Fruiting tree for ID from Jaipur forest | 08Aug10AR01

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raghu ananth

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Aug 8, 2010, 1:43:44 AM8/8/10
to indian...@googlegroups.com

Leaf size 30cms approx
Petiole -40cms
Leaf edge entire
Palmate - 7 leaves

Date/Time :

18/Jul/2010 10.49AM

 

Location- Place, altitude and GPS:

 

Joypur (Jaipur) forests, Naharkatia,  75 kms from Dibrugarh, Assam, 

 

Habitat- garden/ urban/wild/type:

Wild, Sub tropical wet evergreen forests.

 

Plant Habit-tree/shrub/climber/herb:

 Tree, 

 

Height/length:

15 feet approx, 

 

Leaves-type/shape/size:

/Green color/Acuminate/

Leaf size 30cms approx
Petiole -40cms
Leaf edge entire
Palmate - 7 leaves

 

Inflorescence type /size:

 

-

 

Flowers-size/colour/calyx/bracts:

 

No flowers

 

Fruits type-shape/size/seeds:

 

Spherical/brown/7-10cmscms

 

Fragrance/odour/pollinator/uses  and so on:

 

- We could see three such trees.

- This is a low light photograph on a rainy day


Regards
Raghu


DSC_4245b.jpg
DSC_4246c.jpg
DSC_4247d.jpg
DSC_4249a.jpg
DSC_4262e.jpg

raghu ananth

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Aug 8, 2010, 2:19:14 AM8/8/10
to raghu ananth, indian...@googlegroups.com
Correction :  Pls read the fruit shape as obovate.


From: raghu ananth <ragh...@yahoo.com>
To: indian...@googlegroups.com
Sent: Sun, 8 August, 2010 11:13:44 AM
Subject: [efloraofindia:43738] Fruiting tree for ID from Jaipur forest | 08Aug10AR01

Dr. Arvind Kadus

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Aug 8, 2010, 2:35:18 AM8/8/10
to efloraofindia
Is it from is from Anacardiaceae?
regards,
Dr.Kadus Arvind,Pune.

On Aug 8, 11:19 am, raghu ananth <raghu_...@yahoo.com> wrote:
> Correction :  Pls read the fruit shape as obovate.
>
> ________________________________
> From: raghu ananth <raghu_...@yahoo.com>

Pankaj Kumar

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Aug 8, 2010, 12:22:10 PM8/8/10
to Dr. Arvind Kadus, efloraofindia
Aesculus by any chance? Family Sapindaceae.
Pankaj

Gurcharan Singh

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Aug 8, 2010, 1:09:42 PM8/8/10
to Pankaj Kumar, Dr. Arvind Kadus, efloraofindia
This Jaipur is creating problems. Raghu ji please write Joypur (Assam) in your communications. My first reaction was also Aesculus  indica but kept quite when I read Jaipur, a hot tropical area in Rajasthan.


-- 
Dr. Gurcharan Singh
Retired  Associate Professor
SGTB Khalsa College, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007
Res: 932 Anand Kunj, Vikas Puri, New Delhi-110018.
Phone: 011-25518297  Mob: 9810359089
http://people.du.ac.in/~singhg45/ 

Gurcharan Singh

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Sep 11, 2010, 9:38:37 AM9/11/10
to efloraofindia, Dr. Pankaj Kumar

Resurfacing again for ID

Most probably Aesculus indica

Raghu ji please confirm the place and altitude,


-- 
Dr. Gurcharan Singh
Retired  Associate Professor
SGTB Khalsa College, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007
Res: 932 Anand Kunj, Vikas Puri, New Delhi-110018.
Phone: 011-25518297  Mob: 9810359089
http://people.du.ac.in/~singhg45/ 
---------- Forwarded message ----------
From: raghu ananth <ragh...@yahoo.com>
Date: Sat, Aug 7, 2010 at 10:43 PM
Subject: [efloraofindia:43738] Fruiting tree for ID from Jaipur forest | 08Aug10AR01
DSC_4245b.jpg
DSC_4246c.jpg
DSC_4247d.jpg
DSC_4249a.jpg
DSC_4262e.jpg

J.M. Garg

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Oct 15, 2010, 9:22:59 AM10/15/10
to efloraofindia, raghu ananth, Dr. Pankaj Kumar, arvind kadus, Pravir, Dr. M. K. Pathak, Ritesh Kumar Choudhary

Forwarding again for Id assistance pl.

Earlier relevant feedback:

“Is it from is from Anacardiaceae?
regards,
Dr.Kadus Arvind,Pune”
 

“Aesculus by any chance? Family Sapindaceae.
Pankaj”



---------- Forwarded message ----------
From: raghu ananth <ragh...@yahoo.com>
Date: 8 August 2010 11:13
Subject: [efloraofindia:43738] Fruiting tree for ID from Jaipur forest | 08Aug10AR01
To: indian...@googlegroups.com





--
With regards,
J.M.Garg (jmg...@gmail.com)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User:Jmgarg1
'Creating awareness of Indian Flora & Fauna'
The whole world uses my Image Resource of more than a thousand species & eight thousand images of Birds, Butterflies, Plants etc. (arranged alphabetically & place-wise): http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:J.M.Garg. You can also use them for free as per liberal licensing conditions attached with each image.
For identification, learning, discussion & documentation of Indian Flora, please visit/ join our Google e-group- Efloraofindia:http://groups.google.co.in/group/indiantreepix (more than 1400 members & 50,000 messages on 10/10/10 & with a database of around 4100 species on 31/8/10)

DSC_4245b.jpg
DSC_4246c.jpg
DSC_4247d.jpg
DSC_4249a.jpg
DSC_4262e.jpg

Pankaj Kumar

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Oct 15, 2010, 10:55:15 AM10/15/10
to J.M. Garg, efloraofindia, raghu ananth, arvind kadus, Pravir, Dr. M. K. Pathak, Ritesh Kumar Choudhary
Aesculus indica.
Pankaj
--
***********************************************
"TAXONOMISTS GETTING EXTINCT AND SPECIES DATA DEFICIENT !!"


Pankaj Kumar Ph.D. (Orchidaceae)
Research Associate
Greater Kailash Sacred Landscape Project
Department of Habitat Ecology
Wildlife Institute of India
Post Box # 18
Dehradun - 248001, India

mani nair

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Oct 15, 2010, 10:58:51 AM10/15/10
to Pankaj Kumar, J.M. Garg, efloraofindia, raghu ananth, arvind kadus, Pravir, Dr. M. K. Pathak, Ritesh Kumar Choudhary
Pankaj ji, are the fruits edible?   I have seen the fruits sold by tribals near Dombivli railway station.
 
Regards,
 
Mani.

Pankaj Kumar

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Oct 15, 2010, 11:02:48 AM10/15/10
to mani nair, J.M. Garg, efloraofindia, raghu ananth, arvind kadus, Pravir, Dr. M. K. Pathak, Ritesh Kumar Choudhary
If it is the same plant then I dont think it should be edible as the fruits of one of the species of Aesculus (Aesculus hippocastanum) are considered to be poisonous for horse. Its called HORSE CHEST NUT. Used in poisoning horse food.
Pankaj

mani nair

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Oct 15, 2010, 11:06:34 AM10/15/10
to Pankaj Kumar, J.M. Garg, efloraofindia, raghu ananth, arvind kadus, Pravir, Dr. M. K. Pathak, Ritesh Kumar Choudhary
The fruits looks like chikoo and watery on surface.  
 
Regards,
 
Mani.

Ritesh Choudhary

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Oct 15, 2010, 9:05:24 PM10/15/10
to efloraofindia
Dear Pankaj,

I am confused between Aesculus indica and A. assamica. Can u pl throw
some light on it??

Regards,
Ritesh.


On Oct 15, 8:06 pm, mani nair <mani.na...@gmail.com> wrote:
> The fruits looks like chikoo and watery on surface.
>
> Regards,
>
> Mani.
>
> On Fri, Oct 15, 2010 at 8:32 PM, Pankaj Kumar <sahanipan...@gmail.com>wrote:
>
>
>
> > If it is the same plant then I dont think it should be edible as the fruits
> > of one of the species of Aesculus (Aesculus hippocastanum) are considered
> > to be poisonous for horse. Its called HORSE CHEST NUT. Used
> > in poisoning horse food.
> > Pankaj
>
> > On Fri, Oct 15, 2010 at 8:28 PM, mani nair <mani.na...@gmail.com> wrote:
>
> >> Pankaj ji, are the fruits edible?   I have seen the fruits sold by tribals
> >> near Dombivli railway station.
>
> >> Regards,
>
> >> Mani.
>
> >>   On Fri, Oct 15, 2010 at 8:25 PM, Pankaj Kumar <sahanipan...@gmail.com>wrote:
>
> >>> *Aesculus indica.*
> >>> *Pankaj*
> >>>   *
> >>> *
> >>> On Fri, Oct 15, 2010 at 6:52 PM, J.M. Garg <jmga...@gmail.com> wrote:
>
> >>>> Forwarding again for Id assistance pl.
>
> >>>> Earlier relevant feedback:
> >>>> *“Is it from is from Anacardiaceae?
> >>>> *regards,
> >>>> Dr.Kadus Arvind,Pune”
>
> >>>> *“Aesculus by any chance? Family Sapindaceae.
> >>>> *Pankaj”
> >>>> J.M.Garg (jmga...@gmail.com)
> >>>>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User:Jmgarg1
> >>>> 'Creating awareness of Indian Flora & Fauna'
> >>>> The whole world uses my Image Resource of more than a *thousand species
> >>>> * & eight thousand images of Birds, Butterflies, Plants etc. (arranged
> >>>> alphabetically & place-wise):
> >>>>http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:J.M.Garg. You can also use
> >>>> them for free as per liberal licensing conditions attached with each
> >>>> image.
> >>>> For identification, learning, discussion & documentation of Indian
> >>>> Flora, please visit/ join our Google e-group- Efloraofindia:
> >>>>http://groups.google.co.in/group/indiantreepix(more than 1400 members
> >>>> & 50,000 messages on 10/10/10 & with a database of around 4100 species on
> >>>> 31/8/10)
>
> >>> --
> >>> ***********************************************
> >>> "TAXONOMISTS GETTING EXTINCT AND SPECIES DATA DEFICIENT !!"
>
> >>> Pankaj Kumar Ph.D. (Orchidaceae)
> >>> Research Associate
> >>> Greater Kailash Sacred Landscape Project
> >>> Department of Habitat Ecology
> >>> Wildlife Institute of India
> >>> Post Box # 18
> >>> Dehradun - 248001, India
>
> > --
> > ***********************************************
> > "TAXONOMISTS GETTING EXTINCT AND SPECIES DATA DEFICIENT !!"
>
> > Pankaj Kumar Ph.D. (Orchidaceae)
> > Research Associate
> > Greater Kailash Sacred Landscape Project
> > Department of Habitat Ecology
> > Wildlife Institute of India
> > Post Box # 18
> > Dehradun - 248001, India- Hide quoted text -
>
> - Show quoted text -

Gurcharan Singh

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Oct 15, 2010, 10:14:26 PM10/15/10
to Ritesh Choudhary, efloraofindia
Place and long petiole should confirm it as Aesculus assamica


-- 
Dr. Gurcharan Singh
Retired  Associate Professor
SGTB Khalsa College, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007
Res: 932 Anand Kunj, Vikas Puri, New Delhi-110018.
Phone: 011-25518297  Mob: 9810359089
http://people.du.ac.in/~singhg45/ 


On Fri, Oct 15, 2010 at 7:11 PM, Gurcharan Singh <sing...@gmail.com> wrote:
Ritesh ji
Here are the main differences

A. indica                                                                                A. assamina
Petiole 7-15 cm long                                                              Petiole 18-30 cm long
Terminal leaflet 12-25 cm, 4-7 cm broad                                  Terminal leaflet 20-35 cm long, 6-12 cm broad
Leaves submembranous                                                         Leaves subcoriaceous
Fruit 3.5-4.5 cm long                                                              Fruit 4.5-5 cm long



-- 
Dr. Gurcharan Singh
Retired  Associate Professor
SGTB Khalsa College, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007
Res: 932 Anand Kunj, Vikas Puri, New Delhi-110018.
Phone: 011-25518297  Mob: 9810359089
http://people.du.ac.in/~singhg45/ 
 

Gurcharan Singh

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Oct 15, 2010, 10:11:50 PM10/15/10
to Ritesh Choudhary, efloraofindia
Ritesh ji
Here are the main differences

A. indica                                                                                A. assamina
Petiole 7-15 cm long                                                              Petiole 18-30 cm long
Terminal leaflet 12-25 cm, 4-7 cm broad                                  Terminal leaflet 20-35 cm long, 6-12 cm broad
Leaves submembranous                                                         Leaves subcoriaceous
Fruit 3.5-4.5 cm long                                                              Fruit 4.5-5 cm long



-- 
Dr. Gurcharan Singh
Retired  Associate Professor
SGTB Khalsa College, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007
Res: 932 Anand Kunj, Vikas Puri, New Delhi-110018.
Phone: 011-25518297  Mob: 9810359089
http://people.du.ac.in/~singhg45/ 
 
On Fri, Oct 15, 2010 at 6:05 PM, Ritesh Choudhary <rites...@gmail.com> wrote:

J.M. Garg

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Oct 16, 2010, 12:31:16 AM10/16/10
to efloraofindia, raghu ananth, Dr. Pankaj Kumar, arvind kadus, Pravir, Dr. M. K. Pathak, Ritesh Kumar Choudhary
Some earlier reply:
"Dear Raghuji,
 
As per your description, the leaf edge is entire. But in DSC_4249a the leaf margin appears to me as Crenulate. Fruits are also not prickly or verrucose. So I suppose this plant to be Aesculus assamica (Hippocastanaceae).
 
Pl validate.
 
Regards,
Ritesh."

J.M. Garg

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Oct 16, 2010, 12:32:06 AM10/16/10
to efloraofindia, raghu ananth, Dr. Pankaj Kumar, arvind kadus, Pravir, Dr. M. K. Pathak, Ritesh Kumar Choudhary
Some earlier reply:
"I shall also go with Aesculus indica" from Dr. M.K.Pathak.

On 15 October 2010 18:52, J.M. Garg <jmg...@gmail.com> wrote:

Rashida Atthar

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Oct 16, 2010, 3:51:24 AM10/16/10
to J.M. Garg, efloraofindia, raghu ananth, Dr. Pankaj Kumar, arvind kadus, Pravir, Dr. M. K. Pathak, Ritesh Kumar Choudhary
Adding some info. from 'A pictorial guide to the plants of the Indian sub-continent' by Aima- wherein both the species of Aesculus  assamica, Griff. and Aesculus indica, Colebr. are described. In Etymology on pg 8 & pg 16 it is mentioned that Aesculus is from Greek esca - meaning  food; refering to the food value of the kernels- as  a flour was ground from the Kernels of some of the species; assamica refers to Assam, similarly indica refers to India.

A.assamica Griff. is described as a large deciduous tree with a hemispherical crown. Bark deep brown shining with irregular patches of grey -brown. Leaves digitately compound, leaflets upto 30 cm long, obtusely serrulate. Fruit a large leatherly capsule, 2-3 valved, seed solitary, 2.5- 3.5 cm across, testa hard shining. Distribution is mentioned as North-eastern region of India. Bark employed as a fish poison. Seeds yield a fatty oil.
 
A. indica Colebr. is described as  a large deciduous tree, trunk short, attaining a large girth. wood white, soft Buds scaly. Leaves opposite, digitate, leaflets 5-9, the central ones largest, acuminate, sharply serrate.Fruit a capsule. Seeds exalbuminous, dark brown, smooth shining. Cotyledons thick, fleshy. Distributionis N.W. Himalaya 4000-9000 ft. Kullu, Chamba, Kumaon, Tehri- Garhwal, and Kashmir. Leaves and twigs are used as fodder. Fruits edible. Wood is also used for mathematical scales and packing cases.   

After going through the comparison and having seen in flowering stage A. assamica at Shillong, I think this one is A. assamica although a close up of the bark would help in this case.   

regards,
Rashida.     

Pankaj Kumar

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Oct 16, 2010, 3:44:20 PM10/16/10
to J.M. Garg, efloraofindia, raghu ananth, arvind kadus, Pravir, Dr. M. K. Pathak, Ritesh Kumar Choudhary
Few things I would like to add.

1. Esculentus means edible, hence Aesculus should mean non-edible.
Going with Ms. Rashida's explaination also if ESCA means food, A -
ESCA should mean "NOT A FOOD" in other words 'POISONOUS'. But there
are ways to cook poisonous plants and animals and Japanese along with
Chinese are known to excel it and even some indian tribals may excel
and they might have passed it over to others.

2. There are two Aesculus indica of which the first one below is
invalid according to ICBN. Secondly Aesculus indica has two more
varieties, A. i. var. sydney and A. i. var. concolor and obviously A.
i. var indica.

a. Aesculus indica Colebr. ex Wall. Numer. List [Wallich] n. 1181.
1829 (INVALID)

b. Aesculus indica (Wall. ex Jacquem.) Hook.f. Bot. Mag. 85: t. 5117.
1859 [1 May 1859]
Syn: Pavia indica Wall. ex Jacquem. Voy. Inde [Jacquemont] 4: 31. 1844.

I am attaching few pictures of herbarium sheets from Kew. The size of
the digital herbarium is equal to the size of the sheet (297 mm x 420
mm) so by putting the pic at 100% and using some scale on the screen
you can take measurements. There is a softwares too to measure
distance between two points on pictures.

Anyways, only difference which is evident to me is of longer petiole
(comparatively) in A. assamica. Hence with longer petiole in mind the
present picture shared n the thread should be of A. assamica as Ms.
Rashida claims. At the same time eflora of China says leaflets usually
petiolulate in A. assamica of 0.5 - 1.5 cm. Which is evident in the
picture. The two illustrations provided by them seems to differ. But
frankly, I couldnt come to any conclusion with all these.

Description from eflora of China for Aesculus assamica:

Trees to 32 m tall, to 0.6 m d.b.h. Branchlets glabrous, subglabrous,
or puberulent when young. Petiole 8-30 cm, glabrous, subglabrous, or
puberulent; leaf blade 5-9-foliolate; petiolules 0.3-1.5 cm (leaflets
rarely subsessile), glabrous, subglabrous, or sparsely puberulent and
dark glandular when young; leaflet blades oblong-lanceolate to
oblong-oblanceolate, rarely lanceolate to oblanceolate or narrowly so,
(7-)12-35(-42) × (3-)5-18 cm, abaxially glabrous, or puberulent or
pilose on veins when young, base cuneate or broadly so or rounded,
margin crenulate to serrulate, apex acuminate to caudate; lateral
veins in 17-30 pairs. Inflorescence pale yellow puberulent; peduncle
7-13 cm; thyrse cylindric, (22-)27-45 cm, 5-14 cm wide at base;
branches 2-7 cm, 3-11-flowered; pedicels 3-7 mm. Flowers fragrant.
Calyx 4-8 mm, abaxially gray or pale yellowish gray puberulent or
finely gray velutinous. Petals 4, white or pale yellow, with purple or
brown spots, sometimes orange toward base or claw reddish, unequal, 2
spatulate to oblong and 2 oblong-obovate or obovate, 13-22 × 3-7 mm,
abaxially gray puberulent or velutinous. Stamens 5-7, 18-40 mm;
filament glabrous; anther 1.5-3 mm. Style glabrous, subglabrous,
sparsely puberulent, or tomentose. Capsule yellowish brown, ovoid to
obovoid, subglobose, or depressed globose, 4.5-5 × 3-7.5 cm, dotted
but smooth; pericarp 1.5-2 mm thick after drying. Seed usually 1,
brown, globose, subglobose, or depressed globose, 3-7 cm in diam.;
hilum white, occupying ca. 1/2 (rarely ca. 1/3) of seed. Fl.
(Jan-)Feb-May, fr. Jun-Nov.

Aesculus indica from Flora of British India

Leaflets usually 7 acuminate delicately serrate submembraneous
distinctly petioluled, panicles oblong nearly equalling or exceeding
the leaves, flowers secund.

Further: A fine tree of 60-70 feet in height and 10-15 inch in girt,
with glabrous terete branches. Leaves glabrous; leaflets unequal, the
terminal one 5-9 by 1.5 - 3 inch, the lateral ones smalled; common
petiole 3-6 inch, thickened at the base, sulcate above; petiolules
ranging to 5/6 inch. Calyx tubular, 1/3 inch long, frequently
splitting as the flowers open; lobes short, rounded. Petals 4, white
with red and yellow, the place of the fifth vacant. Capsule ovoid or
subpyriform, reddish-brown, without spines, rather rough, 1-2 inch,
long. Seed dark. The interior of the seeds es eater in Himalayas
according to Dr. ROyle, in time of famine, cattle habitually eat them.
The dark peels off in long strips; the wood is light coloured and
easily worked. The fruit is officinal, being applies externally for
rheumatism. The leaves are lopped for winter fodder in the Himalaya.

Found this from WIKIPEDIA for Aesculus hippocastanum, may be
applicable to other species too, but cant be sure:
The nuts, especially those that are young and fresh, are slightly
poisonous, containing alkaloid saponins and glucosides. Although not
dangerous to touch, they cause sickness when eaten. Some mammals,
notably deer, are able to break down the toxins and eat them safely.
They are reputed to be good for horses with wind, but this is unproven
and feeding them to horses is not advisable. The saponin aescin (a
complex mixture of triterpene glycosides), however, has been used for
health purposes (such as varicose veins, edema, sprains) and is
available in food supplements, as is the coumarin glucoside aesculin.

Regards
Pankaj

On Sun, Oct 17, 2010 at 1:12 AM, Pankaj Kumar <sahani...@gmail.com> wrote:
> Few things I would like to add.
>
> 1. Esculentus means edible, hence Aesculus should mean non-edible.
> Going with Ms. Rashida's explaination also if ESCA means food, A -
> ESCA should mean "NOT A FOOD" in other words 'POISONOUS'. But there
> are ways to cook poisonous plants and animals and Japanese along with
> Chinese are known to excel it and even some indian tribals may excel
> and they might have passed it over to others.
>
> 2. There are two Aesculus indica of which the first one below is
> invalid according to ICBN. Secondly Aesculus indica has two more
> varieties, A. i. var. sydney and A. i. var. concolor and obviously A.
> i. var indica.
>
> a. Aesculus indica Colebr. ex Wall. Numer. List [Wallich] n. 1181.
> 1829 (INVALID)
>
> b. Aesculus indica (Wall. ex Jacquem.) Hook.f. Bot. Mag. 85: t. 5117.
> 1859 [1 May 1859]
>    Syn: Pavia indica Wall. ex Jacquem. Voy. Inde [Jacquemont] 4: 31. 1844.
>
> I am attaching few pictures of herbarium sheets from Kew. The size of
> the digital herbarium is equal to the size of the sheet (297 mm x 420
> mm) so by putting the pic at 100% and using some scale on the screen
> you can take measurements. There is a softwares too to measure
> distance between two points on pictures.
>
> Anyways, only difference which is evident to me is of longer petiole
> (comparatively) in A. assamica. Hence with longer petiole in mind the
> present picture shared n the thread should be of A. assamica as Ms.
> Rashida claims. At the same time eflora of China says leaflets usually
> petiolulate in A. assamica of 0.5 - 1.5 cm. Which is evident in the
> picture. The two illustrations provided by them seems to differ. But
> frankly, I couldnt come to any conclusion with all these.
>
> Description from eflora of China for Aesculus assamica:
>
> Trees to 32 m tall, to 0.6 m d.b.h. Branchlets glabrous, subglabrous,
> or puberulent when young. Petiole 8-30 cm, glabrous, subglabrous, or
> puberulent; leaf blade 5-9-foliolate; petiolules 0.3-1.5 cm (leaflets
> rarely subsessile), glabrous, subglabrous, or sparsely puberulent and
> dark glandular when young; leaflet blades oblong-lanceolate to
> oblong-oblanceolate, rarely lanceolate to oblanceolate or narrowly so,
> (7-)12-35(-42) × (3-)5-18 cm, abaxially glabrous, or puberulent or
> pilose on veins when young, base cuneate or broadly so or rounded,
> margin crenulate to serrulate, apex acuminate to caudate; lateral
> veins in 17-30 pairs. Inflorescence pale yellow puberulent; peduncle
> 7-13 cm; thyrse cylindric, (22-)27-45 cm, 5-14 cm wide at base;
> branches 2-7 cm, 3-11-flowered; pedicels 3-7 mm. Flowers fragrant.
> Calyx 4-8 mm, abaxially gray or pale yellowish gray puberulent or
> finely gray velutinous. Petals 4, white or pale yellow, with purple or
> brown spots, sometimes orange toward base or claw reddish, unequal, 2
> spatulate to oblong and 2 oblong-obovate or obovate, 13-22 × 3-7 mm,
> abaxially gray puberulent or velutinous. Stamens 5-7, 18-40 mm;
> filament glabrous; anther 1.5-3 mm. Style glabrous, subglabrous,
> sparsely puberulent, or tomentose. Capsule yellowish brown, ovoid to
> obovoid, subglobose, or depressed globose, 4.5-5 × 3-7.5 cm, dotted
> but smooth; pericarp 1.5-2 mm thick after drying. Seed usually 1,
> brown, globose, subglobose, or depressed globose, 3-7 cm in diam.;
> hilum white, occupying ca. 1/2 (rarely ca. 1/3) of seed. Fl.
> (Jan-)Feb-May, fr. Jun-Nov.
>
> Aesculus indica from Flora of British India
>
> Leaflets usually 7 acuminate delicately serrate submembraneous
> distinctly petioluled, panicles oblong nearly equalling or exceeding
> the leaves, flowers secund.
>
> Further: A fine tree of 60-70 feet in height and 10-15 inch in girt,
> with glabrous terete branches. Leaves glabrous; leaflets unequal, the
> terminal one 5-9 by 1.5 - 3 inch, the lateral ones smalled; common
> petiole 3-6 inch, thickened at the base, sulcate above; petiolules
> ranging to 5/6 inch. Calyx tubular, 1/3 inch long, frequently
> splitting as the flowers open; lobes short, rounded. Petals 4, white
> with red and yellow, the place of the fifth vacant. Capsule ovoid or
> subpyriform, reddish-brown, without spines, rather rough, 1-2 inch,
> long. Seed dark. The interior of the seeds es eater in Himalayas
> according to Dr. ROyle, in time of famine, cattle habitually eat them.
> The dark peels off in long strips; the wood is light coloured and
> easily worked. The fruit is officinal, being applies externally for
> rheumatism. The leaves are lopped for winter fodder in the Himalaya.
>
> Found this from WIKIPEDIA for Aesculus hippocastanum, may be
> applicable to other species too, but cant be sure:
> The nuts, especially those that are young and fresh, are slightly
> poisonous, containing alkaloid saponins and glucosides. Although not
> dangerous to touch, they cause sickness when eaten. Some mammals,
> notably deer, are able to break down the toxins and eat them safely.
> They are reputed to be good for horses with wind, but this is unproven
> and feeding them to horses is not advisable. The saponin aescin (a
> complex mixture of triterpene glycosides), however, has been used for
> health purposes (such as varicose veins, edema, sprains) and is
> available in food supplements, as is the coumarin glucoside aesculin.
>
> Regards
> Pankaj

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