Electro-magnetic activity mapping, part of surveillance

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Nov 29, 2007, 10:42:16 AM11/29/07
to mobilfunk_...@googlegroups.com, partei-...@googlegroups.com
The following article mentions capability by new spy tools to detect
electro-magnetic activity in an environment and integrate it into
intelligence position reports. Presumably, some sort of EMF map is

Maybe in the future this can be used to help people concerned about
undue exposure to EMF activity.

Lyn Milnes
in New Zealand


EXTRACT from middle of article quoted in full below:

"... domestic agencies will also have access to
measures and signatures intelligence (MASINT) managed by the Defense
Intelligence Agency (DIA), the principal spying agency used by the
secretary of
defense and the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

(MASINT is a highly classified form of intelligence that uses infrared
sensors and other technologies to "sniff" the atmosphere for certain
chemicals and electro-magnetic activity and "see" beneath bridges and
forest canopies. Using its tools, analysts can detect signs that ..."



Domestic Spying, Inc.
by Tim Shorrock , Special to CorpWatch
November 27th, 2007

A new intelligence institution to be inaugurated soon by the Bush
administration will allow government spying agencies to conduct broad
surveillance and reconnaissance inside the United States for the first
time. Under a proposal being reviewed by Congress, a National Applications
Office (NAO) will be established to coordinate how the Department of
Security (DHS) and domestic law enforcement and rescue agencies use
imagery and
communications intelligence picked up by U.S. spy satellites. If the
plan goes
forward, the NAO will create the legal mechanism for an unprecedented
degree of
domestic intelligence gathering that would make the U.S. one of the world's
closely monitored nations. Until now, domestic use of electronic
from spy satellites was limited to scientific agencies with no
for national security or law enforcement.

The intelligence-sharing system to be managed by the NAO will rely
heavily on
private contractors including Boeing, BAE Systems, L-3 Communications and
Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC). These companies
provide technology and personnel to U.S. agencies involved in foreign
intelligence, and the NAO greatly expands their markets. Indeed, at an
intelligence conference in San Antonio, Texas, last month, the titans of the
industry were actively lobbying intelligence officials to buy products
specifically designed for domestic surveillance.

The NAO was created under a plan tentatively approved in May 2007 by
Director of National Intelligence Michael McConnell. Specifically, the
NAO will
oversee how classified information collected by the National Security Agency
(NSA), the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) and other key
is used within the U.S. during natural disasters, terrorist attacks and
events affecting national security. The most critical intelligence will be
supplied by the NSA and the NGA, which are often referred to by U.S.
as the "eyes" and "ears" of the intelligence community.

The NSA, through a global network of listening posts, surveillance
planes, and
satellites, captures signals from phone calls, e-mail and Internet
traffic, and
translates and analyzes them for U.S. military and national intelligence

The National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA), which was formally
inaugurated in 2003, provides overhead imagery and mapping tools that allow
intelligence and military analysts to monitor events from the skies and
The NSA and the NGA have a close relationship with the super-secret National
Reconnaissance Agency (NRO), which builds and maintains the U.S. fleet
of spy
satellites and operates the ground stations where the NSA´s signals and the
NGA´s imagery are processed and analyzed. By law, their collection
supposed to be confined to foreign countries and battlefields.

The National Applications Office was conceived in 2005 by the Office of the
Director of National Intelligence (ODNI), which Congress created in 2004 to
oversee the 16 agencies that make up the U.S. intelligence community.
concerned that the legal framework for U.S. intelligence operations had not
updated for the global "war on terror," turned to Booz Allen Hamilton of
Virginia -- one of the largest contractors in the spy business. The
company was
tasked with studying how intelligence from spy satellites and
photoreconnaissance planes could be better used domestically to track
threats to security within the U.S.. The Booz Allen study was completed
in May
of that year, and has since become the basis for the NAO oversight
plan. In May
2007, McConnell, the former executive vice president of Booz Allen,
signed off
on the creation of the NAO as the principal body to oversee the merging of
foreign and domestic intelligence collection operations.

The NAO is "an idea whose time has arrived," Charles Allen, a top U.S.
intelligence official, told the Wall Street Journal in August 2007 after it
broke the news of the creation of the NAO. Allen, the DHS's chief
officer, will head the new program. The announcement came just days after
President George W. Bush signed a new law approved by Congress to expand the
ability of the NSA to eavesdrop, without warrants, on telephone calls,
and faxes passing through telecommunications hubs in the U.S. when the
government suspects agents of a foreign power may be involved. "These
[intelligence] systems are already used to help us respond to crises," Allen
later told the Washington Post. "We anticipate that we can also use them to
protect Americans by preventing the entry of dangerous people and goods into
country, and by helping us examine critical infrastructure for

Donald Kerr, a former NRO director who is now the number two at ODNI,
recently explained to reporters that the intelligence community was no
longer discussing whether or not to spy on U.S. citizens: "Our job now is
to engage in a productive debate, which focuses on privacy as a component
of appropriate levels of security and public safety,'' Kerr said. ''I
think all
of us have to really take stock of what we already are willing to give
up, in
terms of anonymity, but [also] what safeguards we want in place to be
sure that
giving that doesn't empty our bank account or do something equally bad

What Will The NAO Do?

The plan for the NAO builds on a domestic security infrastructure that
has been
in place for at least seven years. After the terrorist attacks of
September 11,
2001, the NSA was granted new powers to monitor domestic
communications without
obtaining warrants from a secret foreign intelligence court established by
Congress in 1978 (that warrant-less program ended in January 2007 but was
allowed to continue, with some changes, under legislation passed by
Congress in
August 2007).

Moreover, intelligence and reconnaissance agencies that were historically
confined to spying on foreign countries have been used extensively on the
home front since 2001. In the hours after the September 11th, 2001
attacks in
New York, for example, the Bush administration called on the NGA to capture
imagery from lower Manhattan and the Pentagon to help in the rescue and
efforts. In 2002, when two deranged snipers terrified the citizens of
and its Maryland and Virginia suburbs with a string of fatal shootings, the
Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) asked the NGA to provide detailed
of freeway interchanges and other locations to help spot the pair.

The NGA was also used extensively during Hurricane Katrina , when the
agency provided overhead imagery -- some of it supplied by U-2
photoreconnaissance aircraft -- to federal and state rescue operations. The
data, which included mapping of flooded areas in Louisiana and Mississippi,
allowed residents of the stricken areas to see the extent of damage to their
homes and helped first-responders locate contaminated areas as well as
churches and hospitals that might be used in the rescue. More recently,
the October 2007 California wildfires, the Federal Emergency Management
(FEMA) asked the NGA to analyze overhead imagery of the fire zones and
the areas of maximum intensity and damage. In every situation that the
NGA is
used domestically, it must receive a formal request from a lead domestic
according to agency spokesperson David Burpee. That agency is usually FEMA,
which is a unit of DHS.

At first blush, the idea of a U.S. intelligence agency serving the public
by providing imagery to aid in disaster recovery sounds like a positive
development, especially when compared to the Bush administration´s misuse
of the NSA and the Pentagon´s Counter-Intelligence Field Activity
(CIFA) to spy
on American citizens. But the notion of using spy satellites and
aircraft for
domestic purposes becomes problematic from a civil liberties standpoint when
full capabilities of agencies like the NGA and the NSA are considered.

Imagine, for example, that U.S. intelligence officials have determined,
through NSA telephone intercepts, that a group of worshippers at a mosque
in Oakland, California, has communicated with an Islamic charity in Saudi
Arabia. This is the same group that the FBI and the U.S. Department of the
Treasury believe is linked to an organization unfriendly to the United

Imagine further that the FBI, as a lead agency, asks and receives
permission to monitor that mosque and the people inside using
high-resolution imagery obtained from the NGA. Using other technologies,
such as overhead traffic cameras in place in many cities, that mosque
could be
placed under surveillance for months, and -- through cell phone
intercepts and
overhead imagery -- its suspected worshipers carefully tracked in
real-time as
they moved almost anywhere in the country.

The NAO, under the plan approved by ODNI´s McConnell, would determine the
rules that will guide the DHS and other lead federal agencies when they
want to use imagery and signals intelligence in situations like this, as
well as during natural disasters. If the organization is established as
planned, U.S. domestic agencies will have a vast array of technology at
their disposal. In addition to the powerful mapping and signals tools
provided by the NGA and the NSA, domestic agencies will also have access to
measures and signatures intelligence (MASINT) managed by the Defense
Intelligence Agency (DIA), the principal spying agency used by the
secretary of
defense and the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

(MASINT is a highly classified form of intelligence that uses infrared
sensors and other technologies to "sniff" the atmosphere for certain
chemicals and electro-magnetic activity and "see" beneath bridges and
forest canopies. Using its tools, analysts can detect signs that a nuclear
plant is producing plutonium, determine from truck exhaust what types of
vehicles are in a convoy, and detect people and weapons hidden from
the view of
satellites or photoreconnaissance aircraft.)

Created By Contractors

The study group that established policies for the NAO was jointly
funded by the
ODNI and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), one of only two domestic U.S.
agencies that is currently allowed, under rules set in the 1970s, to use
classified intelligence from spy satellites. (The other is NASA, the
Aeronautics and Space Administration.) The group was chaired by Keith
Hall, a
Booz Allen vice president who manages his firm´s extensive contracts
with the
NGA and previously served as the director of the NRO.

Other members of the group included seven other former intelligence
officers working for Booz Allen, as well as retired Army Lieutenant General
Patrick M. Hughes, the former director of the DIA and vice president of
security for L-3 Communications, a key NSA contractor; and Thomas W. Conroy,
vice president of national security programs for Northrop Grumman, which has
extensive contracts with the NSA and the NGA and throughout the intelligence

From the start, the study group was heavily weighted toward companies
stake in both foreign and domestic intelligence. Not surprisingly, its
contractor-advisers called for a major expansion in the domestic use
of the spy
satellites that they sell to the government. Since the end of the Cold
War and
particularly since the September 11, 2001 attacks, they said, the
"threats to
the nation have changed and there is a growing interest in making
available the
special capabilities of the intelligence community to all parts of the
government, to include homeland security and law enforcement entities
and ona
higher priority basis."

Contractors are not new to the U.S. spy world. Since the creation of the
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and the modern intelligence system in
1947, the private sector has been tapped to design and build the technology
facilitates electronic surveillance. Lockheed, for example, built the
U-2, the
famous surveillance plane that flew scores of spy missions over the Soviet
and Cuba. During the 1960s, Lockheed was a prime contractor for the Corona
system of spy satellites that greatly expanded the CIA´s abilities to
secret military installations from space. IBM, Cray Computers and other
companies built the super-computers that allowed the NSA to sift through
from millions of telephone calls, and analyze them for intelligence that was
passed on to national leaders.

Spending on contracts has increased exponentially in recent years along
with intelligence budgets, and the NSA, the NGA and other agencies have
turned to the private sector for the latest computer and communications
technologies and for intelligence analysts. For example, today about half
of staff at the NSA and NGA are private contractors. At the DIA, 70
percent of
the workers are contractors. But the most privatized agency of all is
the NRO,
where a whopping 90 percent of the workforce receive paychecks from
corporations. All told the U.S. intelligence agencies spend some 70
percent of
their estimated $60 billion annual budget on contracts with private
according to documents this reporter obtained in June 2007 from the ODNI.

The plans to increase domestic spying are estimated to be worth billions of
dollars in new business for the intelligence contractors. The market
was on display in October at GEOINT 2007, the annual conference sponsored by
U.S. Geospatial Intelligence Foundation (USGIF), a non-profit organization
funded by the largest contractors for the NGA. During the conference, which
place in October at the spacious Henry B. Gonzalez Convention Center in
San Antonio, many companies were displaying spying and surveillance
tools that
had been used in Afghanistan and Iraq and were now being re-branded for
potential domestic use.

BAE Systems Inc.

On the first day of the conference, three employees of BAE Systems
Inc. who had
just returned from a three-week tour of Iraq and Afghanistan with the NGA
demonstrated a new software package called SOCET GXP. (BAE Systems Inc.
is the
U.S. subsidiary of the UK-based BAE, the third-largest military
contractor in
the world.)

GXP uses Google Earth software as a basis for creating three-dimensional
maps that U.S. commanders and soldiers use to conduct intelligence and
reconnaissance missions. Eric Bruce, one of the BAE employees back from the
Middle East, said his team trained U.S. forces to use the GXP software "to
routes for known terrorist sites" as well as to locate opium fields.
use opium to fund their war," he said. Bruce also said his team received
from Iraqi citizens in locating targets. "Many of the locals can´t read
they tell the analysts, `there is a mosque next to a hill,´" he explained.

Bruce said BAE´s new package is designed for defense forces and
intelligence agencies, but can also be used for homeland security and by
highway departments and airports. Earlier versions of the software were
sold to the U.S. Army´s Topographic Engineering Center, where it has been
used to collect data on more than 12,000 square kilometers of Iraq,
primarily in urban centers and over supply routes.

Another new BAE tool displayed in San Antonio was a program called GOSHAWK,
which stands for "Geospatial Operations for a Secure Homeland - Awareness,
Workflow, Knowledge." It was pitched by BAE as a tool to help law
and state and local emergency agencies prepare for, and respond to, "natural
disasters and terrorist and criminal incidents." Under the GOSHAWK
program, BAE
supplies "agencies and corporations" with data providers and information
technology specialists "capable of turning geospatial information into the
knowledge needed for quick decisions." A typical operation might involve
acquiring data from satellites, aircraft and sensors in ground vehicles, and
integrating those data to support an emergency or security operations
One of the program´s special attributes, the company says, is its ability to
"differentiate levels of classification," meaning that it can deduce
when data
are classified and meant only for use by analysts with security clearances.

These two products were just a sampling of what BAE, a major player in
the U.S.
intelligence market, had to offer. BAE´s services to U.S. intelligence --
including the CIA and the National Counter-Terrorism Center -- are provided
through a special unit called the Global Analysis Business Unit. It is
in McLean, Virginia, a stone´s throw from the CIA. The unit is headed by
Gannon, a 25-year veteran of the CIA who reached the agency´s highest
ranks as deputy director of intelligence and chairman of the National
Intelligence Council. Today, as a private sector contractor for the
community, Gannon manages a staff of more than 800 analysts with security

A brochure for the Global Analysis unit distributed at GEOINT 2007 explains
BAE´s role and, in the process, underscores the degree of outsourcing in
intelligence. "The demand for experienced, skilled, and cleared analysts
- and
for the best systems to manage them - has never been greater across the
Intelligence and Defense Communities, in the field and among federal, state,
local agencies responsible for national and homeland security," BAE
says. The
mission of the Global Analysis unit, it says, "is to provide policymakers,
warfighters, and law enforcement officials with analysts to help them
the complex intelligence threats they face, and work force management
to improve the skills and expertise of analysts."

At the bottom of the brochure is a series of photographs illustrating BAE´s
broad reach: a group of analysts monitoring a bank of computers; three
studying a map of Europe, the Middle East and the Horn of Africa; the
of two related social networks that have been mapped out to show how their
members are linked; a bearded man, apparently from the Middle East and
presumably a terrorist; the fiery image of a car bomb after it exploded in
and four white radar domes (known as radomes) of the type used by the NSA to
monitor global communications from dozens of bases and facilities around the

The brochure may look and sound like typical corporate public relations.
But amid BAE´s spy talk were two phrases strategically placed by the
company to alert intelligence officials that BAE has an active presence
inside the U.S.. The tip-off words were "federal, state and local
agencies," "law enforcement officials" and "homeland security." By
including them, BAE was broadcasting that it is not simply a contractor for
agencies involved in foreign intelligence, but has an active presence as a
supplier to domestic security agencies, a category that includes the
of Homeland Security (DHS), the FBI as well as local and state police forces
stretching from Maine to Hawaii.

ManTech, Boeing, Harris and L-3

ManTech International, an important NSA contractor based in Fairfax,
Virginia, has perfected the art of creating multi-agency software
programs for
both foreign and domestic intelligence. After the September 11th, 2001
it developed a classified program for the Defense Intelligence Agency called
Joint Regional Information Exchange System. DIA used it to combine
and unclassified intelligence on terrorist threats on a single
desktop. ManTech
then tweaked that software for the Department of Homeland Security and
sold it
to DHS for its Homeland Security Information Network. According to
ManTech distributed at GEOINT, that software will "significantly
strengthen the
exchange of real-time threat information used to combat terrorism." ManTech,
brochure added, "also provides extensive, advanced information technology
support to the National Security Agency" and other agencies.

In a nearby booth, Chicago, Illinois-based Boeing, the world´s second
largest defense contractor, was displaying its "information sharing
environment" software, which is designed to meet the Office of the
Director of
National Intelligence´s new requirements on agencies to stop buying
systems that can´t talk to each other. The ODNI wants to focus on
products that
will allow the NGA and other agencies to easily share their classified
with the CIA and other sectors of the community. "To ensure freedom in the
world, the United States continues to address the challenges introduced by
terrorism," a Boeing handout said. Its new software, the company said, will
allow information to be "shared efficiently and uninterrupted across
intelligence agencies, first responders, military and world allies."
Boeing has
a reason for publishing boastful material like this: In 2005, it lost a
contract with the NRO to build a new generation of imaging satellites after
ringing up billions of dollars in cost-overruns. The New York Times recently
called the Boeing project "the most spectacular and expensive failure in the
50-year history of American spy satellite projects."

Boeing´s geospatial intelligence offerings are provided through its Space
and Intelligence Systems unit, which also holds contracts with the NSA. It
allows agencies and military units to map global shorelines and create
maps of cities and battlefields, complete with digital elevation data that
users to construct three-dimensional maps. (In an intriguing aside, one
intelligence brochure lists among its "specialized organizations" Jeppesen
Government and Military Services. According to a 2006 account by New Yorker
reporter Jane Mayer, Jeppesen provided logistical and navigational
including flight plans and clearance to fly over other countries, to the CIA
its "extraordinary rendition" program.)

Although less known as an intelligence contractor than BAE and Boeing, the
Harris Corporation has become a major force in providing contracted
satellite and information technology services to the intelligence community,
including the NSA and the NRO. In 2007, according to its most recent annual
report, the $4.2 billion company, based in Melbourne, Florida, won
several new
classified contracts. NSA awarded one of them for software to be used by NSA
analysts in the agency´s "Rapidly Deployable Integrated Command and Control
System," which is used by the NSA to transmit "actionable intelligence" to
soldiers and commanders in the field. Harris also supplies geospatial and
imagery products to the NGA. At GEOINT, Harris displayed a new product that
allows agencies to analyze live video and audio data imported from
UAVs. It was
developed, said Fred Poole, a Harris market development manager, "with input
from intelligence analysts who were looking for a video and audio
analysis tool
that would allow them to perform `intelligence fusion´" -- combining
information from several agencies into a single picture of an ongoing

For many of the contractors at GEOINT, the highlight of the symposium was
an "interoperability demonstration" that allowed vendors to show how their
products would work in a domestic crisis.

One scenario involved Cuba as a rogue nation supplying spent nuclear fuel
to terrorists bent on creating havoc in the U.S.. Implausible as it was,
the plot, which involved maritime transportation and ports, allowed the
companies to display software that was likely already in use by the
Department of Homeland Security and Naval Intelligence. The "plot"
involved the
discovery by U.S. intelligence of a Cuban ship carrying spent nuclear fuel
heading for the U.S. Gulf Coast; an analysis of the social networks of Cuban
officials involved with the illicit cargo; and the tracking and
interception of
the cargo as it departed from Cuba and moved across the Caribbean to Corpus
Christi, Texas, a major port on the Gulf Coast. The agencies involved
the NGA, the NSA, Naval Intelligence and the Marines, and some of the key
contractors working for those agencies. It illustrated how sophisticated the
U.S. domestic surveillance system has become in the six years since the 9/11

L-3 Communications, which is based in New York city, was a natural for the
exercise: As mentioned earlier, retired Army Lt. General Patrick M.
Hughes, its
vice president of homeland security, was a member of the Booz Allen Hamilton
study group that advised the Bush administration to expand the domestic
use of
military spy satellites. At GEOINT, L-3 displayed a new program called
"multi-INT visualization environment" that combines imagery and signals
intelligence data that can be laid over photographs and maps. One
example shown
during the interoperability demonstration showed how such data would be
incorporated into a map of Florida and the waters surrounding Cuba. With
major player at the NSA, this demonstration software is likely seeing
much use
as the NSA and the NGA expand their information-sharing relationship.

Over the past two years, for example, the NGA has deployed dozens of
employees and contractors to Iraq to support the "surge" of U.S. troops.
The NGA teams provide imagery and full-motion video -- much of it
beamed to the
ground from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) -- that help U.S. commanders and
soldiers track and destroy insurgents fighting the U.S. occupation. And
2004, under a memorandum of understanding with the NSA, the NGA has begun to
incorporate signals intelligence into its imagery products. The blending
technique allows U.S. military units to track and find targets by picking up
signals from their cell phones, follow the suspects in real-time using
video, and direct fighter planes and artillery units to the exact
location of
the targets -- and blow them to smithereens.

That´s exactly how U.S. Special Forces tracked and killed Abu Musab
al-Zarqawi, the alleged leader of Al Qaeda in Iraq, the NGA´s director,
Navy Vice Admiral Robert Murrett, said in 2006. Later, Murrett told
reporters during GEOINT 2007, the NSA and the NGA have cooperated in
similar fashion in several other fronts of the "war on terror," including
in the Horn of Africa, where the U.S. military has attacked Al Qaeda
units in
Somalia, and in the Philippines, where U.S. forces are helping the
put down the Muslim insurgent group Abu Sayyaf. "When the NGA and the
NSA work
together, one plus one equals five," said Murrett.

Civil Liberty Worries

For U.S. citizens, however, the combination of NGA imagery and NSA signals
intelligence in a domestic situation could threaten important constitutional
safeguards against unwarranted searches and seizures. Kate Martin, the
of the Center for National Security Studies, a nonprofit advocacy
has likened the NAO plan to "Big Brother in the Sky." The Bush
she told the Washington Post, is "laying the bricks one at a time for a

Some Congress members, too, are concerned. "The enormity of the NAO´s
capabilities and the intended use of the imagery received through these
satellites for domestic homeland security purposes, and the unintended
consequences that may arise, have heightened concerns among the general
public, including reputable civil rights and civil liberties
organizations," Bennie G. Thompson, a Democratic member of Congress from
Mississippi and the chairman of the House Homeland Security Committee,
wrote in a September letter to Secretary of Homeland Security Michael
Chertoff. Thompson and other lawmakers reacted with anger after reports
of the
NAO and the domestic spying plan were first revealed by the Wall
Street Journal
in August. "There was no briefing, no hearing, and no phone call from
anyone on
your staff to any member of this committee of why, how, or when satellite
imagery would be shared with police and sheriffs´ officers nationwide,"
complained to Chertoff.

At a hastily organized hearing in September, Thompson and others demanded
that the opening of the NAO be delayed until further studies were
conducted on
its legal basis and questions about civil liberties were answered. They also
demanded biweekly updates from Chertoff on the activities and progress
of the
new organization. Others pointed out the potential danger of allowing U.S.
military satellites to be used domestically. "It will terrify you if
you really
understand the capabilities of satellites," warned Jane Harman, a Democratic
member of Congress from California, who represents a coastal area of Los
where many of the nation´s satellites are built. As Harman well knows,
spy satellites are far more flexible, offer greater resolution, and have
considerably more power to observe human activity than commercial
"Even if this program is well-designed and executed, someone somewhere else
could hijack it," Harman said during the hearing.

The NAO was supposed to open for business on October 1, 2007. But the
Congressional complaints have led the ODNI and DHS to delay their plans.
The NAO "has no intention to begin operations until we address your
questions," Charles Allen of DHS explained in a letter to Thompson. In an
address at the GEOINT conference in San Antonio, Allen said that the ODNI
is working with DHS and the Departments of Justice and Interior to draft
the charter for the new organization, which he said will face "layers of
review" once it is established.

Yet, given the Bush administration´s record of using U.S. intelligence
agencies to spy on U.S. citizens, it is difficult to take such
promises at face
value. Moreover, the extensive corporate role in foreign and domestic
intelligence means that the private sector has a great deal to gain in
the new
plan for intelligence-sharing. Because most private contracts with
agencies are classified, however, the public will have little
knowledge of this
role. Before Congress signs off on the NAO, it should create a better
system that would allow the House of Representatives and the Senate to
the new organization and to examine how BAE, Boeing, Harris and its fellow
corporations stand to profit from this unprecedented expansion of America´s
domestic intelligence system.


Tim ­Shorrock has been writing about U.S. foreign policy and national
security for nearly 30 years. His book, Spies for Hire: The Secret World of
Outsourced Intelligence, will be published in May 2008 by Simon &
Schuster. He
can be reached at timsh...@gmail.com.

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