[ANN] Nokogiri v1.11.0 released

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Mike Dalessio

Jan 3, 2021, 11:49:42 PMJan 3
to nokogiri-talk, ruby-talk
Nokogiri version 1.11.0 has been released.

This is a significant release containing installation improvements, performance improvements, bugfixes, new features, and two behavior changes which are potentially breaking:

- one change addresses a low-severity security issue, see https://github.com/sparklemotion/nokogiri/security/advisories/GHSA-vr8q-g5c7-m54m
- one change fixes a bug where the `strict` parsing option was not respected by the HTML parser, see https://github.com/sparklemotion/nokogiri/issues/2130

Those release notes are reproduced here in markdown format for your convenience.


# Description

Nokogiri (鋸) makes it easy and painless to work with XML and HTML from Ruby. It provides a sensible, easy-to-understand API for reading, writing, modifying, and querying documents. It is fast and standards-compliant by relying on native parsers like libxml2 (C) and xerces (Java).

## v1.11.0 / 2021-01-03

### Notes

#### Faster, more reliable installation: Native Gems for Linux and OSX/Darwin

"Native gems" contain pre-compiled libraries for a specific machine architecture. On supported platforms, this removes the need for compiling the C extension and the packaged libraries. This results in **much faster installation** and **more reliable installation**, which as you probably know are the biggest headaches for Nokogiri users.

We've been shipping native Windows gems since 2009, but starting in v1.11.0 we are also shipping native gems for these platforms:

- Linux: `x86-linux` and `x86_64-linux` -- including musl platforms like alpine
- OSX/Darwin: `x86_64-darwin` and `arm64-darwin`

We'd appreciate your thoughts and feedback on this work at [#2075](https://github.com/sparklemotion/nokogiri/issues/2075).

### Dependencies

#### Ruby

This release introduces support for Ruby 2.7 and 3.0 in the precompiled native gems.

This release ends support for:

* Ruby 2.3, for which [official support ended on 2019-03-31](https://www.ruby-lang.org/en/news/2019/03/31/support-of-ruby-2-3-has-ended/) [[#1886](https://github.com/sparklemotion/nokogiri/issues/1886)] (Thanks [@ashmaroli](https://github.com/ashmaroli)!)
* Ruby 2.4, for which [official support ended on 2020-04-05](https://www.ruby-lang.org/en/news/2020/04/05/support-of-ruby-2-4-has-ended/)
* JRuby 9.1, which is the Ruby 2.3-compatible release.

#### Gems

* Explicitly add racc as a runtime dependency. [[#1988](https://github.com/sparklemotion/nokogiri/issues/1988)] (Thanks, [@voxik](https://github.com/voxik)!)
* [MRI] Upgrade mini_portile2 dependency from `~> 2.4.0` to `~> 2.5.0` [[#2005](https://github.com/sparklemotion/nokogiri/issues/2005)] (Thanks, [@alejandroperea](https://github.com/alejandroperea)!)

### Security

See note below about CVE-2020-26247 in the "Changed" subsection entitled "XML::Schema parsing treats input as untrusted by default".

### Added

* Add Node methods for manipulating "keyword attributes" (for example, `class` and `rel`): `#kwattr_values`, `#kwattr_add`, `#kwattr_append`, and `#kwattr_remove`. [[#2000](https://github.com/sparklemotion/nokogiri/issues/2000)]
* Add support for CSS queries `a:has(> b)`, `a:has(~ b)`, and `a:has(+ b)`. [[#688](https://github.com/sparklemotion/nokogiri/issues/688)] (Thanks, [@jonathanhefner](https://github.com/jonathanhefner)!)
* Add `Node#value?` to better match expected semantics of a Hash-like object. [[#1838](https://github.com/sparklemotion/nokogiri/issues/1838), [#1840](https://github.com/sparklemotion/nokogiri/issues/1840)] (Thanks, [@MatzFan](https://github.com/MatzFan)!)
* [CRuby] Add `Nokogiri::XML::Node#line=` for use by downstream libs like nokogumbo. [[#1918](https://github.com/sparklemotion/nokogiri/issues/1918)] (Thanks, [@stevecheckoway](https://github.com/stevecheckoway)!)
* `nokogiri.gemspec` is back after a 10-year hiatus. We still prefer you use the official releases, but master is pretty stable these days, and YOLO.

### Performance

* [CRuby] The CSS `~=` operator and class selector `.` are about 2x faster. [[#2137](https://github.com/sparklemotion/nokogiri/issues/2137), [#2135](https://github.com/sparklemotion/nokogiri/issues/2135)]
* [CRuby] Patch libxml2 to call `strlen` from `xmlStrlen` rather than the naive implementation, because `strlen` is generally optimized for the architecture. [[#2144](https://github.com/sparklemotion/nokogiri/issues/2144)] (Thanks, [@ilyazub](https://github.com/ilyazub)!)
* Improve performance of some namespace operations. [[#1916](https://github.com/sparklemotion/nokogiri/issues/1916)] (Thanks, [@ashmaroli](https://github.com/ashmaroli)!)
* Remove unnecessary array allocations from Node serialization methods [[#1911](https://github.com/sparklemotion/nokogiri/issues/1911)] (Thanks, [@ashmaroli](https://github.com/ashmaroli)!)
* Avoid creation of unnecessary zero-length String objects. [[#1970](https://github.com/sparklemotion/nokogiri/issues/1970)] (Thanks, [@ashmaroli](https://github.com/ashmaroli)!)
* Always compile libxml2 and libxslt with '-O2' [[#2022](https://github.com/sparklemotion/nokogiri/issues/2022), [#2100](https://github.com/sparklemotion/nokogiri/issues/2100)] (Thanks, [@ilyazub](https://github.com/ilyazub)!)
* [JRuby] Lots of code cleanup and performance improvements. [[#1934](https://github.com/sparklemotion/nokogiri/issues/1934)] (Thanks, [@kares](https://github.com/kares)!)
* [CRuby] `RelaxNG.from_document` no longer leaks memory. [[#2114](https://github.com/sparklemotion/nokogiri/issues/2114)]

### Improved

* [CRuby] Handle incorrectly-closed HTML comments as WHATWG recommends for browsers. [[#2058](https://github.com/sparklemotion/nokogiri/issues/2058)] (Thanks to HackerOne user [mayflower](https://hackerone.com/mayflower?type=user) for reporting this!)
* {HTML,XML}::Document#parse now accept `Pathname` objects. Previously this worked only if the referenced file was less than 4096 bytes long; longer files resulted in undefined behavior because the `read` method would be repeatedly invoked. [[#1821](https://github.com/sparklemotion/nokogiri/issues/1821), [#2110](https://github.com/sparklemotion/nokogiri/issues/2110)] (Thanks, [@doriantaylor](https://github.com/doriantaylor) and [@phokz](https://github.com/phokz)!)
* [CRuby] Nokogumbo builds faster because it can now use header files provided by Nokogiri. [[#1788](https://github.com/sparklemotion/nokogiri/issues/1788)] (Thanks, [@stevecheckoway](https://github.com/stevecheckoway)!)
* Add `frozen_string_literal: true` magic comment to all `lib` files. [[#1745](https://github.com/sparklemotion/nokogiri/issues/1745)] (Thanks, [@oniofchaos](https://github.com/oniofchaos)!)
* [JRuby] Clean up deprecated calls into JRuby. [[#2027](https://github.com/sparklemotion/nokogiri/issues/2027)] (Thanks, [@headius](https://github.com/headius)!)

### Fixed

* HTML Parsing in "strict" mode (i.e., the `RECOVER` parse option not set) now correctly raises a `XML::SyntaxError` exception. Previously the value of the `RECOVER` bit was being ignored by CRuby and was misinterpreted by JRuby. [[#2130](https://github.com/sparklemotion/nokogiri/issues/2130)]
* The CSS `~=` operator now correctly handles non-space whitespace in the `class` attribute. commit e45dedd
* The switch to turn off the CSS-to-XPath cache is now thread-local, rather than being shared mutable state. [[#1935](https://github.com/sparklemotion/nokogiri/issues/1935)]
* The Node methods `add_previous_sibling`, `previous=`, `before`, `add_next_sibling`, `next=`, `after`, `replace`, and `swap` now correctly use their parent as the context node for parsing markup. These methods now also raise a `RuntimeError` if they are called on a node with no parent. [[nokogumbo#160](https://github.com/rubys/nokogumbo/issues/160)]
* [JRuby] XML::Schema XSD validation errors are captured in `XML::Schema#errors`. These errors were previously ignored.
* [JRuby] Standardize reading from IO like objects, including StringIO. [[#1888](https://github.com/sparklemotion/nokogiri/issues/1888), [#1897](https://github.com/sparklemotion/nokogiri/issues/1897)]
* [JRuby] Fix how custom XPath function namespaces are inferred to be less naive. [[#1890](https://github.com/sparklemotion/nokogiri/issues/1890), [#2148](https://github.com/sparklemotion/nokogiri/issues/2148)]
* [JRuby] Clarify exception message when custom XPath functions can't be resolved.
* [JRuby] Comparison of Node to Document with `Node#<=>` now matches CRuby/libxml2 behavior.
* [CRuby] Syntax errors are now correctly captured in `Document#errors` for short HTML documents. Previously the SAX parser used for encoding detection was clobbering libxml2's global error handler.
* [CRuby] Fixed installation on AIX with respect to `vasprintf`. [[#1908](https://github.com/sparklemotion/nokogiri/issues/1908)]
* [CRuby] On some platforms, avoid symbol name collision with glibc's `canonicalize`. [[#2105](https://github.com/sparklemotion/nokogiri/issues/2105)]
* [Windows Visual C++] Fixed compiler warnings and errors. [[#2061](https://github.com/sparklemotion/nokogiri/issues/2061), [#2068](https://github.com/sparklemotion/nokogiri/issues/2068)]
* [CRuby] Fixed Nokogumbo integration which broke in the v1.11.0 release candidates. [[#1788](https://github.com/sparklemotion/nokogiri/issues/1788)] (Thanks, [@stevecheckoway](https://github.com/stevecheckoway)!)
* [JRuby] Fixed document encoding regression in v1.11.0 release candidates. [[#2080](https://github.com/sparklemotion/nokogiri/issues/2080), [#2083](https://github.com/sparklemotion/nokogiri/issues/2083)] (Thanks, [@thbar](https://github.com/thbar)!)

### Removed

* The internal method `Nokogiri::CSS::Parser.cache_on=` has been removed. Use `.set_cache` if you need to muck with the cache internals.
* The class method `Nokogiri::CSS::Parser.parse` has been removed. This was originally deprecated in 2009 in 13db61b. Use `Nokogiri::CSS.parse` instead.

### Changed

#### `XML::Schema` input is now "untrusted" by default

Address [CVE-2020-26247](https://github.com/sparklemotion/nokogiri/security/advisories/GHSA-vr8q-g5c7-m54m).

In Nokogiri versions <= 1.11.0.rc3, XML Schemas parsed by `Nokogiri::XML::Schema` were **trusted** by default, allowing external resources to be accessed over the network, potentially enabling XXE or SSRF attacks.

This behavior is counter to the security policy intended by Nokogiri maintainers, which is to treat all input as **untrusted** by default whenever possible.

Please note that this security fix was pushed into a new minor version, 1.11.x, rather than a patch release to the 1.10.x branch, because it is a breaking change for some schemas and the risk was assessed to be "Low Severity".

More information and instructions for enabling "trusted input" behavior in v1.11.0.rc4 and later is available at the [public advisory](https://github.com/sparklemotion/nokogiri/security/advisories/GHSA-vr8q-g5c7-m54m).

#### HTML parser now obeys the `strict` or `norecover` parsing option

(Also noted above in the "Fixed" section) HTML Parsing in "strict" mode (i.e., the `RECOVER` parse option not set) now correctly raises a `XML::SyntaxError` exception. Previously the value of the `RECOVER` bit was being ignored by CRuby and was misinterpreted by JRuby.

If you're using the default parser options, you will be unaffected by this fix. If you're passing `strict` or `norecover` to your HTML parser call, you may be surprised to see that the parser now fails to recover and raises a `XML::SyntaxError` exception. Given the number of HTML documents on the internet that libxml2 would consider to be ill-formed, this is probably not what you want, and you can omit setting that parse option to restore the behavior that you have been relying upon.

Apologies to anyone inconvenienced by this breaking bugfix being present in a minor release, but I felt it was appropriate to introduce this fix because it's straightforward to fix any code that has been relying on this buggy behavior.

#### `VersionInfo`, the output of `nokogiri -v`, and related constants

This release changes the metadata provided in `Nokogiri::VersionInfo` which also affects the output of `nokogiri -v`. Some related constants have also been changed. If you're using `VersionInfo` programmatically, or relying on constants related to underlying library versions, please read the detailed changes for `Nokogiri::VersionInfo` at [#2139](https://github.com/sparklemotion/nokogiri/issues/2139) and accept our apologies for the inconvenience.

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