Fwd: upstream, downstream, midstream & cashstream

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Apr 6, 2023, 3:11:34 PM4/6/23
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---------- Forwarded message ---------
From: Bob Donnan <donnanl...@yahoo.com>
Date: Thu, Apr 6, 2023, 7:27 AM
Subject: upstream, downstream, midstream & cashstream

If you missed the “Downstream Radioactivity: What on Earth is Coming out of the Pipes” (2:22:41) yesterday afternoon, you will find the replay here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Dut4Fkh9MK8

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Today at 2:00pm EDT...

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A popular, but noxious, piping fix is sickening people. And it's throughout America's sewers.

Cured-in-place pipe lining creates a new pipe inside an old one by inserting a soft, resin-soaked liner into a damaged pipe, inflating it with pressurized air, then heating it so it hardens. It costs about eight times less than a traditional pipe rehabilitation project and eliminates the need to dig up streets, reroute traffic or haul away debris.

Inside that plume can lurk styrene, benzene, methylene chloride and phenol, along with bits of uncured resin, partially cured plastic and hazardous air pollutants. Styrene, in particular, is considered a probable carcinogen that, when inhaled, can irritate the eyes, nose and throat. It can also impair the nervous system, inducing dizziness, headaches, slowed reaction times, loss of balance, nausea and unconsciousness, according to the CDC.



Red lights blinking 24/7 atop wind turbines may stop with deal by Kansas lawmakers

Kansas lawmakers have sent a bill to the governor designed to make the night sky in rural areas less interrupted by flashing red lights atop wind turbines. If Gov. Laura Kelly signs Senate Bill 49 into law, it would require installation of light-mitigating technology on new and existing wind farms. Kansas has about about 4,000 turbines now with plans to add 6,000 more.

The aircraft detection lighting system technology would turn off the lights except for when aircraft are near. Aircraft aren't near a wind farm about 97% of the time the lights are blinking, said Rep. Lisa Moser, R-Wheaton. Under the bill, starting July 1, 2023, developers of new developments would have to apply to the Federal Aviation Administration for approval of the mitigation technology. If approved, they would have 24 months to install it.



New images from inside Fukushima reactor spark safety worry

An underwater remotely operated vehicle named ROV-A2 was sent inside the Unit 1 pedestal, a supporting structure right under the core. It came back with images seen for the first time since an earthquake and tsunami crippled the plant 12 years ago. The area inside the pedestal is where traces of the melted fuel can most likely be found.

An approximately five-minute video — part of 39-hour-long images captured by the robot — showed that the 120-centimeter (3.9-foot) -thick concrete exterior of the pedestal was significantly damaged near its bottom, exposing the steel reinforcement inside. The images of the exposed steel reinforcement have triggered concerns about the reactor's safety. About 880 tons of highly radioactive melted nuclear fuel remain inside the three reactors.



‘Tick Tubes’ arrived in the mail! 
They’ll go out in the yard after the blustery weather has passed.

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Rhode Island lawmaker wants to require solar on new homes and parking lots

Rep. Jennifer Boylan drafted a bill that would require all new single-family dwellings in the state to have a solar energy system large enough to meet at least 80% of the dwelling’s estimated annual average electricity use. The mandate would also apply to multifamily dwellings and commercial buildings up to 10 stories high. 

In addition, all new outdoor parking lots larger than 16,000 square feet would be required to install raised solar canopies over at least half of their surface. Five percent of spaces would have electric vehicle charging stations. California is the only state that has a solar mandate on new construction.



Diesel buses harm the environment. These El Paso school districts are going electric.

The environmental benefits for the students, along with the reduced cost of fuel and maintenance, were added benefits, Harman says. “Your fuel is gonna be the cost to actually charge the buses,” says Harman, noting that it costs 80 to 90 cents per mile to fuel a diesel bus while charging an electric one costs 15 cents to 25 cents per mile. When electric school buses first came to market, the exorbitant cost made it unfathomable for schools to consider. As the technology develops and more options are available, transitioning to an electric school bus fleet is becoming more feasible.



2025 Ram 1500 REV is a powerhouse EV truck with up to 500M range, 14,000 lbs towing

The new 2025 Ram 1500 REV, built on the new STLA large frame, will be offered in two options. The standard 168 kWh battery pack has targeted range of up to 350 miles. For longer range, the Ram 1500 REV electric truck offers an optional 229 kWh battery pack targeting range of up to 500 miles.

With 800V fast charging, the Ram 1500 REV can add roughly 110 miles of range in around 10 minutes. With dual 250 kW electric drive modules and 654 horsepower, Ram is targeting 0 to 60 mph in 4.4 seconds. It will also come loaded with features to make it the right fit for work or emergency backup with vehicle-to-vehicle, vehicle-to-home (V2H), and vehicle-to-grid (V2G) bi-directional charging.


TRIVIA: The EPA considers 1 gallon of gasoline equivalent to 33.7 kWh of electricity.



New electric boat motor uses wind and water to recharge its batteries at sea

Many people think of sailboats as being purely wind powered. While smaller sailboats usually are, most decently sized sailboats have a motor for maneuvering in a marina or when the winds die down. Saildrive motors are an innovative propulsion system commonly found on modern sailboats, offering a compact and efficient alternative to traditional shaft-driven inboard engines.

Electric saildrive motors have the benefit of offering hydro-regeneration – a unique advantage that can help recharge an electric sailboat’s batteries. When sailing under wind power, the electric motor is actually forced backwards by the water moving over the propellor. That turns the motor into a generator that can send energy back into the batteries to be used later.



Nottingham City Council’s Greener HousiNG Scheme Installed Retrofit Measures On 1,036 Homes

The global energy crunch and rising energy prices has put more focus on efficient use of energy, energy security and the accelerated adoption of renewable energy. This has seen the surge in adoption of heat pumps in several countries. Last year heat pump sales surpassed gas furnaces in the US for the first time. Globally, sales of heat pumps grew by 11% in 2022according to the latest IEA analysis, marking a second year of double-digit growth for the central technology in the world’s transition to secure and sustainable heating. In Europe, heat pumps enjoyed a record year, with sales growing by nearly 40%.



Researchers Capture Video of Deepest Fish Ever Recorded–Almost 5 Miles Below Surface Near Japan

This clueless-looking fish has several adaptations to living in an area where the pressure is 800 times greater than at sea level. Rather than scales, it has a gelatinous outer mass, which is theorized to be less susceptible to pressure, and evolutionarily speaking, a cheap adaptation.

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Photo: Minderoo-University of Western Australia Deep Sea Research Centre / Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology

They also don’t have swim bladders, which is a small pocket of gas typical of most fish. Trying to maintain gas in those kinds of pressure zones is simply untenable. “Fish all have osmolyte, a fluid in their cells that they use to counteract pressure—it’s the thing that makes that fishy smell,” Jamieson said.



Oil Sands Companies Are ‘Distorting Public Information’ on Google, Expert Says

A lobbying and marketing group representing top Canadian oil sands producers paid Google to link its website to hundreds of search terms related to climate change over the past three months, according to advertising data reviewed by DeSmog. That means that when people went on Google seeking information about global temperature rise or federal climate policy, one of the first links that appeared was the website for the Pathways Alliance, a group whose members account for 95 percent of oil sands production.

“It’s kind of scary actually,” said Priyanka Vittal, legal counsel for Greenpeace Canada, which recently filed a complaint with the Competition Bureau accusing the Pathways Alliance of making false and misleading claims about the oil sands industry’s climate impacts in television, newspaper and social media ads. “It’s a little bit dystopian.” The Pathways Alliance also advertised on terms such as “what is global warming,” “net-zero,” “carbon emissions,” “climate change in canada,” “why is climate change important,” “whats a carbon footprint” and “government of canada climate change.”


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Unprecedented Gamma-Ray Burst is ‘The BOAT’ – Brightest of All Time in Human History

On Sunday, Oct. 9, 2022, a pulse of intense radiation swept through the solar system so exceptional that astronomers quickly dubbed it the BOAT—the brightest of all time. The source was a gamma-ray burst (GRB), the most powerful class of explosions in the universe, and astronomers studying it believe it was the strongest to have happened since the dawn of human civilization.

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Photo: NASA Goddard Spaceflight Center via SWNS

Astronomers believe that GRBs happen following the death rattles of massive stars which run out of nuclear fuel and collapse into black holes. The newly-created singularity begins to ingest surrounding matter and blast out jets in opposite directions which emit X-rays and gamma rays as they travel through space. The brightest GRB previously recorded was around this time of year in April of 2013, and registered at 35 billion times the energy of visible light. By comparison, the BOAT is nearly 700 times brighter.



This ain’t your Mommy’s Prius.
Toyota has redesigned the Prius, and while it’s generally best to abide by the advice of not buying a first year model, it’s hard not to give this new Prius a hard look…

The New Prius Prime Proves That the Best EV Might Not Be an EV

By Matt Brown | Road & Track | April 5, 2023 – Architecturally, the Toyota Prius is not much different than it was 25 years ago. But Toyota’s steadfastness and deliberate changes have made the new Prius, especially the Prius Prime, the right answer for a lot of people, including a lot of people looking at buying a new all-electric car. The increase in horsepower and range, along with much-improved handling and styling might put this car on the radar of a lot of people who never thought they would consider a Prius.

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The new model has a 13.6KWh lithium-ion battery that’s good for 44 miles of electric range, and the hybrid-mode Prime has an estimated fuel economy of 52 mpg. If you get the top trim Prime, you can optionally add a 185 Watt solar roof. It charges the traction battery when parked, and supplies power to the 12v system when driving. It’ll be interesting to see real-world tests, but based on typical solar panel outputs, you’re only really going to get a couple of miles a day worth of range out of it.

NOTE: While talking new Toyotas, it’s worth mentioning that Consumer Reports is super high on the new Camry Hybrid, giving it one of their top ratings in the annual automobile rating issue.



Big Oil Firms Touted Algae as Climate Solution. Now All Have Pulled Funding

One by one, big oil firms have touted their investments in algae biofuels as the future of low-carbon transportation – and one by one, they have all dropped out. Now in the wake of the last remaining algae proponent, ExxonMobil, announcing its withdrawal, insiders say they are disappointed but not surprised. Algae research was central to Exxon’s green marketing campaigns for years, and frequently criticized as greenwashing rather than a genuine research effort.

But several of its former research partners told the Guardian that it was serious about the potential of algae biofuels – explaining why it stayed in the field long past the point at which other oil companies dropped out – but not serious enough. In its 12 years in the space, Exxon invested $350 million in algae biofuels. Exxon ultimately invested just over half of the $600 million it once promised back in 2009.



Montana Repeals State Energy Policy as Climate Trial Nears

Montana has repealed its 30-year-old energy policy – including a 2011 amendment that prioritized fossil-fuel development. The move comes as a June trial date approaches for a youth-led climate lawsuit against the state. In the lawsuit, Held v. State of Montana, sixteen Montana children and teenagers say that by actively promoting a fossil-fuel based energy system that is dangerous to the climate, state officials are violating the “right to a clean and healthful environment” for present and future generations under the state Constitution. It is the first constitutional climate case to go to trial in the United States.

The youth plaintiffs and their expert witnesses contend that Montana has a long history of permitting and prioritizing coal, oil and gas development. Montana is home to part of the Bakken oil and gas shale formation and contains the largest recoverable coal reserves in the U.S.  Coal still accounts for almost half of the state’s electricity, and there are six coal mines that continue to operate in the state. Montana also has an established record of promoting and defending fossil fuels. In 2012, the state’s Department of Environmental Quality authorized the Montana portion of the Keystone XL crude oil pipeline. And in 2019, Montana along with North Dakota sent a petition to federal regulators seeking to invalidate a Washington law regulating volatile crude oil by rail.



Cows in UK Could Be Given ‘Methane Blockers’ to Cut Climate Emissions

Methane is a powerful greenhouse gas that is released into the atmosphere in various ways, including during the production and transportation of fossil fuels, the burning of biomass, the decay of organic matter in landfills and… when cows burp. In the UK, there are about 9.4 million cows and calves, and they could be given “methane blockers” as part of the UK’s plans to meet its climate targets.

Deputy President of the National Farmers’ Union Tom Bradshaw said most of the methane emitted by cows comes from “the front end rather than the back end,” reported The Guardian. About 40 percent of methane emissions and 14.5 percent of total greenhouse gas emissions worldwide come from farm animals — mostly cows, according to PBS.



Investors increase scrutiny of climate policy engagement

The global investor coalition engages companies to improve climate change governance, emissions reduction and climate-related financial disclosure en route to net zero. The benchmark was launched in 2021 to help investors in their assessment of company performance on those three key themes — emissions reduction, governance and disclosure — and defines key success indicators for companies’ alignment with the Paris Agreement goal to limit global temperature rise to 1.5 degrees Celsius. 

Beyond disclosure, the new benchmark stresses closer scrutiny of what companies are actually doing when it comes to advocating for policy that aligns with a 1.5 degree C future. InfluenceMap, a think tank that maintains a database of corporate and industry association lobbying related to climate policy, provides the research for the Climate Policy Engagement Alignment Assessment. 



As millions of solar panels age out, recyclers hope to cash in

In Odessa, Texas, workers at a startup called SolarCycle unload trucks carrying end-of-life photovoltaic panels freshly picked from commercial solar farms across the United States. They separate the panels from the aluminum frames and electrical boxes, then feed them into machines that detach their glass from the laminated materials that have helped generate electricity from sunlight for about a quarter of a century.

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Next, the panels are ground, shredded and subjected to a patented process that extracts the valuable materials — mostly silver, copper and crystalline silicon. Those components will be sold, as will the lower-value aluminum and glass, which may even end up in the next generation of solar panels. This process offers a glimpse of what could happen to an expected surge of retired solar panels that will stream from an industry that represents the fastest-growing source of energy in the U.S. 



Why there’s an ode to natural gas in the Pennsylvania Capitol

By Sam Dunklau | WITF | April 3, 2023

Almost every inch of the Pennsylvania Capitol is adorned with artwork, from grand landscapes to figures such as William Penn. The halls are also full of hidden surprises for observant visitors, including a window that’s dedicated to one of the state’s most abundant resources: natural gas.

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Photo: A stained glass window personifying Pennsylvania's natural gas industry in the Pennsylvania House Chamber. The window is one of 24 designed by artist William Brantly Van Ingen.

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A 24-karat-gold leaf-clad panel that hangs above the window, depicting a woman clothed in green. “Joseph Huston, the architect, really wanted to make it a palace of art. He thought that as you walk through the building, you should be able to read the history of Pennsylvania within the walls. That’s kind of what the building represents,” he said.



It’s always interesting what turns up when you do a Google News search for one of the local gas production companies…

Maryland State Retirement & Pension System Makes New Investment in Range Resources Co.

April 3, 2023 – Maryland State Retirement & Pension System acquired a new position in Range Resources Co. in the 4th quarter, according to the company in its most recent filing with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). The institutional investor acquired 18,512 shares of the oil and gas exploration company's stock, valued at approximately $463,000.

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Interesting that they use a wind turbine on the cover of their report, while being so heavily invested in fossil fuel businesses. LOL

"Range Resources Corp. engages in the exploration, development and acquisition of natural gas and oil properties in the Appalachian and Midcontinent regions. The company was founded in 1976 and is headquartered in Fort Worth, TX."

Looking deeper into Maryland’s investments, we find several names we recognize…

EQUITY INCOME SECURITIES – June 30, 2022 – Fair Market Value - Source

Energy Transfer LP | 10,223,621 shares | $102,031,738
Cheniere Energy Inc. | 689,867 shares | $91,773,007
Enbridge Inc. | 2,040,852 shares | $86,003,888
Enterprise Products Partners | 3,482,562 shares | $84,870,036
Mplx LP | 2,431,727 shares | $70,884,842
Targa Resources Corp. | 1,118,574 shares | $66,745,311


Marathon’s MPLX is of special interest to those of us in Washington County since their ‘MarkWest’ has built dozens of compressor stations, as well as some huge cryogenic gas plants. Looking through their 10K report provides additional information…

MPLX – 2022 10K

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“On the cover: MPLX’s Houston, Pennsylvania, natural gas gathering, processing and fractionation complex in the Marcellus Basin.”

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Excerpts from the MPLX 10K include a couple interesting tidbits…

It appears their ‘Smithburg de-ethanizer’ is located along Route 50 in Doddridge County, WV. Go figure, when we flew over that area years ago, you would need a 360-degree camera to capture all the drilling and fracking activity!

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As we have also learned, de-ethanizers harvest the ethane for cracker plants. When MarkWest was getting their de-ethanizer working at their Houston, PA plant, it created multiple photo opportunities from miles away!

“In the Marcellus Basin, our Smithburg de-ethanizer began operations in the third quarter of 2022, increasing our de-ethanization capacity to over 300 thousand barrels (12.6 million gallons) per day in the basin.”

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Photo: Daycare parking lot

“We are also advancing construction of Harmon Creek ll, a 200 million cubic feet per day processing plant, which is expected to come online in the first half of 2024.”

Harmon Creek is one of the huge cryogenic gas plants southwest of Pittsburgh International Airport, not far from the Revolution Gas Plant that had a Christmas fire, and connected to the Revolution pipeline, further north, that blew-up and made headlines a few years ago.

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Photo: Marcellus Air

More excerpts from MPLX’s 10K…

Gathering. The natural gas production process begins with the drilling of wells into gas-bearing rock formations. At the initial stages of the midstream value chain, our network of pipelines known as gathering systems directly connect to wellheads in the production area. Our gathering systems then transport raw, or untreated, natural gas to a central location for treating and processing.
Processing. Natural gas has a widely varying composition depending on the field, formation reservoir or facility from which it is produced. Our natural gas processing complexes remove the heavier and more valuable hydrocarbon components, which are extracted as a mixed NGL stream that includes ethane, propane, butanes and natural gasoline (also referred to as “y-grade”). Processing aids in allowing the residue gas remaining after extraction of NGLs to meet the quality specifications for long-haul pipeline transportation and commercial use.
Fractionation. Fractionation is the further separation of the mixture of extracted NGLs into individual components for end-use sale. Fractionation systems typically exist either as an integral part of a gas processing plant or as a central fractionator.
Storage, transportation and marketing. Once the raw natural gas has been treated or processed and the raw NGL mix has been fractionated into individual NGL components, the natural gas is delivered to downstream transmission pipelines and NGL components are stored, transported and marketed to end-use markets.

Natural Gas Gathering 
Section 1(b) of the NGA exempts natural gas production and gathering from the jurisdiction of FERC.

Air Emissions
The Clean Air Act (“CAA”) and comparable state laws restrict the emission of air pollutants from many sources, including processing plants and compressor stations, and also impose various monitoring and reporting requirements. These laws and any implementing regulations may require us to obtain pre-approval for the construction or modification of certain projects or facilities expected to produce or significantly increase air emissions, obtain and strictly comply with stringent air permit requirements, utilize specific equipment or technologies to control emissions, or aggregate two or more of our facilities into one application for permitting purposes. We believe that our operations are in substantial compliance with applicable air permitting and control technology requirements. However, we may be required to incur capital expenditures in the future for installation of air pollution control equipment and encounter construction or operational delays while applying for, or awaiting the review, processing and issuance of new or amended permits, and we may be required to modify certain of our operations which could increase our operating costs.

In 2021, the EPA announced it is reconsidering the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (“NAAQS”) for ozone and fine particulate matter. In January 2023, EPA published its proposal to lower the primary fine particulate matter annual standard from its current level of 12.0 µg/m3 to within the range of 9.0 to 10.0 µg/m3. EPA has not yet announced its decision on reconsideration of the ozone NAAQS. Lowering of the NAAQS and subsequent designation as a nonattainment area could result in increased costs associated with, or result in cancellation or delay of, capital projects at our or our customers’ facilities, or could require emission reductions that could result in increased costs to us or our customers. We cannot predict the effects of the various state implementation plan requirements at this time.

Employee Profile
As of December 31, 2022, our general partner and its affiliates, have approximately 5,811 full-time employees that provide services to us under our employee services agreements.

Item 3. Legal Proceedings
We are the subject of, or a party to, a number of pending or threatened legal actions, contingencies and commitments involving a variety of matters, including laws and regulations relating to the environment. While it is possible that an adverse result in one or more of the lawsuits or proceedings in which we are a defendant could be material to us, based upon current information and our experience as a defendant in other matters, we believe that these lawsuits and proceedings, individually or in the aggregate, will not have a material adverse effect on our consolidated results of operations, financial position or cash flows. Item 103 of Regulation S-K promulgated by the SEC requires disclosure of certain environmental matters when a governmental authority is a party to the proceedings and such proceedings involve potential monetary sanctions, unless we reasonably believe that the matter will result in no monetary sanctions, or in monetary sanctions, exclusive of interest and costs, of less than a specified threshold. We use a threshold of $1 million for this purpose.

Dakota Access Pipeline
We hold a 9.19 percent indirect interest in a joint venture (“Dakota Access”) that owns and operates the Dakota Access Pipeline and Energy Transfer Crude Oil Pipeline projects, collectively referred to as the Bakken Pipeline system or DAPL. In 2020, the D.D.C. ordered the Army Corps, which granted permits and an easement for the Bakken Pipeline system, to prepare an environmental impact statement (“EIS”) relating to an easement under Lake Oahe in North Dakota. The D.D.C. later vacated the easement. The Army Corps expects to release a draft EIS in 2023. In May 2021, the D.D.C. denied a renewed request for an injunction to shut down the pipeline while the EIS is being prepared. In June 2021, the D.D.C. issued an order dismissing without prejudice the tribes’ claims against the Dakota Access Pipeline. The litigation could be reopened or new litigation challenging the EIS, once completed, could be filed. The pipeline remains operational. We have entered into a Contingent Equity Contribution Agreement whereby MPLX LP, along with the other joint venture owners in the Bakken Pipeline system, has agreed to make equity contributions to the joint venture upon certain events occurring to allow the entities that own and operate the Bakken Pipeline system to satisfy their senior note payment obligations. The senior notes were issued to repay amounts owed by the pipeline companies to fund the cost of construction of the Bakken Pipeline system. If the pipeline were temporarily shut down, MPLX would have to contribute its 9.19 percent pro rata share of funds required to pay interest accruing on the notes and any portion of the principal that matures while the pipeline is shutdown. MPLX also expects to contribute its 9.19 percent pro rata share of any costs to remediate any deficiencies to reinstate the permit and/or return the pipeline into operation. If the vacatur of the easement permit results in a permanent shutdown of the pipeline, MPLX would have to contribute its 9.19 percent pro rata share of the cost to redeem the bonds (including the one percent redemption premium required pursuant to the indenture governing the notes) and any accrued and unpaid interest. As of December 31, 2022, our maximum potential undiscounted payments under the Contingent Equity Contribution Agreement were approximately $170 million.

Tesoro High Plains Pipeline
In July 2020, Tesoro High Plains Pipeline Company, LLC (“THPP”), a subsidiary of MPLX, received a Notification of Trespass Determination from the Bureau of Indian Affairs (“BIA”) relating to a portion of the Tesoro High Plains Pipeline that crosses the Fort Berthold Reservation in North Dakota. The notification demanded the immediate cessation of pipeline operations and assessed trespass damages of approximately $187 million. After subsequent appeal proceedings and in compliance with a new order issued by the BIA, in December 2020, THPP paid approximately $4 million in assessed trespass damages and ceased use of the portion of the pipeline that crosses the property at issue. In March 2021, the BIA issued an order purporting to vacate the BIA's prior orders related to THPP’s alleged trespass and direct the Regional Director of the BIA to reconsider the issue of THPP’s alleged trespass and issue a new order. In April 2021, THPP filed a lawsuit in the District of North Dakota against the United States of America, the U.S. Department of the Interior and the BIA (together, the “U.S. Government Parties”) challenging the March 2021 order purporting to vacate all previous orders related to THPP’s alleged trespass. On February 8, 2022, the U.S. Government Parties filed their answer and counterclaims to THPP’s suit claiming THPP is in continued trespass with respect to the pipeline and seek disgorgement of pipeline profits from June 1, 2013 to present, removal of the pipeline and remediation. We intend to vigorously defend ourselves against these counterclaims.

Gathering and Processing
We have been negotiating with the EPA with respect to multiple alleged violations of the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants by the Chapita, Coyote Wash, Island, River Bend and Wonsits Valley Compressor Stations in Utah as well as the Robinson Lake Gas Plant in North Dakota. We are in the process of finalizing a settlement with the EPA pursuant to which we expect to pay a cash penalty of $2 million, incorporate additional remedial measures, mitigate excess emissions associated with events and enter into a consent decree covering MPLX gas plants and compressor stations located in Utah, North Dakota and Wyoming. We expect to finalize the settlement later in 2023.

Edwardsville Incident
In March 2022, the State of Illinois brought an action in Madison County Circuit Court in Illinois against Marathon Pipe Line LLC, an indirect wholly owned subsidiary of MPLX LP, asserting various violations and demanding a permanent injunction and civil penalties in connection with a March 2022 release of crude oil on the Wood River to Patoka 22" line near Edwardsville, Illinois. We are negotiating a settlement of the allegations. We cannot currently estimate the amount of any civil penalty or the timing of the resolution of this matter but do not believe any civil penalty will have a material adverse effect on our consolidated results of operations, financial position or cash flows.



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