Brain Res. 2009 Oct 29. [Epub ahead of print]
Department of occupational health, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038, People's Republic of China.
Increasing evidence indicates that oxidative stress may be involved in the adverse effects of radiofrequency (RF) radiation on the brain. Because mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) defects are closely associated with various nervous system diseases and mtDNA is highly susceptible to oxidative stress, the purpose of this study was to determine whether radiofrequency radiation can cause oxidative damage to mtDNA. In this study, we exposed primary cultured cortical neurons to pulsed RF electromagnetic fields at a frequency of 1800 MHz modulated by 217 Hz at an average special absorption rate (SAR) of 2 W/kg. At 24h after exposure, we found that RF radiation induced a significant increase in the levels of 8-hydroxyguanine (8-OHdG), a common biomarker of DNA oxidative damage, in the mitochondria of neurons. Consistent with this finding, the copy number of mtDNA and the levels of mitochondrial RNA (mtRNA) transcripts showed an obvious reduction after RF exposure. Each of these mtDNA disturbances could be reversed by pretreatment with melatonin, which is known to be an efficient in the brain. Together, these results suggested that 1800 MHz RF radiation could cause oxidative damage to mtDNA in primary cultured neurons. Oxidative damage to mtDNA may account for the neurotoxicity of RF radiation in the brain.
PMID: 19879861 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Bioelectromagnetics. 2009 Oct 30. [Epub ahead of print]
Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University of Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany.
The growth of estrogen-receptor positive breast cancer cells is inhibited by the pineal gland hormone, melatonin. Concern has been raised that power-line frequency and microwave electromagnetic fields (EMFs) could reduce the efficiency of melatonin on breast cancer cells. In this study we investigated the impact of EMFs on the signal transduction of the high-affinity receptor MT1 in parental MCF-7 cells and MCF-7 cells transfected with the MT1 gene. The binding of the cAMP-responsive element binding (CREB) protein to a promoter sequence of BRCA-1 after stimulation with melatonin was analyzed by a gel-shift assay and the expression of four estrogen-responsive genes was measured in sham-exposed breast cancer cells and cells exposed to a sinusoidal 50 Hz EMF of 1.2 microT for 48 h. In sham-exposed cells, binding of CREB to the promoter of BRCA-1 was increased by estradiol and subsequently diminished by treatment with melatonin. In cells exposed to 1.2 microT, 50 Hz EMF, binding of CREB was almost completely omitted. Expression of BRCA-1, p53, p21(WAF), and c-myc was increased by estradiol stimulation and subsequently decreased by melatonin treatment in both cell lines, except for p53 expression in the transfected cell line, thereby proving the antiestrogenic effect of melatonin at molecular level. In contrast, in breast cancer cells transfected with MT1 exposed to 1.2 microT of the 50 Hz EMF, the expression of p53 and c-myc increased significantly after melatonin treatment but for p21(WAF) the increase was not significant. These results convincingly prove the negative effect of EMF on the antiestrogenic effect of melatonin in breast cancer cells. Bioelectromagnetics, 2009. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
PMID: 19882681 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]