I do not know much, but what i could apprehend is 1) cultivation of jute needs much water that Gangetic Bengal Province could provide those days, 2) extraction of jute fibres from stems (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jute_cultivation#Retting
) again need much water, 3) river Hooghly played a vital role for transportation of raw jute and jute products, 4) today's Bangladesh produced best quality jutes, for optimum temp. and humidity along with soil quality, 4) British cnetred all their activities in Calcutta.
Besides, i think Maharashtra and Gujarat were more suitable for cotton production and they provided all cotton textiles to entire India. Of late jute lost its importance and states might have found it was not feasible to produce jute.
As i searched the net, while preparing my Sunday special i read Andhra produced majority of jute seeds.
This much i do know.
Thank you and regards,