My Physalis minima/P. angulata/P. lagascae

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Gurcharan Singh

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Apr 9, 2010, 9:59:24 PM4/9/10
to efloraofindia
Dinesh ji's upload has put me in dilemma. If we go by the paper kindly suggested by Muthu ji (and it can't be ignored being a very recent paper in a reputed Journal), then my plant fits P. lagascae in leaves, flowers, anthers and overall appearance, but when we look at fruiting calyx the size, shape and colour does not allow you to ignore P. angulata as per this paper. I would request colleagues to kindly give your opinion.
    It is another matter that some authorities (GRIN) consider P. lagascae as synonym of P. minima. Then we have to decide between P. minima (Pl. lagascae) or P. angulata.


--
Dr. Gurcharan Singh
Retired  Associate Professor
SGTB Khalsa College, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007
Res: 932 Anand Kunj, Vikas Puri, New Delhi-110018.
Phone: 011-25518297  Mob: 9810359089
http://people.du.ac.in/~singhg45/

Physalis-minima-Delhi-1.jpg
Physalis-minima-Delhi-2.jpg
Physalis-minima-Delhi-3.jpg

Gurcharan Singh

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Apr 9, 2010, 10:37:57 PM4/9/10
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And yes colleagues
Two more things to be noted in my specimens. The anthers seem to be bluish in colour (P. angulata) whereas they are yellow in Dinesh ji's specimen (P. minima/lagascae). Another feature to note is that Flora of China keys out the two species on the basis of fruiting pedicel being 10-25 mm long in P. angulata, 3-8 mm in P. minima. Mt seems to be atleast less than 10 mm.

-- 
Dr. Gurcharan Singh
Retired  Associate Professor
SGTB Khalsa College, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007
Res: 932 Anand Kunj, Vikas Puri, New Delhi-110018.
Phone: 011-25518297  Mob: 9810359089
http://people.du.ac.in/~singhg45/ 

shrikant ingalhalikar

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Apr 9, 2010, 10:58:34 PM4/9/10
to efloraofindia
Sir, your plant too seems P. longifolia Nutt. as the one posted by
Dineshji. Anthers are said to be greenish-blue. Regards, Shrikant

>  Physalis-minima-Delhi-1.jpg
> 169KViewDownload
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>  Physalis-minima-Delhi-2.jpg
> 176KViewDownload
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>  Physalis-minima-Delhi-3.jpg
> 194KViewDownload

tanay bose

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Apr 10, 2010, 1:16:53 AM4/10/10
to shrikant ingalhalikar, efloraofindia
Dear Gurcharan ji And Shrikant ji ,
I am adding complete description of the plant and also other details and using bold text for similar character with these photos

Physalis minima Linn.

Family: Solanaceae

English names: Wild capegooseberry

Indian names: kupanti, budda, budamma (Andhra Pradesh); ban tipariya (Bengal); parpoti, popti (Gujrat); rasbhary (Himachal Pradesh); tulati pati (Hindi); gudde hannu (Karnataka); njodi njotta (Kerala); chirboti, dhan mori (Maharashtra); tholtakalli (Tamilnadu).

Physalis minima Linn. is commonly found on the bunds of the fields, wastelands, around the houses, on roadsides, etc., where the soil is porous and rich in organic matter. It is an annual herbaceous plant having a very delicate stem and leaves. It is found growing in the sub-Himalayas up to altitudes of 1,650 metres. According to Duthie (1905), it also grows in Afghanistan, Baluchistan, tropical Africa, Australia. Ceylon, etc.

Morphology

A small, delicate, erect, annual, pubescent herb, 1.5 metres tall; internodal length, 8.2 cm; more or less the whole plant is pubescent.

Leaves, petiolate (4.1 cm long), ovate to cordate, pubescent, delicate, exstipulate, acuminate, having reticulate palmate venation and undulate margins; dorsal surface of the leaves, dark green and the ventral surface, light green; 9.7 cm long and 8.1 cm broad.

Flowers, pedicellate having 1.2 cm long pedicel, hermaphrodite, complete, solitary, small companulate, 1.2 to 1.4 cm in diameter; calyx; gamosepalous, 5-toothed, actinomorphic, green, persistent, downy; corolla, gamopetalous with five petals, the petal cup, 1.1 to 1.3 cm long, yellow, having five black spots on yellow ground in the middle of the corolla cup; stamens, five, epipetalous, 6 to 7 mm long, having a black filament and greenish-yellow anther lobes; style, black, 9 min long, having a yellowish stigma at the top and a yellowish round ovary at the base.

Fruit, a berry, enclosed within the enlarged, 10-ribbed, reticulately veined calyx, which is 4.1 cm long and 2.5 cm broad; berries, stalked (stalk, 2.2 cm long), almost round having a pinhead-sized depression at the end; diameter, 1.4 to 1.6 cm; weight, 2.15 g; volume, 1.32 ml; fully mature fruits primrose yellow 601/2 at full maturity.

Seeds, globose, Dresden yellow 64/3; weight and volume of l00 seeds, 113 mg and 197 microlitres respectively.

The flowering and fruiting season

The flowers appear in acropetal succession, i.e. the lower flowers appear and form fruits earlier than the upper ones, which emerge as well as set fruit later. In this way, the flowering and fruiting season of this plant starts from March-April and continues up to the end of November. The fruiting starts from the middle of August and continues till the end of November. The peak fruiting season in the Solan area, however, is October.

Chemical composition of the fruit

The fruit is juicy, containing 61.4 per cent extractable juice and 76.7 per cent moisture. The total soluble solids content of the juice is 12.5 per cent. The acidity of the juice is 1.84 per cent. The fruits contain 5.97 per cent total sugars, 3 per cent reducing sugars, 2.81 per cent non-reducing sugars, 0.64 per cent tannins and 0.52 percent pectin. They contain a good amount of vitamin C which is 24.45 mg per 100 ml of juice.

The mineral content of the fruit, as represented by its ash, is 1.216 per cent. The protein content of the fruit is 2.75 per cent. The content of some of the important minerals of the fruits, viz. phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium and iron is 0.108. 0.613, 0.024, 0.056 and 0.006 per cent respectively.

Medicinal properties

Kirtikar and Basu (1935) have reported that the plants of Physalis minima Linn. are bitter, appetizing, tonic, diuretic, laxative, useful in inflammations, enlargement of the spleen and abdominal troubles. The fruit is considered to be a tonic, diuretic and purgative in the Punjab. The mundas (a tribe) of Chhota Nagpur mix the juice of the leaves with water and mustard oil and use it as a remedy against earache.

Utilization

The fruits are covered by the persistent calyx which protects them from external injury. They are eaten and liked by all. They are juicy and, as is evident from their chemical composition, they are a good source of vitamin C. The raw fruit can also be used as a vegetable.

Regards
Tanay


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R. Vijayasankar

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Apr 10, 2010, 1:45:00 AM4/10/10
to tanay bose, shrikant ingalhalikar, efloraofindia
Dear Tanay and others, i feel, if the information is taken from some other site or publication, and if it goes into the group's database, i think we have to provide/acknowledge the source or the original authors' names, as a courtesy and also to avoid copyright issues. Thanks for your kind service.
With regards

R. Vijayasankar
National Center for Natural Products Research,
The University of Mississippi,
Oxford, MS-38677, USA.

Muthu Karthick

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Apr 10, 2010, 2:42:56 AM4/10/10
to R. Vijayasankar, tanay bose, shrikant ingalhalikar, efloraofindia
The taxonomy of this Physalis spp. triggering out many inputs and questions. 

As Vijayasankarji suggested, why don't we include a line of 'source' to the material referred?
Muthu Karthick, N
Junior Research Fellow
Care Earth Trust
Chennai - 61
www.careearthtrust.org

Muthu Karthick

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Apr 10, 2010, 4:29:28 AM4/10/10
to R. Vijayasankar, tanay bose, shrikant ingalhalikar, efloraofindia
Dear Gurucharanji,
Please note that pedicel of P. angulata could range from 7 -10mm while on anthesis. according to this source: http://www.hear.org/Pier/species/physalis_minima.htm

Gurcharan Singh

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Apr 10, 2010, 8:50:29 AM4/10/10
to Muthu Karthick, R. Vijayasankar, tanay bose, shrikant ingalhalikar, efloraofindia
Dear Vijayasankar ji
It is interesting to have another species in contention from the minima complex. Differentiating key for P. minima, P. angulata and P. lagascae are available at Eflora of China website. Could you kindly provide key to separate P. longifolia from these?


-- 
Dr. Gurcharan Singh
Retired  Associate Professor
SGTB Khalsa College, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007
Res: 932 Anand Kunj, Vikas Puri, New Delhi-110018.
Phone: 011-25518297  Mob: 9810359089
http://people.du.ac.in/~singhg45/ 

R. Vijayasankar

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Apr 10, 2010, 5:20:55 PM4/10/10
to Gurcharan Singh, Muthu Karthick, tanay bose, shrikant ingalhalikar, efloraofindia
Dear Shrikant ji,
 
As per the link http://www.missouriplants.com/Yellowalt/Physalis_longifolia_page.html it doesn't seem to be P. longifolia whose anthers are yellow and even the fruiting calyx doesn't match.

Gurcharan Singh

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Apr 11, 2010, 12:17:07 AM4/11/10
to R. Vijayasankar, Muthu Karthick, tanay bose, shrikant ingalhalikar, efloraofindia
Vijayasankar ji
I would be be interested to know possible identity of my plant.

-- 
Dr. Gurcharan Singh
Retired  Associate Professor
SGTB Khalsa College, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007
Res: 932 Anand Kunj, Vikas Puri, New Delhi-110018.
Phone: 011-25518297  Mob: 9810359089
http://people.du.ac.in/~singhg45/ 

R. Vijayasankar

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Apr 11, 2010, 12:52:57 AM4/11/10
to Gurcharan Singh, Muthu Karthick, tanay bose, shrikant ingalhalikar, efloraofindia
Dear Gurcharan ji, your plant should be Physalis angulata L. based on the flower and fruit characters. Fruiting calyx is glabrous, green with purple nerves on it is one of the distinguishing characters. Prof. V.S.Raju et al. have solved the problem in identifying Physalis. Pl check this link for the paper: http://www.plantsystematics.com/qikan/manage/wenzhang/aps06141.pdf
 

Gurcharan Singh

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Apr 11, 2010, 3:21:45 AM4/11/10
to R. Vijayasankar, Muthu Karthick, tanay bose, shrikant ingalhalikar, efloraofindia
Vijayasankar ji
This was my first observation when I uploaded the plant. Flowers, anthers and fruiting calyx match P. angulata, only the leaves put me to doubt. They are supposed to be dentate in P. angulata.

-- 
Dr. Gurcharan Singh
Retired  Associate Professor
SGTB Khalsa College, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007
Res: 932 Anand Kunj, Vikas Puri, New Delhi-110018.
Phone: 011-25518297  Mob: 9810359089
http://people.du.ac.in/~singhg45/ 

R. Vijayasankar

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Apr 11, 2010, 4:33:50 AM4/11/10
to Gurcharan Singh, Muthu Karthick, tanay bose, shrikant ingalhalikar, efloraofindia
Gurcharan Ji, i think it is a variation (the species is said to be highly variable). The description in the following reference reads as:

"... Leaves simple, alternate, ovate, acute, margins irregularly toothed,..."

http://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJB/article/viewFile/1731/1641

Dinesh Valke

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Apr 11, 2010, 8:45:22 AM4/11/10
to R. Vijayasankar, Gurcharan Singh, Muthu Karthick, tanay bose, shrikant ingalhalikar, efloraofindia
Gurcharan ji,
A point mentioned in article of Prof Raju et al....

x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x
... Thus, several of the Physalis species and their natural hybrids are now well-established invasive weeds of disturbed landscapes and crops throughout the tropics, including Asia. ...
x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

makes me wonder whether we are seeing natural hybrids.


Regards.
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