# Generating uniform doubles in the unit interval

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### Kevin M

Apr 1, 2021, 10:22:39 AM4/1/21
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Hello, I was introduced to the method for generating a double in the interval [0,1) from a 64-bit int, outlined here, i.e.

double d = (x >> 11) * 0x1.0p-53;

I was wondering if someone could explain the choice of shift and exponent values here. According to the text:

A standard double (64-bit) floating-point number in IEEE floating point format has 52 bits of significand, plus an implicit bit at the left of the significand. Thus, the representation can actually store numbers with 53 significant binary digits.

So I can see that that's where 53 is coming from, and 11+53 = 64. But I really don't have a strong understanding of why this is justified. I notice that other values return a double in the same range, but I assume there's some quirk of floating-point that means that the above example gives the best results in some way?

Any help shedding light on this is much appreciated. Also, going off the same logic I assume that the following is the "correct" way of generating a float from a 32-bit int in the same way? Thanks!

float f = (x >> 8) * 0x1.0p-24f;

### Sebastiano Vigna

Apr 1, 2021, 12:50:50 PM4/1/21
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Il giorno giovedì 1 aprile 2021 alle 15:22:39 UTC+1 Kevin M ha scritto:

Hello, I was introduced to the method for generating a double in the interval [0,1) from a 64-bit int, outlined here, i.e.

double d = (x >> 11) * 0x1.0p-53;

I was wondering if someone could explain the choice of shift and exponent values here. According to the text:

Well I think the page you linked explains everything. Frankly I cannot add anything...

float f = (x >> 8) * 0x1.0p-24f;

Yes.

### Kevin M

Apr 5, 2021, 7:28:09 AM4/5/21
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Well for example, why not use:

double d = x * 0x1.0p-64;

What errors/artifacts will this introduce over using the correct method? Thanks.

### Sebastiano Vigna

Apr 5, 2021, 8:41:02 AM4/5/21
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Il giorno lunedì 5 aprile 2021 alle 12:28:09 UTC+1 Kevin M ha scritto:
Well for example, why not use:

double d = x * 0x1.0p-64;

What errors/artifacts will this introduce over using the correct method? Thanks.

That some outputs will be more frequent than others. Using 53 bits guarantees that you get all 2^53 possible outputs equally likely.

Repeated outputs happen because you lose precision when converting to double. You might decide you're OK with those.

### Kevin M

Apr 6, 2021, 12:30:02 PM4/6/21
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Cool, thank you very much!

### Sebastian Werhausen

Apr 12, 2021, 6:14:14 AM4/12/21
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If I may join the discussion about something closely related: What would the correct code be to generate numbers on the closed interval, ie [0,1]? I'm having some trouble with that.