It is Morinda citrifolia.
M.pubescens [M.tomentosa] has hairy [tomentose] leaves whereas in M.citrifolia they are larger and glabrous. Also M.citrifolia has fragrant flowes.
Incidentally M.tinctoria is not found in the Borivali N.P. and is cultivated more along the coast.
--- On Tue, 6/16/09, J.M. Garg <jmg...@gmail.com> wrote:
I think, the images belong to M. tinctoria.
M. citrifolia: has smooth, shiny and light green leaves. The leaves have citric smell and fruits are not that precisely lobed as seen in M. tinctoria.
M. tomentosa : the leaves are a bit bigger in size compared to M. tinctoria. Leaves of M. tomentosa are tomentose I.e. with smooth hairs/ velvety. The texture is very soft.
M. tinctoria: the leaves are shiny but darker and not as smooth or glabrous as M. citrifolia or not as velvety as M. tomentosa.
M. tinctoria is very common around and is wild. I am seeing M. tinctoria in Borivali NP since 7 years. M. tomentosa is also seen wild mixed with M. tinctoria.
And hey, there can’t be any rule to the number of fruit ends i.e. no hard and fast rule on the 12 ends. It should be a misconception that baratondi should always have 12 ends. I have seen M. tinctoria with more than 14 ends and less than 12 ends also.
Cultivation: M. tinctoria and M. tomentosa are wild and common in forests. M. citrifolia I think is the cultivated one as I have seen this species only in gardens (there is one in byculla zoo also, checkout)
Experts correct me if I am wrong ;)
(the unemployed plant explorer ;)
Morinda tinctoria, commonly known as Aal or Indian Mulberry (though these common names also refer to Morinda citrifolia), is a species of flowering plant in the family Rubiaceae, native to southern Asia.
It is an evergreen shrub or small tree growing to 5-10 m tall. The leaves are 15-25 cm long, oblong to lanceolate. The flowers are tubular, white, scented, about 2 cm long. The fruit is a green syncarp, 2-2.5 cm diameter.
The plant is extensively cultivated in India in order to make the morindone dye sold under the trade name "Suranji". Morindone is used for the dyeing of cotton, silk and wool in shades of red, chocolate or purple. The colouring matter is found principally in the root bark and is collected when the plants reach three to four years of age. If the trees are allowed to mature then hardly any colouring substance remains. The small roots yield the most dye and those above about 1 cm diameter are discarded. The active substance is extracted as the glucoside known as morindin that upon hydrolysis produces the dye. Morindone is a mordant dye giving a yellowish-red colour with an aluminium mordant, chocolate with a chromium mordant, and dull purple to black with an iron mordant.
Morindin is also present in Morinda umbellata but not in Morinda longiflora, a native of West Africa. Although imported into Britain and applied to wool and cotton, the dye did not find commercial success.
Spoke to Dr.Almeida.
-the original M.tinctoria [of Linnaeus] is not found in the Boriivali N.P. It is cultivated for its dye near Nagpur.
-the M.tinctoria [of other authors] is actually M.tinctoria var.tomentosa which is now included in M.pubescencs.
-M.citrifolia is a coastal species, but in Bombay 2 specimens can be seen at the Zoo and at the Prince of Wales Museum.
These references are included in Dr.Almeida's ' Flora of Maharashtra' Vol 3.
--- On Wed, 6/17/09, satish pardeshi <satishp...@gmail.com> wrote: