Updated 2.11BSD disk image for testing

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Chase Covello

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Aug 27, 2019, 1:20:47 AM8/27/19
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I've prepared an updated 2.11BSD image for testing:
http://chasecovello.com/2.11BSD_rq.dsk.xz

It has the following changes from the one currently included in systems.tar.gz:
  • Applied 2.11BSD patches 449 and 450 to /usr/src/.
  • Recompiled boot and vi (updated in patches).
  • Created and built a new kernel configuration called PIDP11 (based on ZEKE, but compiled with 11/70 instructions).
  • Cleaned *.o and *~ files in /usr/src/ to save space.
  • Added a web server with CGI support in /usr/libexec/httpd. It's enabled by default in /etc/inetd.conf. Document root is /home/www/.
  • Added Rene Richarz' Tektronix 4010 example programs. Log in as user 'tektronix' and look at the README in the home dir.
  • Fixed the Y2K bug and a few other bugs in /usr/local/welcome.
Sources for httpd, welcome, and a few other programs are included in /home/user/src/.
Sources for the Tektronix programs are in /home/tektronix/.

Please try this out and let me know if you find any bugs or have any suggestions. Thanks!

--Chase

Chase Covello

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Aug 27, 2019, 5:14:19 PM8/27/19
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Hi everyone,

I've created a GitHub repo for this disk image project:

Rene Richarz

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Aug 27, 2019, 5:53:40 PM8/27/19
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Chase,

I have tested your image, and it works very well. Thanks for your work, which I appreciate very much.

Unfortunately there is as always a little problem, most likely my fault: All the compiled binaries in /home/tektronix/tek are corrupted. I have already removed these binaries from my repo and added a "make" in the instructions. Nevertheless if you fix other things in the image, can you please do as user tektronix in the directory tek:
  touch *.c
  make
to fix this on the distribution image. Please remove tek4010demo/08_warandpiece.plt too. It also appears to be corrupted.

Thanks, Rene

Chase Covello

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Aug 27, 2019, 9:21:45 PM8/27/19
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Hmm, I'm not sure what happened. The included binaries worked for me. Anyway, I recompiled them, deleted 08_warandpeace.plt, and posted an updated image to GitHub.

Jeff Thieleke

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Aug 28, 2019, 8:03:05 PM8/28/19
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Thank you for leading this effort! 

My only suggestions would be to comment out lpd in /etc/rc since probably no one uses this and it produces errors that need to be explained away.  The other suggestion would be to create a user level account, by default, which the instructions could reference instead of root.


Jeff

Chase Covello

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Aug 29, 2019, 1:24:05 PM8/29/19
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I agree, the lpd messages are annoying. I've uploaded a new image with that commented out.

I'd like to eventually get lpd working, but after looking at what Rene has written, it appears to be very system and printer specific. Maybe the best option for a default configuration is to set up a printer in /etc/printcap that connects to a print server running on Raspbian. I'd appreciate any help on that because I don't know anything about setting that up.

As for the user account, there already is one. It's called 'user' and has no password by default, just like root and tektronix. Oscar, maybe you can update the instructions to recommend the following:
  • Set passwords for those user accounts since there are a lot of network services on by default.
  • Optionally, change root's shell to tcsh for ease of use. Use 'chsh root' (or 'vipw' to edit /etc/master.passwd directly).
  • Optionally, change the username and home dir to something you prefer. For example, on my system I changed 'user' to 'chase'. Don't forget to rename the home dir if you change it.
  • Optionally, add the user to the 'staff' group so you can su to root.
--Chase

Richard Stofer

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Aug 29, 2019, 1:41:14 PM8/29/19
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Yes, the message is a bit bothersome but lpd is the first service I set up.  /etc/hosts and /etc/printcap along with the spool directory get set up early in the customization process.

Jeff Thieleke

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Aug 29, 2019, 7:30:30 PM8/29/19
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I'm honestly curious...what do you print and to what kind of device?

Jeff Thieleke

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Aug 29, 2019, 8:55:55 PM8/29/19
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FWIW, I downloaded your latest image (d3636ed78848dd3d77898b528b8d909cbfe6258f), logged in a 'user', and built both the new welcome and httpd binaries. 

I'm getting in the weeds here, but if someone would write a quick ~user/readme.txt with some info like "welcome to 2.11BSD -- here are some cool things you can do like building a Y2K compliant MOTD app (and here's how we fixed that and also implemented a CGI version) and here's how you can run a web server on your PiDP-11, that would be super cool.  Even just copy and pasting forum posts (with links) would be a gentle introduction into old school BSD.  I'd like a readme for the tek4010 stuff, for example, because the YouTube videos look awesome. 

Jeff Thieleke

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Aug 29, 2019, 8:58:42 PM8/29/19
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And after posting this, I noticed you already mentioned the 'tektronix' user and it has its own README already.  So maybe just connecting the pieces in one location.

Jeff Thieleke

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Aug 29, 2019, 9:10:59 PM8/29/19
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Linking to https://groups.google.com/forum/#!topic/pidp-11/Qqrp5RwJsoc  or including that info would be awesome as well.

Chase Covello

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Aug 30, 2019, 1:38:41 AM8/30/19
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Sure, I can put together a README for new users exploring the system. It will take a little while to pull everything together from these posts.

In the meantime, I've uploaded a new image with lpd re-enabled. I figured out how to get it to print to an lpd server on the host Pi. Rene provided helpful guidance on this and I got it set up.

As a result and for my convenience in testing, I've changed the default network configuration on 2.11BSD to match my home network. Make sure you edit /etc/netstart and /etc/hosts with your correct network configuration. lpd expects to connect to a host called 'rpi', and /etc/hosts should point to its IP. You will also need to edit the name of the CUPS printer in /etc/printcap.

Here's what you need to do to set up the cups-lpd server on the host:

Install cups (and optionally the graphical configuration utility) on Raspbian:

sudo apt install cups system-config-printer

Create /lib/systemd/system/cups-lpd.socket with the following:

[Unit]
Description=CUPS LPD Server Socket
PartOf=cups-lpd.service

[Socket]
ListenStream=515
Accept=true

[Install]
WantedBy=sockets.target


Create /lib/systemd/system/cups-lpd@.service with the following:

[Unit]
Description=CUPS LPD server
Documentation=man:cups-lpd(8)

[Service]
ExecStart=/usr/lib/cups/daemon/cups-lpd -n -o job-sheets=none,none -o document-format=application/octet-stream
StandardInput=socket

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target

Enable cups-lpr:

sudo systemctl enable cups-lpd.socket
sudo systemctl start cups-lpd.socket

Then use the printer setup tool to set up your printer, make sure it's set as shared, and make sure the name is the same as the one in printcap on BSD. cups-lpd doesn't appear to do any authentication, so it's probably also a good idea to set up a firewall to only accept incoming connections to port 515/tcp from your 2.11BSD IP.

--Chase

Richard Stofer

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Aug 30, 2019, 9:05:02 PM8/30/19
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First up, I like to print the changed configuration files and there are several including /etc/hosts, /etc/printcap and /etc/netstart.  Printed copies to my PiDP11 binder.
Second, I do a bit of Fortran code in support of my grandson's Differential Equations class.  I have to try to keep up!  I print the source/output and keep it in a binder.

I don't see any advantage in printing through the Pi as I already have networking.  I just create the /etc/hosts and /etc/printcap to get the job done.

The printer is an ordinary HP LaserJet with a duplex unit and multiple trays.  I have no idea how to use those extra features with printcap so I just ignore the features and settle for plain text on one side only.

/etc/hosts:

127.0.0.1 localhost
192.168.1.1 router.rstofer.lan router
192.168.1.106   laserjet.rstofer.lan laserjet  <=====
192.168.1.127   frambus.rstofer.lan frambus
192.168.1.128   widget.rstofer.lan widget
192.168.1.129   pdp11.rstofer.lan pdp11

/etc/printcap

#
# Copyright (c) 1983 Regents of the University of California.
# All rights reserved.  The Berkeley software License Agreement
# specifies the terms and conditions for redistribution.
#
# @(#)etc.printcap 5.1.1 (2.11BSD) 1996/10/25
#
lp|laserjet|HP LaserJet P2550dn:\
   sd=/usr/spool/lpr/lj:\
   rp=text:rm=laserjet:\     <=====
   sh

It's pretty easy to specify the remote printer as rm=laserjet in /etc/printcap and somehow the system finds the IP in /etc/hosts.

Chase Covello

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Sep 9, 2019, 12:25:54 AM9/9/19
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Hi all,

I've posted an expanded readme/new user guide to GitHub, and included it in the system image as well. I'd be interested to know if others have success with getting lpd set up as described there.

--Chase

bmeyer29

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Sep 9, 2019, 6:06:34 PM9/9/19
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Chase:
Many thanks for all you've done on BSD2.11 for PiDP11! 

I love how much easier you've made to do a number of things. I haven't yet tried to connect to a printer, but that is next on my list.

Since you asked for comments, I would be interested in seeing patch 451 also included in your image. It is available here: ftp://ftp.2bsd.com/2.11BSD and provides an option to allow reading of the front panel switches and writing to the display register while using BSD 2.11. There were a number of folks that helped me figure out what was needed, and Johnny Billquist submitted a patch request to Steven Shultz which was implemented in December, 2018.

This fix requires a specific command to be entered while in single user mode, so this change will have no impact on those not interested in this capability. See the earlier thread "Drive the LEDs from a program" if you are interested in the details. For those following along, this is related to Oscar's "hack" of adding temp and pressure input through an i2c device.

Best regards,
Bob Meyer


On Tuesday, August 27, 2019 at 12:20:47 AM UTC-5, Chase Covello wrote:

Jeff Thieleke

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Sep 9, 2019, 7:37:36 PM9/9/19
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I'll echo the thanks for taking on this task!

I was going to get all preachy about having httpd enabled by default, but then I realized that telnetd, ftpd, and rlogind all are as well so hopefully people aren't putting their PiDP11's directly on the Internet... :)

My only minor suggestion would be to default netstart to the more common 192.168.1.1 default router IP address.  But otherwise, I tested this out for a little today and it all looks good.

Richard Stofer

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Sep 9, 2019, 8:35:51 PM9/9/19
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What are the advantages of printing through the Pi?  There just has to be a reason and I'm missing it...

lpd is automatically started in the previous 2.11BSD image (and I assume it still is) and all that is required is a simple entry in /etc/printcap, a printer IP address in /etc/hosts and a spool directory in /usr/spool/lpr/<printer name> with permissions of 775 and owner daemon.  As shown above, the printer in my case is called 'lj'.

Everything works right out of the box.

Now, if the goal is to get the Pi to print then cups comes into play.  But, to me, this seems like the long way around.

I'm missing something - again...

Chase Covello

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Sep 10, 2019, 3:18:54 PM9/10/19
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No problem. I pushed a new disk image with 451 applied and the kernel rebuilt.

Chase Covello

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Sep 10, 2019, 3:28:58 PM9/10/19
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Yeah, a lot of now-insecure stuff is on by default, but that's part of the experience. :) Anyone who's interested in running BSD on a PDP-11 and putting it on the Internet probably knows how to use a firewall, or can figure it out. I'd have a good laugh if someone bothered to hack into my system, and then I'd restore a backup image.

The default network setup is for my ease of use at the moment, so I can start it up and ftp changed files over without editing files in single-user mode with ed. Once the image is ready for inclusion in systems.tar.gz, I can change the default settings. On the other hand, maybe it's a good idea to ship it with nonstandard network settings so a new user has to affirmatively connect it to the network -- I don't know.

Chase Covello

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Sep 10, 2019, 3:46:34 PM9/10/19
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Printing through the Pi works if you have a printer that's either not networked or doesn't support lpd. I think Rene said he has a new printer that doesn't have an lpd server, which is why we tried this method. I have a Brother laser printer that's supposed to support lpd, but when I tried printing to it directly it just printed blank pages.

Johnny Billquist

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Sep 10, 2019, 4:35:46 PM9/10/19
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If the printer even reacted, then the lpd daemon and network connection
work just fine.

What you more probably have a problem with next is the actual format of
whatever you are trying to print. The printed might be expecting
postscript, while the 2.11BSD printing system is probably just sending
plain text.
Or the printer might expect some even more esoteric format for contents
to be printed...

Johnny
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--
Johnny Billquist || "I'm on a bus
|| on a psychedelic trip
email: b...@softjar.se || Reading murder books
pdp is alive! || tryin' to stay hip" - B. Idol

Chase Covello

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Sep 10, 2019, 5:24:47 PM9/10/19
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That's what I figured too. I'm sure a lot of others will run into the same problems as well, so it makes sense to take advantage of the huge library of CUPS printer drivers and have a system that almost works out of the box. Maybe at some point I will troubleshoot it more and try writing a basic text to postscript filter, unless one already exists.

Johnny Billquist

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Sep 10, 2019, 5:34:32 PM9/10/19
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On 2019-09-10 23:24, Chase Covello wrote:
> That's what I figured too. I'm sure a lot of others will run into the
> same problems as well, so it makes sense to take advantage of the huge
> library of CUPS printer drivers and have a system that almost works out
> of the box. Maybe at some point I will troubleshoot it more and try
> writing a basic text to postscript filter, unless one already exists.

Text to postscript already exists. Search for "a2ps". However, I'm not
sure it will work on a PDP-11. Wouldn't be surprised if it uses gobs of
memory.

As far as handling different types of output, if you have CUPS up and
running somewhere, it usually also talks lpd, and if you send output
from the PDP-11 spooling system to a CUPS system, I think it's set up so
it detects what kind of input it is, and applies the necessary tools in
order to render the expected output on the printer.

Speaking of which, if someone don't like CUPS, this can all be solved in
the normal printing system as well. But you need to setup a system of
filters, which autodetects what kind of print file it gets, and applies
various tools to convert files to different formats, in order to
eventually end up with a format the printer understands. And then of
course, you need those different tools, like a2ps. I used to have a
setup like that, but it was quite a while ago now, so I don't remember
all the details anymore. But anyone with some experience/knowledge
should be able to figure it out.
(And no, I actually don't like CUPS myself, but I've come to accept most
stupid solutions people create today, I don't have time to fix all the
problems in the world.)

So I would still use the lpd system on 2.11BSD, but I would point it at
some other machine, and not directly at the printer, unless the printed
can handle plain ASCII. I know HP printers can, but I have no idea about
Brother, for example.

Which is why I also have a spool daemon for network printed in RSX,
which also just does plain ASCII. Works towards the printer I have at
home, which is another HP laser printer. Talks PCL actually, but you
could get away with not doing any PCL stuff.

Johnny

>
> On Tuesday, September 10, 2019 at 1:35:46 PM UTC-7, Johnny Billquist wrote:
>
> If the printer even reacted, then the lpd daemon and network connection
> work just fine.
>
> What you more probably have a problem with next is the actual format of
> whatever you are trying to print. The printed might be expecting
> postscript, while the 2.11BSD printing system is probably just sending
> plain text.
> Or the printer might expect some even more esoteric format for contents
> to be printed...
>
>    Johnny
>
> --
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Richard Stofer

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Sep 13, 2019, 1:02:06 PM9/13/19
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Got it!  I always figured there would be a problem with USB printers but I hadn't considered printers that rely on a PC resident driver rather than an industry standard embedded print server.  That's probably because our 3 primary printers are all HP LaserJets and we have just one USB printer connected to a laptop but it isn't shared or networked.  For my simple needs, lpd works fine.

I do know a bit about PCL and HPGL so I suppose I could use those commands to add features to plain text printing but it doesn't seem necessary at this point.  I just want to print source files in plain ASCII.

Rene Richarz

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Sep 13, 2019, 1:23:01 PM9/13/19
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As far as I can see the latest HP printers do not support lpd anymore. At least enabling or disabling the protocol on the setup pages is gone and the printer does not seem to listen to the port. This is probably considered a security issue.

Richard Stofer

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Sep 13, 2019, 8:23:26 PM9/13/19
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Fortunately, my LaserJet P20550dn and my Color LaserJet M277dw both work with lpd.  Not having that feature would be a show stopper because I have another project that uses a uC to send HPGL sentences to my P2055dn using Berkeley Sockets.

Johnny Billquist

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Sep 14, 2019, 5:33:50 AM9/14/19
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On 2019-09-14 02:23, Richard Stofer wrote:
> Fortunately, my LaserJet P20550dn and my Color LaserJet M77dw both work
> with lpd.  Not having that feature would be a show stopper because I
> have another project that uses a uC to send HPGL sentences to my P2055dn
> using Berkeley Sockets.

If you are doing that, then I wonder if you actually are using lpd, or
if you are talking directly to the printer on port 9100, which is not
lpd, but just a port for direct printing.

Johnny

>
> On Friday, September 13, 2019 at 10:23:01 AM UTC-7, Rene Richarz wrote:
>
> As far as I can see the latest HP printers do not support lpd
> anymore. At least enabling or disabling the protocol on the setup
> pages is gone and the printer does not seem to listen to the port.
> This is probably considered a security issue.
>
> --
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Rene Richarz

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Sep 14, 2019, 5:54:38 AM9/14/19
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On Saturday, September 14, 2019 at 11:33:50 AM UTC+2, Johnny Billquist wrote:
On 2019-09-14 02:23, Richard Stofer wrote:
> Fortunately, my LaserJet P20550dn and my Color LaserJet M77dw both work
> with lpd.  Not having that feature would be a show stopper because I
> have another project that uses a uC to send HPGL sentences to my P2055dn
> using Berkeley Sockets.

If you are doing that, then I wonder if you actually are using lpd, or
if you are talking directly to the printer on port 9100, which is not
lpd, but just a port for direct printing.

   Johnny

IMG_0212.jpeg


Good point. Port 9100 is still open on my new HP printer. See attached picture (sorry, German). Is there a way to print directly from BSD to Port 9100.

 

Johnny Billquist

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Sep 14, 2019, 6:03:05 AM9/14/19
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The lpd subsystem cannot directly. But for port 9100 you essentially
just need something like netcat. So it's pretty easy to add this
possibility to 2.11BSD. Then you just, in lpd, point to which program
should be used to print the file, and all that program does is sent it
to the port on that host, and you're good.

I'd suggest using of (output filter) for this.

Another option is to write a small program that creates a Unix socket.
That gives you a filename that can be opened and written to by any
program. Then you just point lpd to that filename as the device to open
(the lp parameter in printcap). Then your small program just reads from
that socket, and sends to the printer on port 9100. Again very simple,
and then it's even more straight forward from the lpd point of view.
You can even remove /dev/lp, and just let your small program create
/dev/lp as the Unix socket.

Johnny

On 2019-09-14 11:54, Rene Richarz wrote:
>
>
> On Saturday, September 14, 2019 at 11:33:50 AM UTC+2, Johnny Billquist
> wrote:
>
> On 2019-09-14 02:23, Richard Stofer wrote:
> > Fortunately, my LaserJet P20550dn and my Color LaserJet M77dw
> both work
> > with lpd.  Not having that feature would be a show stopper because I
> > have another project that uses a uC to send HPGL sentences to my
> P2055dn
> > using Berkeley Sockets.
>
> If you are doing that, then I wonder if you actually are using lpd, or
> if you are talking directly to the printer on port 9100, which is not
> lpd, but just a port for direct printing.
>
>    Johnny
>
> IMG_0212.jpeg
>
>
> Good point. Port 9100 is still open on my new HP printer. See attached
> picture (sorry, German). Is there a way to print directly from BSD to
> Port 9100.
>
> --
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Richard Stofer

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Sep 14, 2019, 3:14:03 PM9/14/19
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You're right, I am using port 9100 for my plotter.  I use lpr/lpd from 2.11BSD.

The long version:  I have an FPGA implementation of the IBM 1130 computer I first used in '70.  One of the more important peripherals was the Calcomp 1627 drum plotter.  You can see how a budding EE would want to tie the plotter to the IBM Electronic Circuit Analysis Program (ECAP) for Bode' plots and such.  Well, I just had to have one for my project so I used an mbed LPC1768 uC to capture the 6 bit step commands via SPI (one for each 0.01" of motion), convert them to HPGL commands (accumulating steps, etc) and send them to the LaserJet via the network.

I wrote the code about 8 years ago but looking at it, I can see where I am making the connection to port 9100.  Clearly, I didn't  implement anything like lpr on that uC.  Just a simple socket connection to the server inside the LaserJet and that's it.

For debugging, I wrote a bit of server code on a Linux box to make it look like the LaserJet.  It just listened for a connection on port 9100 and then dumped the sentences to the console and ultimately a file for later review.

In terms of 2.11BSD, I simply use lpr with the appropriate printcap and hosts entries.  The magic of BSD ties everything together but I have never looked at the internals to see how it works.

Totally off topic:  The mbed LPC1768 board only needs a MagJack to connect to a network and the compiler/libraries at mbed.org provides an implementation of lwIP.  Adding networking to a project is as easy as creating a state machine to track the connection and transfers.  If anybody ever needs a simple way to network a uC.

Rene Richarz

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Sep 15, 2019, 2:50:46 AM9/15/19
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I have tested using netcat in Raspbian to Port 9100 of my printer, and indeed this still works on my latest HP OfficeJet Pro. This port is obviously still open and not secured in any way, while port 515 is not and cannot be opened anymore. I'm not sure how difficult it would be to port an early version of netcat or nc to 2.11 BSD, but having netcat available would definitely be nicer than just hacking a minimal tool.

Richard Stofer

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Sep 16, 2019, 11:26:32 AM9/16/19
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This is way above my pay grade but this security article seems to imply that port 515 could be opened if it is closed by default:


I could see the port being closed by default because CUPS prints to port 9100 and lpd is scarce but by no means obsolete.  It might be worth a couple of minutes to check out the Telnet process.

Richard Stofer

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Sep 16, 2019, 2:45:19 PM9/16/19
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On my P2055 LaserJet, I can Telnet to the IP address and select Main Menu -> TCP/IP Menu -> Print Options to enable of disable LPD (among other things).  Pretty archaic...
On the M277dw Color LaserjJet, I can connect to the IP address with a web browser and there are a LOT of setting including the ability to enable or disable LPD.
In the case of both of these printers, LPD is enabled.

I had no idea all this stuff was there...

ETA:  I can also hit the P2055 with a browser.

Johnny Billquist

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Sep 16, 2019, 4:07:57 PM9/16/19
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Well, netcat can already be a pretty minimal tool. :-)

As such, it's not hard to write, nor is it particularly large, as
programs go. Should not really be any problems at all under 2.11BSD.

Johnny
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Johnny Billquist

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Sep 16, 2019, 6:41:30 PM9/16/19
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Well, the only thing it says is that for some HP printer, there is (was)
telnet access, without much security, through which you could admin the
printer, including turning on and off any protocol.

There are no further implications from this, except that if someone have
admin access, they can admin your printer.

Johnny
> On Saturday, September 14, 2019 at 2:54:38 AM UTC-7, Rene Richarz wrote:
>
>
>
> On Saturday, September 14, 2019 at 11:33:50 AM UTC+2, Johnny
> Billquist wrote:
>
> On 2019-09-14 02:23, Richard Stofer wrote:
> > Fortunately, my LaserJet P20550dn and my Color LaserJet M77dw
> both work
> > with lpd.  Not having that feature would be a show stopper
> because I
> > have another project that uses a uC to send HPGL sentences to
> my P2055dn
> > using Berkeley Sockets.
>
> If you are doing that, then I wonder if you actually are using
> lpd, or
> if you are talking directly to the printer on port 9100, which
> is not
> lpd, but just a port for direct printing.
>
>    Johnny
>
> IMG_0212.jpeg
>
>
> Good point. Port 9100 is still open on my new HP printer. See
> attached picture (sorry, German). Is there a way to print directly
> from BSD to Port 9100.
>
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Richard Stofer

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Sep 17, 2019, 12:21:57 PM9/17/19
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By default, for my printers, there is no login required.  Telnet goes straight to a menu and HTTP pops up a web page.  I didn't actually try to change values but I'm guessing that if you get past the login (which doesn't exist), you're in.

One of the things you can do from either interface is jack up the security.  Since my printers are behind NAT, I didn't bother to look at security.  There is an entry to restore factory default values but if somebody created an admin account, I'm not sure how to get around it.

But, in terms of lpd, it should be possible to enable it should it happen to be disabled for security.  Assuming it exists as a protocol at all.  Since I have lpd working on both printers, I'm all set for 2.11BSD.  I don't have to consider printing through the Pi although that is a clever way to get around the lack of lpd at the printer.

oscarv

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Oct 8, 2019, 9:30:07 AM10/8/19
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Chase, all,

Just to let you know that I just added the updated 211BSD disk image to the standard distribution (systems.tar.gz).
Let me know if anyone notices any problems with the updated disk image, but I'm pretty sure it's all solid.

Chase, thank you for all the work! Much appreciated.

Kind regards,

Oscar.

Mike Katz

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Oct 8, 2019, 9:32:00 AM10/8/19