3420.9531 3422.0737
3423.1941 3424.3145 3425.4348 3426.5552 3427.6758 3428.7961 3429.9165 3431.0369
3432.1575 3433.2778 3434.3982 3435.5186 3436.6392 3437.7595 3438.8799 3440.0002
3441.1206 3442.2412 3443.3616 3444.4819 3445.6023 3446.7229 3447.8433 3448.9636
3450.0840 3451.2046 3452.3250 3453.4453 3454.5657 3455.6860 3456.7410 3457.7729
3458.8052 3459.8372 3460.8691 3461.9014 3462.9333 3463.9656 3464.9976 3466.0298
3467.0618 3468.0938 3469.1260 3470.1580 3471.1902 3472.2222 3473.2544 3474.2864
3475.3184 3476.3506 3477.3826 3478.4148 3479.4468 3480.4790 3481.5110 3482.5430
3483.5752 3484.6072 3485.6394 3486.6714 3487.7036 3488.7356 3489.7676 3490.7998
3491.8318 3492.8640 3493.8960 3494.9282 3495.9602 3496.9922 3498.0244 3499.0522
3500.0430 3501.0339 3502.0249 3503.0159 3504.0068 3504.9976 3505.9885 3506.9795
3507.9705 3508.9614 3509.9524 3510.9431 3511.9341 3512.9250 3513.9160 3514.9070
3515.8977 3516.8887 3517.8796 3518.8706 3519.8616 3520.8525 3521.8433 3522.8342
3523.8252 3524.8162 3525.8071 3526.7979 3527.7888 3528.7798 3529.7708 3530.7617
3531.7527 3532.7434 3533.7344 3534.7253 3535.7163 3536.7073 3537.6982 3538.6890
3539.6799 3540.6709 3541.6619 3542.6528 3543.6436 3544.6345 3545.6255 3546.6165
3547.6074 3548.5974 3549.5869 3550.5762 3551.5657 3552.5552 3553.5447 3554.5339
3555.5234 3556.5129 3557.5024 3558.4917 3559.4812 3560.4707 3561.4602 3562.4497
3563.4390 3564.4285 3565.4180 3566.4075 3567.3967 3568.3862 3569.3757 3570.3652
3571.3545 3572.3440 3573.3335 3574.3230 3575.3125 3576.3018 3577.2913 3578.2808
3579.2703 3580.2595 3581.2490 3582.2385 3583.2280 3584.2173 3585.2068 3586.1963
3587.1858 3588.1753 3589.1646 3590.1541 3591.1436 3592.1331 3593.1223 3594.1118
3595.1013 3596.0908 3597.0801 3598.0696 3599.0591 3600.0486 3601.0381 3602.0273
3603.0168 3604.0037 3604.9521 3605.9004 3606.8486 3607.7971 3608.7454 3609.6936
3610.6418 3611.5903 3612.5386 3613.4868 3614.4351 3615.3835 3616.3318 3617.2800
3618.2283 3619.1768 3620.1250 3621.0732 3622.0215 3622.9700 3623.9182 3624.8665
3625.8147 3626.7632 3627.7114 3628.6597 3629.6079 3630.5564 3631.5046 3632.4529
3633.4011 3634.3496 3635.2979 3636.2461 3637.1943 3638.1428 3639.0911 3640.0393
3640.9875 3641.9360 3642.8843 3643.8325 3644.7808 3645.7292 3646.6775 3647.6257
3648.5740 3649.5225 3650.4707 3651.4189 3652.3672 3653.3157 3654.2639 3655.2122
3656.1604 3657.1089 3658.0571 3659.0054 3659.9536 3660.9021 3661.8503 3662.7986
3663.7598 3664.7229 3665.6863 3666.6497 3667.6130 3668.5762 3669.5396 3670.5029
3671.4663 3672.4294 3673.3928 3674.3562 3675.3196 3676.2827 3677.2461 3678.2095
3679.1729 3680.1360 3681.0994 3682.0627 3683.0261 3683.9893 3684.9526 3685.9160
3686.8794 3687.8425 3688.8059 3689.7693 3690.7327 3691.6958 3692.6592 3693.6226
3694.5859 3695.5491 3696.5125 3697.4758 3698.4392 3699.4023 3700.3657 3701.3291
3702.2925 3703.2556 3704.2190 3705.1824 3706.1458 3707.1089 3708.0723 3709.0356
3709.9988 3710.9622 3711.9255 3712.8889 3713.8521 3714.8154 3715.7788 3716.7422
3717.7053 3718.6687 3719.6321 3720.5955 3721.5586 3722.5220 3723.4854 3724.4487
3725.4165 3726.3899 3727.3633 3728.3364 3729.3098 3730.2832 3731.2563 3732.2297
3733.2031 3734.1763 3735.1497 3736.1230 3737.0962 3738.0696 3739.0430 3740.0164
3740.9895 3741.9629 3742.9363 3743.9094 3744.8828 3745.8562 3746.8293 3747.8027
3748.7761 3749.7493 3750.7227 3751.6960 3752.6692 3753.6426 3754.6160 3755.5891
3756.5625 3757.5359 3758.5090 3759.4824 3760.4558 3761.4290 3762.4023 3763.3757
3764.3489 3765.3223 3766.2957 3767.2690 3768.2422 3769.2156 3770.1890 3771.1621
3772.1355 3773.1089 3774.0820 3775.0554 3776.0288 3777.0020 3777.9753 3778.9487
3779.9219 3780.8953 3781.8687 3782.8418 3783.8152 3784.7886 3785.7617 3786.7351
3787.7085 3788.7053 3789.7100 3790.7148 3791.7195 3792.7244 3793.7290 3794.7336
3795.7385 3796.7432 3797.7480 3798.7527 3799.7573 3800.7622 3801.7668 3802.7717
3803.7764 3804.7813 3805.7859 3806.7905 3807.7954 3808.8000 3809.8049 3810.8096
3811.8142 3812.8191 3813.8237 3814.8286 3815.8333 3816.8379 3817.8428 3818.8474
3819.8523 3820.8569 3821.8616 3822.8665 3823.8711 3824.8760 3825.8806 3826.8853
3827.8901 3828.8948 3829.8997 3830.9043 3831.9089 3832.9138 3833.9185 3834.9233
3835.9280 3836.9326 3837.9375 3838.9421 3839.9470 3840.9517 3841.9563 3842.9612
3843.9658 3844.9707 3845.9753 3846.9800 3847.9849 3848.9895 3849.9944 3850.9990
3852.0046 3853.0359 3854.0674 3855.0986 3856.1299 3857.1611 3858.1926 3859.2239
3860.2551 3861.2864 3862.3179 3863.3491 3864.3804 3865.4116 3866.4431 3867.4744
3868.5056 3869.5369 3870.5684 3871.5996 3872.6309 3873.6621 3874.6936 3875.7249
3876.7561 3877.7874 3878.8188 3879.8501 3880.8813 3881.9126 3882.9441 3883.9753
3885.0066 3886.0378 3887.0691 3888.1006 3889.1318 3890.1631 3891.1943 3892.2258
3893.2571 3894.2883 3895.3196 3896.3511 3897.3823 3898.4136 3899.4448 3900.4763
3901.5076 3902.5388 3903.5701 3904.6016 3905.6328 3906.6641 3907.6953 3908.7268
3909.7581 3910.7893 3911.8206 3912.8521 3913.8833 3914.9146 3915.9458 3916.9778
3918.0261 3919.0745 3920.1228 3921.1711 3922.2197 3923.2681 3924.3164 3925.3647
3926.4133 3927.4617 3928.5100 3929.5583 3930.6067 3931.6553 3932.7036 3933.7520
3934.8003 3935.8486 3936.8972 3937.9456 3938.9939 3940.0422 3941.0906 3942.1392
3943.1875 3944.2358 3945.2842 3946.3328 3947.3811 3948.4294 3949.4778 3950.5261
3951.5747 3952.6230 3953.6714 3954.7197 3955.7681 3956.8167 3957.8650 3958.9133
3959.9617 3961.0100 3962.0586 3963.1069 3964.1553 3965.2036 3966.2522 3967.3005
3968.3489 3969.3972 3970.4456 3971.4941 3972.5425 3973.5908 3974.6392 3975.6875
3976.7361 3977.7844 3978.8328 3979.8811 3980.9294 3981.9780 3983.0266 3984.0786
3985.1309 3986.1829 3987.2349 3988.2871 3989.3391 3990.3914 3991.4434 3992.4954
3993.5476 3994.5996 3995.6519 3996.7039 3997.7559 3998.8081 3999.8601 4000.9124
4001.9644 4003.0164 4004.0686 4005.1206 4006.1729 4007.2249 4008.2769 4009.3291
4010.3811 4011.4333 4012.4854 4013.5374 4014.5896 4015.6416 4016.6938 4017.7458
4018.7979 4019.8501 4020.9021 4021.9543 4023.0063 4024.0583 4025.1106 4026.1626
4027.2148 4028.2668 4029.3188 4030.3711 4031.4231 4032.4753 4033.5273 4034.5793
4035.6316 4036.6836 4037.7358 4038.7878 4039.8398 4040.8921 4041.9441 4042.9961
4044.0483 4045.1003 4046.1526 4047.2046 4048.2566 4049.3088 4050.3608 4051.4131
4052.4653 4053.5176 4054.5698 4055.6221 4056.6743 4057.7266 4058.7788 4059.8311
4060.8831 4061.9353 4062.9875 4064.0398 4065.0920 4066.1443 4067.1965 4068.2488
4069.3010 4070.3533 4071.4055 4072.4575 4073.5098 4074.5620 4075.6143 4076.6665
4077.7188 4078.7710 4079.8232 4080.8755 4081.9277 4082.9797 4084.0320 4085.0842
4086.1365 4087.1887 4088.2410 4089.2932 4090.3455 4091.3977 4092.4500 4093.5020
4094.5542 4095.6064 4096.6587 4097.7109 4098.7632 4099.8154 4100.8677 4101.9199
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variable length header record 7 of 20:
  reserved             0
  user ID              'PulseWaves_Spec'
  record ID            200001
  length after header  196
  description          'PulseWaves 0.3 r11 (150617) by rapidlasso'
    PULSEdescriptor 1
      optical_center_to_anchor_point:  0x0 ('coincide')
      number_of_extra_waves_bytes:     0
      number_of_samplings:             1
      sample_units:                    1.00503 [nanoseconds]
      scanner_index:                   1
      compression:                     0
      description:                     '1 x RP, 0 x LP, 0 x HP'
        sampling[0]
          type:        1 ('outgoing')
          channel:     3
          bits_for_duration_from_anchor:            32
          scale_for_duration_from_anchor:            0.00165992
          offset_for_duration_from_anchor:           0
          bits_for_number_of_segments:               0
          bits_for_number_of_samples:               16
          number_of_segments:   1
          number_of_samples:    0
          bits_per_sample:      8
          lookup_table_index:   1
          sample_units:       1.0 [nanoseconds]
          compression:          0
          description:        '1 reference segment(s)'
variable length header record 8 of 20:
  reserved             0
  user ID              'PulseWaves_Spec'
  record ID            200002
  length after header  300
  description          'PulseWaves 0.3 r11 (150617) by rapidlasso'
    PULSEdescriptor 2
      optical_center_to_anchor_point:  0x0 ('coincide')
      number_of_extra_waves_bytes:     0
      number_of_samplings:             2
      sample_units:                    1.00503 [nanoseconds]
      scanner_index:                   1
      compression:                     0
      description:                     '1 x RP, 1 x LP, 0 x HP'
        sampling[0]
          type:        1 ('outgoing')
          channel:     3
          bits_for_duration_from_anchor:            32
          scale_for_duration_from_anchor:            0.00165992
          offset_for_duration_from_anchor:           0
          bits_for_number_of_segments:               0
          bits_for_number_of_samples:               16
          number_of_segments:   1
          number_of_samples:    0
          bits_per_sample:      8
          lookup_table_index:   1
          sample_units:       1.0 [nanoseconds]
          compression:          0
          description:        '1 reference segment(s)'
        sampling[1]
          type:        2 ('returning')
          channel:     1
          bits_for_duration_from_anchor:            32
          scale_for_duration_from_anchor:            0.00165992
          offset_for_duration_from_anchor:           0
          bits_for_number_of_segments:               0
          bits_for_number_of_samples:               16
          number_of_segments:   1
          number_of_samples:    0
          bits_per_sample:      8
          lookup_table_index:   1
          sample_units:       1.0 [nanoseconds]
          compression:          0
          description:        '1 lowpower segment(s)'
variable length header record 9 of 20:
  reserved             0
  user ID              'PulseWaves_Spec'
  record ID            200003
  length after header  404
  description          'PulseWaves 0.3 r11 (150617) by rapidlasso'
    PULSEdescriptor 3
      optical_center_to_anchor_point:  0x0 ('coincide')
      number_of_extra_waves_bytes:     0
      number_of_samplings:             3
      sample_units:                    1.00503 [nanoseconds]
      scanner_index:                   1
      compression:                     0
      description:                     '1 x RP, 1 x LP, 1 x HP'
        sampling[0]
          type:        1 ('outgoing')
          channel:     3
          bits_for_duration_from_anchor:            32
          scale_for_duration_from_anchor:            0.00165992
          offset_for_duration_from_anchor:           0
          bits_for_number_of_segments:               0
          bits_for_number_of_samples:               16
          number_of_segments:   1
          number_of_samples:    0
          bits_per_sample:      8
          lookup_table_index:   1
          sample_units:       1.0 [nanoseconds]
          compression:          0
          description:        '1 reference segment(s)'
        sampling[1]
          type:        2 ('returning')
          channel:     1
          bits_for_duration_from_anchor:            32
          scale_for_duration_from_anchor:            0.00165992
          offset_for_duration_from_anchor:           0
          bits_for_number_of_segments:               0
          bits_for_number_of_samples:               16
          number_of_segments:   1
          number_of_samples:    0
          bits_per_sample:      8
          lookup_table_index:   1
          sample_units:       1.0 [nanoseconds]
          compression:          0
          description:        '1 lowpower segment(s)'
        sampling[2]
          type:        2 ('returning')
          channel:     0
          bits_for_duration_from_anchor:            32
          scale_for_duration_from_anchor:            0.00165992
          offset_for_duration_from_anchor:           0
          bits_for_number_of_segments:               0
          bits_for_number_of_samples:               16
          number_of_segments:   1
          number_of_samples:    0
          bits_per_sample:      8
          lookup_table_index:   2
          sample_units:       1.0 [nanoseconds]
          compression:          0
          description:        '1 highpower segment(s)'
variable length header record 10 of 20:
  reserved             0
  user ID              'PulseWaves_Spec'
  record ID            200004
  length after header  300
  description          'PulseWaves 0.3 r11 (150617) by rapidlasso'
    PULSEdescriptor 4
      optical_center_to_anchor_point:  0x0 ('coincide')
      number_of_extra_waves_bytes:     0
      number_of_samplings:             2
      sample_units:                    1.00503 [nanoseconds]
      scanner_index:                   1
      compression:                     0
      description:                     '1 x RP, 2 x LP, 0 x HP'
        sampling[0]
          type:        1 ('outgoing')
          channel:     3
          bits_for_duration_from_anchor:            32
          scale_for_duration_from_anchor:            0.00165992
          offset_for_duration_from_anchor:           0
          bits_for_number_of_segments:               0
          bits_for_number_of_samples:               16
          number_of_segments:   1
          number_of_samples:    0
          bits_per_sample:      8
          lookup_table_index:   1
          sample_units:       1.0 [nanoseconds]
          compression:          0
          description:        '1 reference segment(s)'
        sampling[1]
          type:        2 ('returning')
          channel:     1
          bits_for_duration_from_anchor:            32
          scale_for_duration_from_anchor:            0.00165992
          offset_for_duration_from_anchor:           0
          bits_for_number_of_segments:               0
          bits_for_number_of_samples:               16
          number_of_segments:   2
          number_of_samples:    0
          bits_per_sample:      8
          lookup_table_index:   1
          sample_units:       1.0 [nanoseconds]
          compression:          0
          description:        '2 lowpower segment(s)'
variable length header record 11 of 20:
  reserved             0
  user ID              'PulseWaves_Spec'
  record ID            200005
  length after header  404
  description          'PulseWaves 0.3 r11 (150617) by rapidlasso'
    PULSEdescriptor 5
      optical_center_to_anchor_point:  0x0 ('coincide')
      number_of_extra_waves_bytes:     0
      number_of_samplings:             3
      sample_units:                    1.00503 [nanoseconds]
      scanner_index:                   1
      compression:                     0
      description:                     '1 x RP, 2 x LP, 1 x HP'
        sampling[0]
          type:        1 ('outgoing')
          channel:     3
          bits_for_duration_from_anchor:            32
          scale_for_duration_from_anchor:            0.00165992
          offset_for_duration_from_anchor:           0
          bits_for_number_of_segments:               0
          bits_for_number_of_samples:               16
          number_of_segments:   1
          number_of_samples:    0
          bits_per_sample:      8
          lookup_table_index:   1
          sample_units:       1.0 [nanoseconds]
          compression:          0
          description:        '1 reference segment(s)'
        sampling[1]
          type:        2 ('returning')
          channel:     1
          bits_for_duration_from_anchor:            32
          scale_for_duration_from_anchor:            0.00165992
          offset_for_duration_from_anchor:           0
          bits_for_number_of_segments:               0
          bits_for_number_of_samples:               16
          number_of_segments:   2
          number_of_samples:    0
          bits_per_sample:      8
          lookup_table_index:   1
          sample_units:       1.0 [nanoseconds]
          compression:          0
          description:        '2 lowpower segment(s)'
        sampling[2]
          type:        2 ('returning')
          channel:     0
          bits_for_duration_from_anchor:            32
          scale_for_duration_from_anchor:            0.00165992
          offset_for_duration_from_anchor:           0
          bits_for_number_of_segments:               0
          bits_for_number_of_samples:               16
          number_of_segments:   1
          number_of_samples:    0
          bits_per_sample:      8
          lookup_table_index:   2
          sample_units:       1.0 [nanoseconds]
          compression:          0
          description:        '1 highpower segment(s)'
variable length header record 12 of 20:
  reserved             0
  user ID              'PulseWaves_Spec'
  record ID            200006
  length after header  404
  description          'PulseWaves 0.3 r11 (150617) by rapidlasso'
    PULSEdescriptor 6
      optical_center_to_anchor_point:  0x0 ('coincide')
      number_of_extra_waves_bytes:     0
      number_of_samplings:             3
      sample_units:                    1.00503 [nanoseconds]
      scanner_index:                   1
      compression:                     0
      description:                     '1 x RP, 2 x LP, 2 x HP'
        sampling[0]
          type:        1 ('outgoing')
          channel:     3
          bits_for_duration_from_anchor:            32
          scale_for_duration_from_anchor:            0.00165992
          offset_for_duration_from_anchor:           0
          bits_for_number_of_segments:               0
          bits_for_number_of_samples:               16
          number_of_segments:   1
          number_of_samples:    0
          bits_per_sample:      8
          lookup_table_index:   1
          sample_units:       1.0 [nanoseconds]
          compression:          0
          description:        '1 reference segment(s)'
        sampling[1]
          type:        2 ('returning')
          channel:     1
          bits_for_duration_from_anchor:            32
          scale_for_duration_from_anchor:            0.00165992
          offset_for_duration_from_anchor:           0
          bits_for_number_of_segments:               0
          bits_for_number_of_samples:               16
          number_of_segments:   2
          number_of_samples:    0
          bits_per_sample:      8
          lookup_table_index:   1
          sample_units:       1.0 [nanoseconds]
          compression:          0
          description:        '2 lowpower segment(s)'
        sampling[2]
          type:        2 ('returning')
          channel:     0
          bits_for_duration_from_anchor:            32
          scale_for_duration_from_anchor:            0.00165992
          offset_for_duration_from_anchor:           0
          bits_for_number_of_segments:               0
          bits_for_number_of_samples:               16
          number_of_segments:   2
          number_of_samples:    0
          bits_per_sample:      8
          lookup_table_index:   2
          sample_units:       1.0 [nanoseconds]
          compression:          0
          description:        '2 highpower segment(s)'
variable length header record 13 of 20:
  reserved             0
  user ID              'PulseWaves_Spec'
  record ID            200007
  length after header  300
  description          'PulseWaves 0.3 r11 (150617) by rapidlasso'
    PULSEdescriptor 7
      optical_center_to_anchor_point:  0x0 ('coincide')
      number_of_extra_waves_bytes:     0
      number_of_samplings:             2
      sample_units:                    1.00503 [nanoseconds]
      scanner_index:                   1
      compression:                     0
      description:                     '1 x RP, 3 x LP, 0 x HP'
        sampling[0]
          type:        1 ('outgoing')
          channel:     3
          bits_for_duration_from_anchor:            32
          scale_for_duration_from_anchor:            0.00165992
          offset_for_duration_from_anchor:           0
          bits_for_number_of_segments:               0
          bits_for_number_of_samples:               16
          number_of_segments:   1
          number_of_samples:    0
          bits_per_sample:      8
          lookup_table_index:   1
          sample_units:       1.0 [nanoseconds]
          compression:          0
          description:        '1 reference segment(s)'
        sampling[1]
          type:        2 ('returning')
          channel:     1
          bits_for_duration_from_anchor:            32
          scale_for_duration_from_anchor:            0.00165992
          offset_for_duration_from_anchor:           0
          bits_for_number_of_segments:               0
          bits_for_number_of_samples:               16
          number_of_segments:   3
          number_of_samples:    0
          bits_per_sample:      8
          lookup_table_index:   1
          sample_units:       1.0 [nanoseconds]
          compression:          0
          description:        '3 lowpower segment(s)'
variable length header record 14 of 20:
  reserved             0
  user ID              'PulseWaves_Spec'
  record ID            200008
  length after header  404
  description          'PulseWaves 0.3 r11 (150617) by rapidlasso'
    PULSEdescriptor 8
      optical_center_to_anchor_point:  0x0 ('coincide')
      number_of_extra_waves_bytes:     0
      number_of_samplings:             3
      sample_units:                    1.00503 [nanoseconds]
      scanner_index:                   1
      compression:                     0
      description:                     '1 x RP, 3 x LP, 1 x HP'
        sampling[0]
          type:        1 ('outgoing')
          channel:     3
          bits_for_duration_from_anchor:            32
          scale_for_duration_from_anchor:            0.00165992
          offset_for_duration_from_anchor:           0
          bits_for_number_of_segments:               0
          bits_for_number_of_samples:               16
          number_of_segments:   1
          number_of_samples:    0
          bits_per_sample:      8
          lookup_table_index:   1
          sample_units:       1.0 [nanoseconds]
          compression:          0
          description:        '1 reference segment(s)'
        sampling[1]
          type:        2 ('returning')
          channel:     1
          bits_for_duration_from_anchor:            32
          scale_for_duration_from_anchor:            0.00165992
          offset_for_duration_from_anchor:           0
          bits_for_number_of_segments:               0
          bits_for_number_of_samples:               16
          number_of_segments:   3
          number_of_samples:    0
          bits_per_sample:      8
          lookup_table_index:   1
          sample_units:       1.0 [nanoseconds]
          compression:          0
          description:        '3 lowpower segment(s)'
        sampling[2]
          type:        2 ('returning')
          channel:     0
          bits_for_duration_from_anchor:            32
          scale_for_duration_from_anchor:            0.00165992
          offset_for_duration_from_anchor:           0
          bits_for_number_of_segments:               0
          bits_for_number_of_samples:               16
          number_of_segments:   1
          number_of_samples:    0
          bits_per_sample:      8
          lookup_table_index:   2
          sample_units:       1.0 [nanoseconds]
          compression:          0
          description:        '1 highpower segment(s)'
variable length header record 15 of 20:
  reserved             0
  user ID              'PulseWaves_Spec'
  record ID            200009
  length after header  404
  description          'PulseWaves 0.3 r11 (150617) by rapidlasso'
    PULSEdescriptor 9
      optical_center_to_anchor_point:  0x0 ('coincide')
      number_of_extra_waves_bytes:     0
      number_of_samplings:             3
      sample_units:                    1.00503 [nanoseconds]
      scanner_index:                   1
      compression:                     0
      description:                     '1 x RP, 3 x LP, 2 x HP'
        sampling[0]
          type:        1 ('outgoing')
          channel:     3
          bits_for_duration_from_anchor:            32
          scale_for_duration_from_anchor:            0.00165992
          offset_for_duration_from_anchor:           0
          bits_for_number_of_segments:               0
          bits_for_number_of_samples:               16
          number_of_segments:   1
          number_of_samples:    0
          bits_per_sample:      8
          lookup_table_index:   1
          sample_units:       1.0 [nanoseconds]
          compression:          0
          description:        '1 reference segment(s)'
        sampling[1]
          type:        2 ('returning')
          channel:     1
          bits_for_duration_from_anchor:            32
          scale_for_duration_from_anchor:            0.00165992
          offset_for_duration_from_anchor:           0
          bits_for_number_of_segments:               0
          bits_for_number_of_samples:               16
          number_of_segments:   3
          number_of_samples:    0
          bits_per_sample:      8
          lookup_table_index:   1
          sample_units:       1.0 [nanoseconds]
          compression:          0
          description:        '3 lowpower segment(s)'
        sampling[2]
          type:        2 ('returning')
          channel:     0
          bits_for_duration_from_anchor:            32
          scale_for_duration_from_anchor:            0.00165992
          offset_for_duration_from_anchor:           0
          bits_for_number_of_segments:               0
          bits_for_number_of_samples:               16
          number_of_segments:   2
          number_of_samples:    0
          bits_per_sample:      8
          lookup_table_index:   2
          sample_units:       1.0 [nanoseconds]
          compression:          0
          description:        '2 highpower segment(s)'
variable length header record 16 of 20:
  reserved             0
  user ID              'PulseWaves_Spec'
  record ID            200010
  length after header  404
  description          'PulseWaves 0.3 r11 (150617) by rapidlasso'
    PULSEdescriptor 10
      optical_center_to_anchor_point:  0x0 ('coincide')
      number_of_extra_waves_bytes:     0
      number_of_samplings:             3
      sample_units:                    1.00503 [nanoseconds]
      scanner_index:                   1
      compression:                     0
      description:                     '1 x RP, 3 x LP, 3 x HP'
        sampling[0]
          type:        1 ('outgoing')
          channel:     3
          bits_for_duration_from_anchor:            32
          scale_for_duration_from_anchor:            0.00165992
          offset_for_duration_from_anchor:           0
          bits_for_number_of_segments:               0
          bits_for_number_of_samples:               16
          number_of_segments:   1
          number_of_samples:    0
          bits_per_sample:      8
          lookup_table_index:   1
          sample_units:       1.0 [nanoseconds]
          compression:          0
          description:        '1 reference segment(s)'
        sampling[1]
          type:        2 ('returning')
          channel:     1
          bits_for_duration_from_anchor:            32
          scale_for_duration_from_anchor:            0.00165992
          offset_for_duration_from_anchor:           0
          bits_for_number_of_segments:               0
          bits_for_number_of_samples:               16
          number_of_segments:   3
          number_of_samples:    0
          bits_per_sample:      8
          lookup_table_index:   1
          sample_units:       1.0 [nanoseconds]
          compression:          0
          description:        '3 lowpower segment(s)'
        sampling[2]
          type:        2 ('returning')
          channel:     0
          bits_for_duration_from_anchor:            32
          scale_for_duration_from_anchor:            0.00165992
          offset_for_duration_from_anchor:           0
          bits_for_number_of_segments:               0
          bits_for_number_of_samples:               16
          number_of_segments:   3
          number_of_samples:    0
          bits_per_sample:      8
          lookup_table_index:   2
          sample_units:       1.0 [nanoseconds]
          compression:          0
          description:        '3 highpower segment(s)'
variable length header record 17 of 20:
  reserved             0
  user ID              'PulseWaves_Spec'
  record ID            200011
  length after header  404
  description          'PulseWaves 0.3 r11 (150617) by rapidlasso'
    PULSEdescriptor 11
      optical_center_to_anchor_point:  0x0 ('coincide')
      number_of_extra_waves_bytes:     0
      number_of_samplings:             3
      sample_units:                    1.00503 [nanoseconds]
      scanner_index:                   1
      compression:                     0
      description:                     'out+return(s), vary'
        sampling[0]
          type:        1 ('outgoing')
          channel:     3
          bits_for_duration_from_anchor:            32
          scale_for_duration_from_anchor:            0.00165992
          offset_for_duration_from_anchor:           0
          bits_for_number_of_segments:               8
          bits_for_number_of_samples:               16
          number_of_segments:   0
          number_of_samples:    0
          bits_per_sample:      8
          lookup_table_index:   1
          sample_units:       1.0 [nanoseconds]
          compression:          0
          description:        'outgoing, reference, vary'
        sampling[1]
          type:        2 ('returning')
          channel:     1
          bits_for_duration_from_anchor:            32
          scale_for_duration_from_anchor:            0.00165992
          offset_for_duration_from_anchor:           0
          bits_for_number_of_segments:               8
          bits_for_number_of_samples:               16
          number_of_segments:   0
          number_of_samples:    0
          bits_per_sample:      8
          lookup_table_index:   1
          sample_units:       1.0 [nanoseconds]
          compression:          0
          description:        'returning, lowpower, vary'
        sampling[2]
          type:        2 ('returning')
          channel:     0
          bits_for_duration_from_anchor:            32
          scale_for_duration_from_anchor:            0.00165992
          offset_for_duration_from_anchor:           0
          bits_for_number_of_segments:               8
          bits_for_number_of_samples:               16
          number_of_segments:   0
          number_of_samples:    0
          bits_per_sample:      8
          lookup_table_index:   2
          sample_units:       1.0 [nanoseconds]
          compression:          0
          description:        'returning, highpower, vary'
variable length header record 18 of 20:
  reserved             0
  user ID              'PulseWaves_Spec'
  record ID            200012
  length after header  300
  description          'PulseWaves 0.3 r11 (150617) by rapidlasso'
    PULSEdescriptor 12
      optical_center_to_anchor_point:  0x0 ('coincide')
      number_of_extra_waves_bytes:     0
      number_of_samplings:             2
      sample_units:                    1.00503 [nanoseconds]
      scanner_index:                   1
      compression:                     0
      description:                     'out+return(s), lowpower only'
        sampling[0]
          type:        1 ('outgoing')
          channel:     3
          bits_for_duration_from_anchor:            32
          scale_for_duration_from_anchor:            0.00165992
          offset_for_duration_from_anchor:           0
          bits_for_number_of_segments:               8
          bits_for_number_of_samples:               16
          number_of_segments:   0
          number_of_samples:    0
          bits_per_sample:      8
          lookup_table_index:   1
          sample_units:       1.0 [nanoseconds]
          compression:          0
          description:        'outgoing, reference, vary'
        sampling[1]
          type:        2 ('returning')
          channel:     1
          bits_for_duration_from_anchor:            32
          scale_for_duration_from_anchor:            0.00165992
          offset_for_duration_from_anchor:           0
          bits_for_number_of_segments:               8
          bits_for_number_of_samples:               16
          number_of_segments:   0
          number_of_samples:    0
          bits_per_sample:      8
          lookup_table_index:   1
          sample_units:       1.0 [nanoseconds]
          compression:          0
          description:        'returning, lowpower, vary'
variable length header record 19 of 20:
  reserved             0
  user ID              'PulseWaves_Spec'
  record ID            200013
  length after header  196
  description          'PulseWaves 0.3 r11 (150617) by rapidlasso'
    PULSEdescriptor 13
      optical_center_to_anchor_point:  0x0 ('coincide')
      number_of_extra_waves_bytes:     0
      number_of_samplings:             1
      sample_units:                    1.00503 [nanoseconds]
      scanner_index:                   1
      compression:                     0
      description:                     'returns(s), vary'
        sampling[0]
          type:        1 ('outgoing')
          channel:     3
          bits_for_duration_from_anchor:            32
          scale_for_duration_from_anchor:            0.00165992
          offset_for_duration_from_anchor:           0
          bits_for_number_of_segments:               8
          bits_for_number_of_samples:               16
          number_of_segments:   0
          number_of_samples:    0
          bits_per_sample:      8
          lookup_table_index:   1
          sample_units:       1.0 [nanoseconds]
          compression:          0
          description:        'outgoing, reference, vary'
variable length header record 20 of 20:
  reserved             0
  user ID              'PulseWaves_Spec'
  record ID            200014
  length after header  300
  description          'PulseWaves 0.3 r11 (150617) by rapidlasso'
    PULSEdescriptor 14
      optical_center_to_anchor_point:  0x0 ('coincide')
      number_of_extra_waves_bytes:     0
      number_of_samplings:             2
      sample_units:                    1.00503 [nanoseconds]
      scanner_index:                   1
      compression:                     0
      description:                     'out+return(s), lowpower only'
        sampling[0]
          type:        1 ('outgoing')
          channel:     3
          bits_for_duration_from_anchor:            32
          scale_for_duration_from_anchor:            0.00165992
          offset_for_duration_from_anchor:           0
          bits_for_number_of_segments:               8
          bits_for_number_of_samples:               16
          number_of_segments:   0
          number_of_samples:    0
          bits_per_sample:      8
          lookup_table_index:   1
          sample_units:       1.0 [nanoseconds]
          compression:          0
          description:        'outgoing, reference, vary'
        sampling[1]
          type:        2 ('returning')
          channel:     1
          bits_for_duration_from_anchor:            32
          scale_for_duration_from_anchor:            0.00165992
          offset_for_duration_from_anchor:           0
          bits_for_number_of_segments:               8
          bits_for_number_of_samples:               16
          number_of_segments:   0
          number_of_samples:    0
          bits_per_sample:      8
          lookup_table_index:   1
          sample_units:       1.0 [nanoseconds]
          compression:          0
          description:        'returning, lowpower, vary'
reporting minimum and maximum for all PULSE record entries ...
  T             46001202200      46001202308
  offset                 60             1123
  anchor_X     5955076     5955096
  anchor_Y     1008073     1008078
  anchor_Z      143389      143392
  target_X     5965281     5969141
  target_Y      996513     1026935
  target_Z     -458939     -458589
  first_returning_sample  2151  2330
  last_returning_sample   2182  2372
  descriptor_index    13  13
  reserved             0   0
  edge_of_scan_line    0   0
  scan_direction       0   0
  mirror_facet         2   2
  intensity            0   0
  classification       0   0
  min x y z  690884.25928984268 6466245.7079013493 28.692478690147425
  max x y z  690887.05703879497 6466263.1421143431 61.945071790218378


e:\LAStools\bin>..\..\projects\pulsetools\bin\pulse2pulse.exe -i fwf_test\pw\ku3.pls -o ku.txt

e:\LAStools\bin>more ku.txt
file_signature:         PulseWavesPulse
global_parameters:      0
file_source_ID:         0
project ID GUID:        00000000-0000-0000-0000-000000000000
system_identifier:      'RiPROCESS 1.8.5'
generating_software:    'PulseWaves DLL 0.3 r11 (150617) by rapidlasso'
file_creation_day_year: 38 2018
version:                0.3
header_size:            352
offset_to_pulse_data:   25735
number_of_pulses:       22
pulse_format:           0
pulse_attributes:       0
pulse_size:             48
pulse_compression:      0
reserved:               0
number_of_vlrs:         20
number_of_avlrs:        0
t_scale_factor:         1e-006
t_offset:               1e+009
min_T max_T             46001202200 46001202308
xyz_scale_factors:      0.00025 0.00025 0.00025
xyz_offsets:            689390 6.466e+006 350
min_x min_y min_z:      690884 6.46625e+006 28.6923
max_x max_y max_z:      690887 6.46626e+006 61.9452
P
46001202200
929
5955076 1008078 143389
5965281 996513 -458854
2152 2183
13
0 0 2 0
0 0
W
m
s 32 2152.25
 173 172 168 166 166 165 164 164 165 171 185 204 222 223 207 192 180 174 170 167 166 165 163 161 158 161 163 163 166 162 159 157
P
46001202204
1177
5955077 1008078 143389
5965425 997639 -458872
2156 2187
13
0 0 2 0
0 0
W
m
s 32 2156.19
 159 159 161 159 158 154 156 163 172 185 200 210 213 204 192 180 169 165 162 156 150 149 152 157 163 164 165 160 158 158 161 164
P
46001202205
1426
5955077 1008078 143389
5965462 997932 -458876
2158 2357
13
0 0 2 0
0 0
W
m
s 32 2158.1
 156 160 161 157 152 151 152 156 160 167 181 194 207 208 201 187 181 178 176 174 173 169 164 158 157 160 159 156 157 160 161 158
s 80 2278.1
 159 155 153 153 167 184 192 188 180 186 244 131 39 133 124 36 177 74 253 210 187 178 172 171 168 166 165 165 160 156 152 151 152 154 161 162 165 172 220 87 254
 109 112 25 164 66 252 209 183 170 165 163 161 162 161 159 156 159 162 160 156 154 154 165 188 218 241 238 222 199 183 171 166 163 162 157 155 156 155 156
P
46001202206
2003
5955077 1008078 143389
5965499 998221 -458880
2329 2360
13
0 0 2 0
0 0
W
m
s 32 2328.86
 161 160 162 164 163 159 156 153 154 156 154 169 234 97 227 53 50 229 124 32 224 189 170 164 161 164 169 166 161 158 154 152
P
46001202210
2248
5955078 1008078 143390
5965645 999368 -458895
2325 2372
13
0 0 2 0
0 0
W
m
s 48 2324.55
 168 164 157 153 154 156 155 151 149 148 151 162 183 225 15 42 38 15 242 209 182 163 155 153 156 163 170 168 164 156 153 153 158 167 193 239 24 38 26 247 215 19
1 182 181 188 195 201 194
P
46001202211
2554
5955078 1008078 143390
5965679 999632 -458898
2304 2343
13
0 0 2 0
0 0
W
m
s 40 2303.79
 153 149 147 145 145 148 151 153 152 154 161 178 194 207 208 198 185 177 171 171 177 189 196 196 202 234 57 169 13 51 14 188 96 20 222 193 175 161 153 153
P
46001202212
2829
5955078 1008077 143390
5965714 999913 -458901
2305 2344
13
0 0 2 0
0 0
W
m
s 40 2304.72
 148 149 151 152 154 152 154 156 165 199 250 38 46 22 241 208 184 168 168 173 184 195 214 21 147 31 112 96 8 152 54 239 200 177 165 159 160 159 156 151
P
46001202221
3101
5955080 1008077 143390
5966039 1002464 -458925
2295 2334
13
0 0 2 0
0 0
W
m
s 40 2294.77
 171 169 165 161 158 152 151 160 192 245 57 107 114 87 49 25 24 31 33 22 9 246 228 211 192 176 165 161 154 151 150 151 152 152 154 155 157 158 159 159
P
46001202222
3373
5955080 1008077 143390
5966075 1002752 -458926
2277 2308
13
0 0 2 0
0 0
W
m
s 32 2276.64
 155 156 156 153 153 156 161 164 194 45 225 154 254 254 188 95 255 171 95 32 238 207 186 173 166 164 162 162 160 163 164 160
P
46001202231
3619
5955082 1008077 143390
5966392 1005242 -458937
2153 2184
13
0 0 2 0
0 0
W
m
s 32 2153.01
 157 160 161 160 153 149 149 149 149 148 152 158 174 189 202 210 202 186 171 164 164 161 157 151 150 153 153 157 157 161 161 154
P
46001202235
3869
5955083 1008076 143390
5966535 1006368 -458939
2151 2182
13
0 0 2 0
0 0
W
m
s 32 2150.83
 163 161 163 158 156 155 154 153 156 162 167 174 188 205 209 200 188 181 177 179 176 173 169 167 167 164 162 164 163 164 160 154
P
46001202236
4119
5955083 1008076 143390
5966572 1006657 -458939
2153 2184
13
0 0 2 0
0 0
W
m
s 32 2152.98
 159 161 163 162 164 167 174 175 180 188 203 222 230 216 193 177 174 172 172 170 164 158 157 157 157 157 160 164 167 169 174 176
P
46001202237
4369
5955083 1008076 143390
5966609 1006946 -458939
2155 2186
13
0 0 2 0
0 0
W
m
s 32 2154.62
 169 165 163 159 160 160 161 159 159 161 176 200 221 230 228 213 199 183 172 164 155 153 156 156 153 155 155 155 158 159 160 161
P
46001202238
4619
5955083 1008076 143390
5966646 1007239 -458938
2153 2184
13
0 0 2 0
0 0
W
m
s 32 2152.55
 161 163 166 166 162 161 160 161 161 161 164 168 172 188 207 217 216 204 192 182 171 167 169 166 164 159 162 162 165 169 170 174
P
46001202242
4869
5955084 1008076 143391
5966788 1008361 -458936
2310 2365
13
0 0 2 0
0 0
W
m
s 56 2310.36
 164 165 161 154 149 150 153 152 167 226 96 230 42 29 207 105 18 217 195 201 220 233 231 215 193 178 171 166 158 155 156 158 155 151 151 157 158 157 157 157 160
 167 197 38 195 74 119 61 203 90 9 223 201 187 179 171
P
46001202243
5205
5955084 1008076 143391
5966823 1008634 -458935
2310 2365
13
0 0 2 0
0 0
W
m
s 56 2310.42
 161 159 156 156 158 160 160 162 163 177 201 227 240 233 216 194 176 167 169 175 184 193 204 211 208 201 192 182 177 171 164 160 163 163 156 153 153 155 159 159
 161 163 176 213 13 67 88 68 21 233 200 173 163 156 158 156
P
46001202248
5546
5955085 1008076 143391
5967005 1010066 -458928
2302 2341
13
0 0 2 0
0 0
W
m
s 40 2302.1
 162 159 157 160 158 160 161 167 178 193 211 7 109 253 115 141 70 216 128 101 121 138 118 71 14 223 193 176 170 167 163 158 160 160 158 154 155 156 156 159
P
46001202266
5822
5955088 1008075 143391
5967642 1015093 -458877
2152 2335
13
0 0 2 0
0 0
W
m
s 32 2152.07
 152 151 151 153 153 155 160 162 165 172 186 204 212 211 195 178 163 155 156 156 152 151 152 152 153 153 151 147 144 147 152 155
s 56 2280.07
 161 162 162 156 155 160 183 223 6 28 61 154 73 16 154 171 68 153 237 102 18 225 203 192 184 174 167 167 165 165 166 167 163 157 150 150 156 159 165 188 215 236
 237 226 206 186 172 166 162 164 161 159 156 152 156 157
P
46001202271
6304
5955089 1008075 143391
5967826 1016545 -458855
2330 2361
13
0 0 2 0
0 0
W
m
s 32 2329.56
 151 147 146 147 150 153 154 154 158 174 236 141 133 109 220 176 19 76 158 43 234 203 182 171 167 160 156 157 159 160 155 151
P
46001202293
6551
5955093 1008074 143392
5968604 1022690 -458719
2303 2334
13
0 0 2 0
0 0
W
m
s 32 2303.14
 145 146 147 149 146 147 146 145 143 153 203 76 17 203 31 251 125 222 89 253 202 178 166 158 149 147 142 142 145 146 151 155
P
46001202294
6797
5955093 1008073 143392
5968640 1022975 -458712
2304 2335
13
0 0 2 0
0 0
W
m
s 32 2304.13
 153 152 150 148 143 141 143 150 155 204 91 40 198 236 158 19 139 32 223 186 167 159 154 151 151 149 150 148 148 146 148 147
P
46001202308
7043
5955096 1008073 143392
5969141 1026935 -458589
2328 2359
13
0 0 2 0
0 0
W
m
s 32 2327.52
 144 146 146 145 149 150 152 152 152 159 174 191 201 201 192 179 172 162 156 150 147 148 145 147 149 152 149 146 147 146 147 147

On Wed, Mar 21, 2018 at 12:05 PM, Andres Kuusk <and...@to.ee> wrote:
Hi!

The integer location value in the las2txt has too few digits. Five digits is not sufficient, it must be 6 digits.
The WF in the attached figures has a segment of 184 samples and is attached both to the discrete returns 3 and 4,
having location values 2774 and 19969, respectively.
The first digit '1' is missing, the location values must be 102774 and 119969, then the waveform and discrete returns agree to each other.

Similar problems has the Pulsewave output.
Their sample valus are of 8 bits. The values must be 2 bytes as in the las2txt output, otherway the sample values are modulo 256.
The start and stop values of waveform recording (in sampling units) of the sample waveform segment must be 100 ns less,
1882 and 2065 instead of 1982 and 2165, and the start time at which the first sample was recorded (in sampling units)
must be 1881.77 instead of 1981.77.

The las2txt output of the sample waveform:
#las2txt -parse txyzirnWV -adjusted_to_week -header pound
# file signature:            'LASF'
# version major.minor:       1.4
# generating_software:       'PolyClipData v1.63 (FUSION v3.70'
# header size                375
# offset to point data       4220
# number var. length records 29
# point data format          9
# point data record length   65
# scale factor x y z         0.00025 0.00025 0.00025
# offset x y z               690723.234500000020489 6466105.601999999955297 0
# min x y z                  690815.08750 6466197.70775 31.85950
# max x y z                  690931.10175 6466313.73400 66.13500
# extended number of point records    853110
# extended number of points by return 443474 272922 109527 27186 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
#t           x         y          z     i     r n W1(WPindex) W2(WPoffset) W3(#bytes) W4(location)  dx            dy            dz            #bits        #samples
478398.95291 690837.15 6466238.45 57.55 29818 1 4 0           0            0          0             0             0             0             no_waveform
478398.95291 690836.03 6466237.94 48.32 13172 2 4 0           0            0          0             0             0             0             no_waveform
478398.95291 690835.52 6466237.71 44.18 20075 3 4 19          194252316    368        2774          1.81452e-05   8.26777e-06   0.000148524   16           184 151 ..
478398.95291 690835.21 6466237.57 41.62 8213  4 4 19          194252316    368        19969         1.81452e-05   8.26777e-06   0.000148524   16           184 151 ..


The Pulswave output of the sample waveform
#file_signature:         PulseWavesPulse
#system_identifier:      'RiPROCESS 1.8.5'
#generating_software:    'PulseWaves DLL 0.3 r11 (150617) by rapidlasso'
#version:                0.3
#header_size:            352
#offset_to_pulse_data:   25643
#number_of_pulses:       5
#pulse_format:           0
#pulse_size:             48
#number_of_vlrs:         20
#t_scale_factor:         1e-006
#t_offset:               1e+009
#min_T max_T             46398952907 46398952912
#xyz_scale_factors:      0.00025 0.00025 0.00025
#xyz_offsets:            691229 6.46431e+006 333
#min_x min_y min_z:      690832 6.46624e+006 17.3335
#max_x max_y max_z:      690836 6.46624e+006 44.7632
#P
#46398952910
#2144
#-1429091 7792837 30022
#-1502037 7759600 -567062
#1982 2165
#13
#0 0 3 0
#0 0
#W
#m
#s 184 1981.77
151 149 147
...

We do not know is the missing digit in the las2txt location '1' or '0'.
The sample long segment cannot strech below ground surface, obviously the missing digit in the las2txt location has value '1'.
In case of short segments we do not know, is the location correct or 100000 ps are missing.

I am sorry, I do not know is this the problem of the processing software or the raw data recorded by ALS are erroneous.

                                                                       
Thanks
Andres Kuusk

wrongly_outgoing_waveforms01..jpg
wrongly_outgoing_waveforms02..jpg
wrongly_outgoing_waveforms03..jpg
wrongly_outgoing_waveforms04..jpg
wrongly_outgoing_waveforms05..jpg

Martin Isenburg

unread,
Apr 4, 2018, 5:05:18 PM4/4/18
to LAStools - efficient command line tools for LIDAR processing, PulseWaves - no pulse left behind
Hello Andres,

here part 2 of my answer (albeit without the WDP file containing the actual samples). First I look at the returns that actually have a wveform associated which are 23 different returns. They all see to be from the same laser. Remember, the VQ-1560i "cross-fire" has two lasers that independently scan the terrain and the scanner channel field (the first one listed below) should store which of the two lasers fired the pulse that the return is from. 

I can see only two sets of returns that are from the same laser pulse that both have a waveform attached and I've marked them in orange below. They have the scanner channel and the GPS time stamp (hence they are from the same pulse) and it is reassuring to see that also their wavepacket direction vectors are identical and point in the same direction. However, they are *not* referencing the same digitized waveform but each one of them references a different (sized) digitized waveform segment in the WDP file. Let's take a closer look at them:

0 181652401.202205 690884.42900 6466246.49075 57.64875 1 4 1 210883836 64 21147 -2.58334e-006 2.52363e-006 0.000149813
0 181652401.202205 690884.83450 6466246.09550 34.14250 4 4 6 210883900 160 57447 -2.58334e-006 2.52363e-006 0.000149813

The waveforms are attached to the first and the fourth (hence the last) return of four returns and both use the same direction vector V = (-2.58334e-006, 2.52363e-006, 0.000149813) that points to the aircraft.

The first return uses wave packet descriptor 1 and as the lasinfo report tells us this has 32 samples of 16 bits spaced 1005 picoseconds apart with the return itself being situated exactly 21147 picoseconds after the start of the waveform sampling. Hence to go back from the first return R = (r_x, r_y, r_z) = ( 690884.42900, 6466246.49075, 57.64875) to the 3D location S =  (s_x, s_y, s_z) where the sampling had started we calculate using the same technique as described here [1]:

S = R + 21147 * V

or

s_x = 690884.42900 + 21147 * -2.58334e-006 = 690884.37437010902
s_y = 6466246.49075 + 21147 * 2.52363e-006  = 6466246.54411720361
s_z = 57.64875 + 21147 *  0.000149813 60.816845511

Hence the digitizer started recording the waveform about 3 meters above the first return. Given that it stopped recording after 32 samples and given that therefore we have 31 spacings of 1005 picoseconds between the samples we can compute the 3D location E =  (e_x, e_y, e_z) where the sampling has ended as:

E = S - 31*1005*V = S - 31155*V

e_x = 690884.37437010902 31155 * -2.58334e-006 = 690884.45485406672
e_y = 6466246.54411720361 - 31155 * 2.52363e-006 = 6466246.54411720361
e_z = 60.816845511 31155 * 0.000149813 =  56.149421496

The digitization ends about 1.5 below the first of four returns and far far far above the next return that gets digitized which is located about 32 meter below the end of the waveform that was digitized *around* the first return.

Because these are two separate waveform digitization segments (in [1] it's just one segment) and because there is no overlap between the two segments we cannot check if we can get from one return to the other by traversing the waveform and whether our math is correct.

For completeness let's repeat the exercise for the last / fourth return as well. The last return uses wave packet descriptor 6 and as the lasinfo report tells us this has  80 samples of 16 bits spaced 1005 picoseconds apart with the return itself being situated exactly 57447 picoseconds after the start of the waveform sampling. Hence to go back from the last return R = (r_x, r_y, r_z) = ( 690884.83450 6466246.09550 34.14250) to the 3D location S =  (s_x, s_y, s_z) where the sampling had started we calculate using the same technique as described here [1]:

S = R + 57447 * V

or

s_x =  690884.83450 + 57447 * -2.58334e-006 = 690884.68609486702
s_y =  6466246.09550 + 57447 * 2.52363e-006  = 6466246.24047497261 
s_z =  34.14250 + 57447 *  0.000149813 42.748807411

Hence the digitizer started recording the waveform around the last return about 14 meters below where the recording of waveform around the first return had ended.. Given that it stopped recording after 80 samples and given that therefore we have 79 spacings of 1005 picoseconds between the samples we can compute the 3D location E =  (e_x, e_y, e_z) where the sampling has ended as:

E = S - 79*1005*V = S - 79395*V

But I'm now too lazy to do that. Also the other pair (in orange) has separate waveform digitizations whose segments are separated by many meters. Do you have an example where two returns from the same shot are spaced close enough so that they are on the *same* digitized waveform?

Evon ... do you think I did get the math right following [1] and does this correspond to the LAS specification? I was a little bit unsure at first where to integrate the 1005 picosecond sample spacing. And we also need another example showing a multi segment case for the wiki [1].

Regards,

Martin @rapidlasso


e:\LAStools\bin>las2txt -i fwf_test\las\ku3.las -drop_wavepacket 0 -parse ltxyzrnW -stdout
[...]
ERROR: cannot open waveform file 'fwf_test\las\ku3.las'
0 181652401.202204 690884.39150 6466246.34900 58.71375 1 2 1 210883772 64 15969 -2.5741e-006 2.59652e-006 0.000149812
0 181652401.202205 690884.42900 6466246.49075 57.64875 1 4 1 210883836 64 21147 -2.58334e-006 2.52363e-006 0.000149813
0 181652401.202205 690884.83450 6466246.09550 34.14250 4 4 6 210883900 160 57447 -2.58334e-006 2.52363e-006 0.000149813
0 181652401.202206 690884.85550 6466246.26425 34.16850 3 3 1 210884060 64 6237 -2.59245e-006 2.45182e-006 0.000149815
0 181652401.202210 690884.94000 6466246.93375 34.15675 3 3 4 210884124 96 10595 -2.62859e-006 2.16647e-006 0.000149818
0 181652401.202211 690884.95750 6466247.08875 34.17250 3 3 5 210884220 80 31337 -2.63691e-006 2.10072e-006 0.000149819
0 181652401.202212 690884.97875 6466247.25175 34.17175 3 3 5 210884300 80 30390 -2.64575e-006 2.03086e-006 0.00014982
0 181652401.202221 690885.09125 6466248.78225 38.45575 3 3 5 210884380 80 11711 -2.72605e-006 1.39635e-006 0.000149826
0 181652401.202222 690885.09400 6466248.95725 39.36525 3 4 1 210884460 64 23857 -2.73513e-006 1.32451e-006 0.000149826
0 181652401.202231 690884.90800 6466250.48125 58.99900 1 1 1 210884524 64 17027 -2.81343e-006 7.05195e-007 0.000149829
0 181652401.202235 690884.95150 6466251.09700 60.68450 1 1 1 210884588 64 7955 -2.84886e-006 4.24906e-007 0.000149829
0 181652401.202236 690885.01625 6466251.24750 58.41575 1 1 1 210884652 64 20944 -2.85795e-006 3.52994e-007 0.000149829
0 181652401.202237 690885.01425 6466251.40600 59.56700 1 1 1 210884716 64 11609 -2.86702e-006 2.81153e-007 0.000149829
0 181652401.202238 690885.03100 6466251.56650 59.67100 1 1 1 210884780 64 12992 -2.87623e-006 2.08319e-007 0.000149829
0 181652401.202242 690885.59900 6466252.18575 34.35850 3 3 2 210884844 112 23343 -2.91153e-006 -7.09807e-008 0.000149829
0 181652401.202243 690885.62050 6466252.34500 34.33550 4 4 2 210884956 112 23441 -2.9201e-006 -1.38789e-007 0.000149828
0 181652401.202248 690885.72575 6466253.18125 34.40450 2 2 5 210885068 80 31372 -2.96509e-006 -4.95027e-007 0.000149827
0 181652401.202266 690885.62350 6466255.84925 57.18625 1 3 1 210885148 64 30284 -3.12288e-006 -1.74582e-006 0.000149814
0 181652401.202266 690886.09700 6466256.11475 34.41625 3 3 2 210885212 112 53628 -3.12288e-006 -1.74582e-006 0.000149814
0 181652401.202271 690886.20600 6466256.96125 34.43725 2 2 1 210885324 64 3834 -3.16844e-006 -2.10706e-006 0.000149809
0 181652401.202293 690886.65900 6466260.55100 34.37025 2 2 1 210885388 64 31367 -3.36099e-006 -3.63593e-006 0.000149775
0 181652401.202294 690886.68050 6466260.71800 34.32375 2 2 1 210885452 64 30706 -3.36991e-006 -3.70676e-006 0.000149773
0 181652401.202308 690886.98250 6466263.04000 34.09150 1 1 1 210885516 64 9231 -3.49382e-006 -4.69206e-006 0.000149743

-----------------

e:\LAStools\bin>lasinfo -i fwf_test\las\ku3.las
lasinfo (180403) report for fwf_test\las\ku3.las
WARNING: number of samples for wave packet descr 19 is zero
WARNING: temporal spacing for wave packet descr 19 is zero
WARNING: number of samples for wave packet descr 20 is zero
WARNING: temporal spacing for wave packet descr 20 is zero
WARNING: number of samples for wave packet descr 21 is zero
WARNING: temporal spacing for wave packet descr 21 is zero
reporting all LAS header entries:
  file signature:             'LASF'
  file source ID:             0
  global_encoding:            21
  project ID GUID data 1-4:   00000000-0000-0000-0000-000000000000
  version major.minor:        1.4
  system identifier:          'LAStools (c) by rapidlasso GmbH'
  generating software:        'las2las (version 180209)'
  file creation day/year:     38/2018
  header size:                375
  offset to point data:       3980
  number var. length records: 26
  point data format:          9
  point data record length:   65
  number of point records:    0
  number of points by return: 0 0 0 0 0
  scale factor x y z:         0.00025 0.00025 0.00025
  offset x y z:               689390 6466007 187
  min x y z:                  690884.31975 6466245.79725 34.08825
  max x y z:                  690886.98250 6466263.13175 61.20650
  start of waveform data packet record: 0
  start of first extended variable length record: 0
  number of extended_variable length records: 0
  extended number of point records: 202
  extended number of points by return: 112 60 23 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
variable length header record 1 of 26:
  reserved             43707
  user ID              'LASF_Projection'
  record ID            34735
  length after header  216
  description          'GeoKeyDirectoryTag (mandatory)'
    GeoKeyDirectoryTag version 1.1.0 number of keys 26
      key 1024 tiff_tag_location 0 count 1 value_offset 1 - GTModelTypeGeoKey: ModelTypeProjected
      key 1025 tiff_tag_location 0 count 1 value_offset 2 - GTRasterTypeGeoKey: RasterPixelIsPoint
      key 1026 tiff_tag_location 34737 count 8 value_offset 0 - GTCitationGeoKey: L-EST97
      key 2048 tiff_tag_location 0 count 1 value_offset 32767 - GeographicTypeGeoKey: user-defined
      key 2049 tiff_tag_location 34737 count 7 value_offset 16 - GeogCitationGeoKey: ETRS89
      key 2050 tiff_tag_location 0 count 1 value_offset 32767 - GeogGeodeticDatumGeoKey: user-defined
      key 2051 tiff_tag_location 0 count 1 value_offset 32767 - GeogPrimeMeridianGeoKey: user-defined
      key 2052 tiff_tag_location 0 count 1 value_offset 9001 - GeogLinearUnitsGeoKey: Linear_Meter
      key 2054 tiff_tag_location 0 count 1 value_offset 9102 - GeogAngularUnitsGeoKey: Angular_Degree
      key 2056 tiff_tag_location 0 count 1 value_offset 32767 - GeogEllipsoidGeoKey: user-defined
      key 2057 tiff_tag_location 34736 count 1 value_offset 0 - GeogSemiMajorAxisGeoKey: 6378137
      key 2059 tiff_tag_location 34736 count 1 value_offset 1 - GeogInvFlatteningGeoKey: 298.2572221
      key 2060 tiff_tag_location 0 count 1 value_offset 9102 - GeogAzimuthUnitsGeoKey: Angular_Degree
      key 2061 tiff_tag_location 34736 count 1 value_offset 2 - GeogPrimeMeridianLongGeoKey: 0
      key 3072 tiff_tag_location 0 count 1 value_offset 32767 - ProjectedCSTypeGeoKey: user-defined
      key 3073 tiff_tag_location 34737 count 8 value_offset 8 - PCSCitationGeoKey: L-EST97
      key 3074 tiff_tag_location 0 count 1 value_offset 32767 - ProjectionGeoKey: user-defined
      key 3075 tiff_tag_location 0 count 1 value_offset 8 - ProjCoordTransGeoKey: CT_LambertConfConic_2SP
      key 3076 tiff_tag_location 0 count 1 value_offset 9001 - ProjLinearUnitsGeoKey: Linear_Meter
      key 3078 tiff_tag_location 34736 count 1 value_offset 3 - ProjStdParallel1GeoKey: 59.33333333
      key 3079 tiff_tag_location 34736 count 1 value_offset 4 - ProjStdParallel2GeoKey: 58
      key 3084 tiff_tag_location 34736 count 1 value_offset 6 - ProjFalseOriginLongGeoKey: 24
      key 3085 tiff_tag_location 34736 count 1 value_offset 5 - ProjFalseOriginLatGeoKey: 57.51755393
      key 3086 tiff_tag_location 34736 count 1 value_offset 7 - ProjFalseOriginEastingGeoKey: 500000
      key 3087 tiff_tag_location 34736 count 1 value_offset 8 - ProjFalseOriginNorthingGeoKey: 6375000
      key 4099 tiff_tag_location 0 count 1 value_offset 9001 - VerticalUnitsGeoKey: Linear_Meter
variable length header record 2 of 26:
  reserved             43707
  user ID              'LASF_Spec'
  record ID            100
  length after header  26
  description          'WPD#1'
  index 1 bits/sample 16 compression 0 samples 32 temporal 1005 gain 1, offset 0
variable length header record 3 of 26:
  reserved             43707
  user ID              'LASF_Spec'
  record ID            101
  length after header  26
  description          'WPD#2'
  index 2 bits/sample 16 compression 0 samples 56 temporal 1005 gain 1, offset 0
variable length header record 4 of 26:
  reserved             43707
  user ID              'LASF_Spec'
  record ID            102
  length after header  26
  description          'WPD#3'
  index 3 bits/sample 16 compression 0 samples 64 temporal 1005 gain 1, offset 0
variable length header record 5 of 26:
  reserved             43707
  user ID              'LASF_Spec'
  record ID            103
  length after header  26
  description          'WPD#4'
  index 4 bits/sample 16 compression 0 samples 48 temporal 1005 gain 1, offset 0
variable length header record 6 of 26:
  reserved             43707
  user ID              'LASF_Spec'
  record ID            104
  length after header  26
  description          'WPD#5'
  index 5 bits/sample 16 compression 0 samples 40 temporal 1005 gain 1, offset 0
variable length header record 7 of 26:
  reserved             43707
  user ID              'LASF_Spec'
  record ID            105
  length after header  26
  description          'WPD#6'
  index 6 bits/sample 16 compression 0 samples 80 temporal 1005 gain 1, offset 0
variable length header record 8 of 26:
  reserved             43707
  user ID              'LASF_Spec'
  record ID            106
  length after header  26
  description          'WPD#7'
  index 7 bits/sample 16 compression 0 samples 72 temporal 1005 gain 1, offset 0
variable length header record 9 of 26:
  reserved             43707
  user ID              'LASF_Spec'
  record ID            107
  length after header  26
  description          'WPD#8'
  index 8 bits/sample 16 compression 0 samples 88 temporal 1005 gain 1, offset 0
variable length header record 10 of 26:
  reserved             43707
  user ID              'LASF_Spec'
  record ID            108
  length after header  26
  description          'WPD#9'
  index 9 bits/sample 16 compression 0 samples 96 temporal 1005 gain 1, offset 0
variable length header record 11 of 26:
  reserved             43707
  user ID              'LASF_Spec'
  record ID            109
  length after header  26
  description          'WPD#10'
  index 10 bits/sample 16 compression 0 samples 104 temporal 1005 gain 1, offset 0
variable length header record 12 of 26:
  reserved             43707
  user ID              'LASF_Spec'
  record ID            110
  length after header  26
  description          'WPD#11'
  index 11 bits/sample 16 compression 0 samples 112 temporal 1005 gain 1, offset 0
variable length header record 13 of 26:
  reserved             43707
  user ID              'LASF_Spec'
  record ID            111
  length after header  26
  description          'WPD#12'
  index 12 bits/sample 16 compression 0 samples 144 temporal 1005 gain 1, offset 0
variable length header record 14 of 26:
  reserved             43707
  user ID              'LASF_Spec'
  record ID            112
  length after header  26
  description          'WPD#13'
  index 13 bits/sample 16 compression 0 samples 128 temporal 1005 gain 1, offset 0
variable length header record 15 of 26:
  reserved             43707
  user ID              'LASF_Spec'
  record ID            113
  length after header  26
  description          'WPD#14'
  index 14 bits/sample 16 compression 0 samples 120 temporal 1005 gain 1, offset 0
variable length header record 16 of 26:
  reserved             43707
  user ID              'LASF_Spec'
  record ID            114
  length after header  26
  description          'WPD#15'
  index 15 bits/sample 16 compression 0 samples 160 temporal 1005 gain 1, offset 0
variable length header record 17 of 26:
  reserved             43707
  user ID              'LASF_Spec'
  record ID            115
  length after header  26
  description          'WPD#16'
  index 16 bits/sample 16 compression 0 samples 136 temporal 1005 gain 1, offset 0
variable length header record 18 of 26:
  reserved             43707
  user ID              'LASF_Spec'
  record ID            116
  length after header  26
  description          'WPD#17'
  index 17 bits/sample 16 compression 0 samples 152 temporal 1005 gain 1, offset 0
variable length header record 19 of 26:
  reserved             43707
  user ID              'LASF_Spec'
  record ID            117
  length after header  26
  description          'WPD#18'
  index 18 bits/sample 16 compression 0 samples 168 temporal 1005 gain 1, offset 0
variable length header record 20 of 26:
  reserved             43707
  user ID              'LASF_Spec'
  record ID            118
  length after header  26
  description          'WPD#19'
  index 19 bits/sample 16 compression 0 samples 0 temporal 0 gain 1, offset 0
variable length header record 21 of 26:
  reserved             43707
  user ID              'LASF_Spec'
  record ID            119
  length after header  26
  description          'WPD#20'
  index 20 bits/sample 16 compression 0 samples 0 temporal 0 gain 1, offset 0
variable length header record 22 of 26:
  reserved             43707
  user ID              'LASF_Spec'
  record ID            120
  length after header  26
  description          'WPD#21'
  index 21 bits/sample 16 compression 0 samples 0 temporal 0 gain 1, offset 0
variable length header record 23 of 26:
  reserved             43707
  user ID              'LASF_Projection'
  record ID            34736
  length after header  72
  description          'GeoDoubleParamsTag (optional)'
    GeoDoubleParamsTag (number of doubles 9)
      6.37814e+006 298.257 0 59.3333 58 57.5176 24 500000 6.375e+006
variable length header record 24 of 26:
  reserved             43707
  user ID              'LASF_Projection'
  record ID            34737
  length after header  23
  description          'GeoASCIIParamsTag (optional)'
    GeoAsciiParamsTag (number of characters 23)
      L-EST97|L-EST97|ETRS89|
variable length header record 25 of 26:
  reserved             43707
  user ID              'LASF_Projection'
  record ID            2112
  length after header  768
  description          'OGC COORDINATE SYSTEM WKT'
    WKT OGC COORDINATE SYSTEM:
    PROJCS["L-EST97",GEOGCS["L-EST97",DATUM["ETRS89",SPHEROID["GRS80",6378137.000,298.257222100,AUTHORITY["EPSG","0"]],AUTHORITY["EPSG","0"]],PRIMEM["Greenwich"
,0.0000000000000000,AUTHORITY["EPSG","8901"]],UNIT["Degree",0.01745329251994329547,AUTHORITY["EPSG","9102"]],AUTHORITY["EPSG","3301"]],UNIT["Meter",1.0000000000
0000000000,AUTHORITY["EPSG","9001"]],PROJECTION["Lambert_Conformal_Conic_2SP"],PARAMETER["standard_parallel_1",59.3333333333333357],PARAMETER["standard_parallel
_2",58.0000000000000071],PARAMETER["latitude_of_origin",57.5175539305555574],PARAMETER["central_meridian",24.0000000000000000],PARAMETER["false_easting",500000.
000],PARAMETER["false_northing",6375000.000],AXIS["Easting",EAST],AXIS["Northing",NORTH],AXIS["Height",UP],AUTHORITY["EPSG","3301"]]
variable length header record 26 of 26:
  reserved             43707
  user ID              'LASF_Spec'
  record ID            4
  length after header  576
  description          'RIEGL Extra Bytes'
    Extra Byte Descriptions
      data type: 3 (unsigned short), name "Amplitude", description: "Echo signal amplitude [dB]", min: 0, max: 10000, scale: 0.01, offset: 0 (not set)
      data type: 4 (short), name "Reflectance", description: "Echo signal reflectance [dB]", min: -5000, max: 15000, scale: 0.01, offset: 0 (not set)
      data type: 3 (unsigned short), name "Deviation", description: "Pulse shape deviation", min: 0, max: 32767, scale: 1 (not set), offset: 0 (not set)
reporting minimum and maximum for all LAS point record entries ...
  X             5977279    5987930
  Y              955189    1024527
  Z             -611647    -503174
  intensity       11250      42357
  return_number       1          4
  number_of_returns   1          4
  edge_of_flight_line 0          0
  scan_direction_flag 0          0
  classification      2          4
  scan_angle_rank  -128        127
  user_data           0          0
  point_source_ID     0          0
  gps_time 181652401.202201 181652401.202312
  Wavepacket Index    0 6
             Offset   0 210885516
             Size     0 160
             Location 0 57447
             Xt       -3.49382e-006 0
             Yt       -4.69206e-006 2.59652e-006
             Zt       0 0.000149829
  extended_return_number          1      4
  extended_number_of_returns      1      4
  extended_classification         2      4
  extended_scan_angle        -32559  32352
  extended_scanner_channel        0      0
number of first returns:        112
number of intermediate returns: 30
number of last returns:         111
number of single returns:       51
overview over extended number of returns of given pulse: 51 75 48 28 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
histogram of classification of points:
              30  ground (2)
             172  medium vegetation (4)

Martin Isenburg

unread,
Apr 5, 2018, 11:52:57 PM4/5/18
to LAStools - efficient command line tools for LIDAR processing, PulseWaves - no pulse left behind
Hello,

I can confirm (after finally downloading the WDP file via a slow internet connection in Costa Rica) that the LAS FWF file is not specification conform. The lasview with <W>aveforms enables draws very different alignments (aka: literally none) between waveforms peaks (in reddish) and returns than what I am used to. I assume the (rewritten?) exporter for both LAS FWF and PulseWaves in RiPROCESS is broken for the VQ1560i sensor that seems to use a different code path (16 bit waveform samples) than the previous exporters for the Q680 and Q780 that were both correct. Attached a few images.

Evon, it is quite common to break the digitized waveform into multiple segments as the long periods of receiving nothing (after hitting a wire and then 20 meter nothing) are often not stored to disk for saving bandwidth. I assume I/O limitations is also why not every waveform was recorded to file in this example (remember, the  VQ1560i does digitize every returning waveform but does online-waveform processing to directly output discrete returns and only stores the occasional waveform for the VQ series of sensors. 

I think the ball is with the RIEGL engineers now to tell us if the exporter is indeed broken or if I made a mistake somewhere.\

Regards,

Martin


On Fri, Apr 6, 2018 at 3:22 AM, Evon Silvia <esi...@quantumspatial.com> wrote:
Martin,

Without digging too deep into the math, your interpretation looks correct to me. Interesting that two returns from the same pulse don't share the same waveform... it almost seems to me to defeat the purpose of having the waveform data.

I don't recall seeing the raw waveform packets, so I can't comment on the misalignment in the plots.

Evon
wrong_lasfwf_waveforms_vq1560i_01.jpg
wrong_lasfwf_waveforms_vq1560i_02.jpg
wrong_lasfwf_waveforms_vq1560i_03..jpg
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