Morinda citrifolia (Noni)

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J.M. Garg

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Jun 15, 2009, 11:17:30 PM6/15/09
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Tree I saw in Guntur, A.P. It was flowering on 28/4/09 & it's jasmine like smell attracted me towards it. I found the flower heads & fruits quite interesting in shape.
I hope Id is OK.
--
With regards,
J.M.Garg
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'Creating awareness of Indian Flora & Fauna'
Image Resource of thousands of my images of Birds, Butterflies, Flora etc. (arranged alphabetically & place-wise): http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:J.M.Garg
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Morinda citrifolia (Noni) is it- in Guntur, AP I2 IMG_8134.jpg
Morinda citrifolia (Noni) is it- in Guntur, AP I3 IMG_8127.jpg
Morinda citrifolia (Noni) is it- in Guntur, AP I IMG_8125.jpg
Morinda citrifolia (Noni) is it- in Guntur, AP I IMG_8132.jpg
Morinda citrifolia (Noni) is it- in Guntur, AP I IMG_8135.jpg

Prashant awale

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Jun 15, 2009, 11:32:57 PM6/15/09
to J.M. Garg, indiantreepix
Dear Garg Ji,

Good snaps. I think this should be  "Morinda pubescens". We call it "Baratondi" due to around 12+ buldges on its fruit..

best wishes
Prashant..

J.M. Garg

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Jun 16, 2009, 11:42:14 AM6/16/09
to Prashant awale, indiantreepix
Thanks, Prashant ji.
How to differentiate between two species i.e. Morinda pubescens & Morinda citrifolia? They look similar to me while going through Shrikant ji's book.

2009/6/16 Prashant awale <pka...@gmail.com>

drneil...@yahoo.com

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Jun 16, 2009, 1:16:13 PM6/16/09
to J.M. Garg, indian...@googlegroups.com
Hi Mr.Garg,
 It is Morinda citrifolia.
M.pubescens [M.tomentosa] has hairy [tomentose] leaves whereas in M.citrifolia they are larger and glabrous. Also M.citrifolia has fragrant flowes.
 Incidentally M.tinctoria is not found in the Borivali N.P. and is cultivated more along the coast.
               With regards,
                 Neil Soares.

--- On Tue, 6/16/09, J.M. Garg <jmg...@gmail.com> wrote:

Madhuri Pejaver

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Jun 16, 2009, 1:55:47 PM6/16/09
to Prashant awale, J.M. Garg, indiantreepix

I feel it is not batondi as what is told by prashanji, because in bartondi the fruits can be seen isolated, instead it looks like custerdapple all joined togather. only seperate areas can be marked.
whereas in the nphotos sent though the fruits are in cluster we can distingwish the fruits in that etario.
what i feel it is Noni
sorry for not able to tell sps as i am not a expert, niether have time and references at hand.
madhuri
Explore and discover exciting holidays and getaways with Yahoo! India Travel http://in.travel.yahoo.com/

Hemanth

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Jun 16, 2009, 3:02:54 PM6/16/09
to drneil...@yahoo.com, J.M. Garg, indian...@googlegroups.com

 

I think, the images belong to M. tinctoria.

 

M. citrifolia: has smooth, shiny and light green leaves. The leaves have citric smell and fruits are not that precisely lobed as seen in M. tinctoria.

M. tomentosa : the leaves are a bit bigger in size compared to M. tinctoria. Leaves of M. tomentosa are tomentose I.e. with smooth hairs/ velvety. The texture is very soft.

M. tinctoria: the leaves are shiny but darker and not as smooth or glabrous as M. citrifolia or not as velvety as M. tomentosa.

 

M. tinctoria is very common around and is wild. I am seeing M. tinctoria in Borivali NP since 7 years. M. tomentosa is also seen wild mixed with M. tinctoria.

 

And hey, there can’t be any rule to the number of fruit ends i.e. no hard and fast rule on the 12 ends. It should be a misconception that baratondi should always have 12 ends. I have seen M. tinctoria with more than 14 ends and less than 12 ends also.

 

Cultivation: M. tinctoria and M. tomentosa are wild and common in forests. M. citrifolia I think is the cultivated one as I have seen this species only in gardens (there is one in byculla zoo also, checkout)

 

Experts correct me if I am wrong ;)

 

-          Hemanth

(the unemployed plant explorer ;)

J.M. Garg

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Jun 16, 2009, 10:42:13 PM6/16/09
to Hemanth, drneil...@yahoo.com, indian...@googlegroups.com
Thanks, Prashanth ji, Neil ji, Madhuri ji & Hemath ji for the feedback.
 
Here are some extracts from Wikipedia link:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Morinda_tinctoria

Morinda tinctoria, commonly known as Aal or Indian Mulberry (though these common names also refer to Morinda citrifolia), is a species of flowering plant in the family Rubiaceae, native to southern Asia.

It is an evergreen shrub or small tree growing to 5-10 m tall. The leaves are 15-25 cm long, oblong to lanceolate. The flowers are tubular, white, scented, about 2 cm long. The fruit is a green syncarp, 2-2.5 cm diameter.

The plant is extensively cultivated in India in order to make the morindone dye sold under the trade name "Suranji". Morindone is used for the dyeing of cotton, silk and wool in shades of red, chocolate or purple. The colouring matter is found principally in the root bark and is collected when the plants reach three to four years of age. If the trees are allowed to mature then hardly any colouring substance remains. The small roots yield the most dye and those above about 1 cm diameter are discarded. The active substance is extracted as the glucoside known as morindin that upon hydrolysis produces the dye. Morindone is a mordant dye giving a yellowish-red colour with an aluminium mordant, chocolate with a chromium mordant, and dull purple to black with an iron mordant.

Morindin is also present in Morinda umbellata but not in Morinda longiflora, a native of West Africa. Although imported into Britain and applied to wool and cotton, the dye did not find commercial success.


2009/6/17 Hemanth <hemanth...@gmail.com>

satish pardeshi

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Jun 17, 2009, 2:05:09 AM6/17/09
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Hello all
this plant seems to me as Morinda citrifolia, the reason being
1. Glossy and glabrous leaves and petiole
2. corolla lobes not hairy.
hence it is M. citrifolia L.
also as far as i have observed the fruit of M. citrifolia become
yellow when ripe. where as that of M. tinctoria first becomes yellow
then turns to blackish.
and Yes M. tinctoria is common in Sanjay Gandhi National Park,
Borivali.

regards
Satish Pardeshi
Consultant-Taxonomist
GSDG, CDAC, Pune

J.M. Garg wrote:
> Thanks, Prashanth ji, Neil ji, Madhuri ji & Hemath ji for the feedback.
>
> Here are some extracts from Wikipedia link:
> http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Morinda_tinctoria
>
> *Morinda tinctoria*, commonly known as *Aal* or *Indian Mulberry* (though
> these common names also refer to *Morinda
> citrifolia<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Morinda_citrifolia>
> *), is a species of flowering
> plant<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flowering_plant>in the family
> Rubiaceae <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rubiaceae>, native to southern
> Asia<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asia>
> .
>
> It is an evergreen <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evergreen>
> shrub<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shrub>or small
> tree <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tree> growing to 5-10 m tall. The
> leaves<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leaf>are 15-25 cm long, oblong to
> lanceolate. The
> flowers <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flower> are tubular, white, scented,
> about 2 cm long. The fruit <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fruit> is a green
> syncarp<http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Syncarp&action=edit&redlink=1>,
> 2-2.5 cm diameter.
>
> The plant is extensively cultivated in
> India<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/India>in order to make the
> morindone <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Morindone> dye sold under the trade
> name "Suranji". Morindone is used for the dyeing of
> cotton<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cotton>,
> silk <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Silk> and
> wool<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wool>in shades of red, chocolate or
> purple. The colouring matter is found
> principally in the root bark and is collected when the plants reach three to
> four years of age. If the trees are allowed to mature then hardly any
> colouring substance remains. The small roots yield the most dye and those
> above about 1 cm diameter are discarded. The active substance is extracted
> as the glucoside <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glucoside> known as
> morindin<http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Morindin&action=edit&redlink=1>that
> upon
> hydrolysis <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydrolysis> produces the dye.
> Morindone is a mordant dye <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mordant> giving a
> yellowish-red colour with an aluminium mordant, chocolate with a chromium
> mordant, and dull purple to black with an iron mordant.
>
> Morindin is also present in *Morinda umbellata* but not in *Morinda
> longiflora*, a native of West Africa<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/West_Africa>.
> Although imported into Britain <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/UK> and applied
> to wool and cotton, the dye did not find commercial success.
>
> 2009/6/17 Hemanth <hemanth...@gmail.com>
>
> >
> >
> > I think, the images belong to *M. tinctoria.*
> >
> >
> >
> > *M. citrifolia:* has smooth, shiny and light green leaves. The leaves have
> > citric smell and fruits are not that precisely lobed as seen in M.
> > tinctoria.
> >
> > *M. tomentosa :* the leaves are a bit bigger in size compared to M.
> > tinctoria. Leaves of M. tomentosa are tomentose I.e. with smooth hairs/
> > velvety. The texture is very soft.
> >
> > *M. tinctoria:* the leaves are shiny but darker and not as smooth or
> > glabrous as M. citrifolia or not as velvety as M. tomentosa.
> >
> > * *
> >
> > *M. tinctoria* is very common around and is wild. I am seeing *M.
> > tinctoria* in Borivali NP since 7 years. *M. tomentosa* is also seen wild
> > mixed with *M. tinctoria. *
> >
> >
> >
> > And hey, there can’t be any rule to the number of fruit ends i.e. no hard
> > and fast rule on the 12 ends. It should be a misconception that baratondi
> > should always have 12 ends. I have seen *M. tinctoria *with more than 14
> > ends and less than 12 ends also.
> >
> >
> >
> > Cultivation: *M. tinctoria* and *M. tomentosa* are wild and common in
> > forests. *M. citrifolia *I think is the cultivated one as I have seen this
> > species only in gardens (there is one in byculla zoo also, checkout)
> >
> >
> >
> > Experts correct me if I am wrong ;)
> >
> >
> >
> > - Hemanth
> >
> > (the unemployed plant explorer ;)
> >
> >
> >
> > *From:* indian...@googlegroups.com [mailto:
> > indian...@googlegroups.com] *On Behalf Of *drneil...@yahoo.com
> > *Sent:* Tuesday, June 16, 2009 10:46 PM
> > *To:* J.M. Garg
> > *Cc:* indian...@googlegroups.com
> > *Subject:* [indiantreepix:13277] Re: Morinda citrifolia (Noni)
> >
> >
> >
> > Hi Mr.Garg,
> >
> > It is Morinda citrifolia.
> >
> > M.pubescens [M.tomentosa] has hairy [tomentose] leaves whereas in
> > M.citrifolia they are larger and glabrous. Also M.citrifolia has fragrant
> > flowes.
> >
> > Incidentally M.tinctoria is not found in the Borivali N.P. and is
> > cultivated more along the coast.
> >
> > With regards,
> >
> > Neil Soares.
> >
> > --- On *Tue, 6/16/09, J.M. Garg <jmg...@gmail.com>* wrote:
> >
> >
> > From: J.M. Garg <jmg...@gmail.com>
> > Subject: [indiantreepix:13265] Re: Morinda citrifolia (Noni)
> > To: "Prashant awale" <pka...@gmail.com>
> > Cc: "indiantreepix" <indian...@googlegroups.com>
> > Date: Tuesday, June 16, 2009, 9:12 PM
> >
> > Thanks, Prashant ji.
> >
> > How to differentiate between two species i.e. *Morinda pubescens* & *Morinda
> > citrifolia? *They look similar to me while going through Shrikant ji's
> > book.
> >
> > 2009/6/16 Prashant awale <pka...@gmail.com<http://us.mc339.mail.yahoo.com/mc/compose?to=pka...@gmail.com>
> > >
> >
> > Dear Garg Ji,
> >
> > Good snaps. I think this should be "Morinda pubescens". We call it
> > "Baratondi" due to around 12+ buldges on its fruit..
> >
> > best wishes
> > Prashant..
> >
> > On Tue, Jun 16, 2009 at 8:47 AM, J.M. Garg <jmg...@gmail.com<http://us.mc339.mail.yahoo.com/mc/compose?to=jmg...@gmail.com>>

Pankaj Oudhia

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Jun 17, 2009, 3:49:04 AM6/17/09
to indian...@googlegroups.com
Link to Hindi article written few years back on 'Noni Mafia"

http://ecoport.org/ep?SearchType=reference&ReferenceID=557425

You can download article from this link.


Pankaj Oudhia

http://knol.google.com/k/pankaj-oudhia/pankaj-oudhia/3nerdtj3s9l79/1

drneil...@yahoo.com

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Jun 17, 2009, 9:03:05 AM6/17/09
to satish pardeshi, indian...@googlegroups.com
Hi,
 Spoke to Dr.Almeida.
 
-the original M.tinctoria [of Linnaeus] is not found in the Boriivali N.P. It is cultivated for its dye near Nagpur.
-the M.tinctoria [of other authors] is actually M.tinctoria var.tomentosa which is now included in M.pubescencs.
-M.citrifolia is a coastal species, but in Bombay 2 specimens can be seen at the Zoo and at the Prince of Wales Museum.
 
These references are included in Dr.Almeida's ' Flora of Maharashtra'  Vol 3.
                  
                                         With regards,
                                           Neil Soares. 

--- On Wed, 6/17/09, satish pardeshi <satishp...@gmail.com> wrote:

Swapna Prabhu

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Jun 17, 2009, 11:12:04 AM6/17/09
to drneil...@yahoo.com, indian...@googlegroups.com
Thanks a lot, Dr. Soares,

I was just waiting for this second point to be pronounced. It makes some sense now.

- Swapna
--
Dr. Swapna Prabhu
Systematic Botanist/ Taxonomist
Bombay Natural History Society
Hornbil House, Shahid Bhagat Singh Marg
Dr. Salim Ali Chawk
Mumbai - 400 001.
India.

Prashant awale

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Jun 18, 2009, 12:05:33 AM6/18/09
to indiantreepix
Dear Friends,

Do have a look at this photo too. (Photographed at Mumbai, Chembur).

Thanks & best wishes
Prashant.
Bartondi-Morinda .JPG

Rajesh Sachdev

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Jun 18, 2009, 2:09:17 AM6/18/09
to indiantreepix
Hi Prashant,
is the photograph of bartondi posted by you of baratondi , the recent one. Because I am observing these planst from last month or so, but haven't seen the flowers on it.

2009/6/18 Prashant awale <pka...@gmail.com>



--

Regards
Rajesh Sachdev
------------------------------------------------------------
www.rajesh-sachdev.blogspot.com

Usha Desai

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Jun 20, 2009, 12:29:56 PM6/20/09
to indian...@googlegroups.com
Hi Dr.Neil & Swapna
can you reply to my querry..what is found in CEC?
Morinda ????
---------- Forwarded message ----------
From: Usha Desai <ushan...@gmail.com>
Date: 18 Jun 2009 13:37
Subject: Re: [indiantreepix:13342] Re: Morinda citrifolia (Noni)
To: Swapna Prabhu swapna...@gmail.com
 
Hi Swapna
I am still confused. Is Dr.Neil trying to say that
Morinda tinctoria var tomentosa is now labelled
as a new species called  Morinda pubescence?
Cheers Usha..and by the way Rajesh, Baratondi
blooms throught the year and Neilji, flowers are
fragrant.go to CEC to confirm

 

Dinesh Valke

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Jun 20, 2009, 12:38:47 PM6/20/09
to Usha Desai, indian...@googlegroups.com
... arresting typo that is being carried forward:  pubescens, not pubescence.
Regards.

sibdas

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Jun 20, 2009, 1:29:28 PM6/20/09
to indiantreepix
May I add some more words to the long discussion? A group of red,
yellow, chocolate , pink dyes are obtained from the secondary
metabolites- Anthraquinones from different members of Rubiaceae, One
member of this group Morindin (glycoside of Morindon) is obtained from
some species of Morinda, including M. citrifolia. It is extracted from
young root bark. The dye is used for colouring cotton and wool.
However, its commercial use was not a success , as the glycoside
content is very low (0.3% of dry wt.). However, in root tissue culture
the content grows much higher (upto 18%) and has been successfully
exploited for commercial use in some countries as Japan and Canada. I
have no idea whether it is being also tried in India.

On Jun 17, 7:42 am, "J.M. Garg" <jmga...@gmail.com> wrote:
> Thanks, Prashanth ji, Neil ji, Madhuri ji & Hemath ji for the feedback.
>
> Here are some extracts from Wikipedia link:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Morinda_tinctoria
>
> *Morinda tinctoria*, commonly known as *Aal* or *Indian Mulberry* (though
> these common names also refer to *Morinda
> citrifolia<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Morinda_citrifolia>
> *), is a species of flowering
> tree <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tree> growing to 5-10 m tall. The
> leaves<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leaf>are 15-25 cm long, oblong to
> lanceolate. The
> flowers <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flower> are tubular, white, scented,
> 2-2.5 cm diameter.
>
> The plant is extensively cultivated in
> India<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/India>in order to make the
> morindone <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Morindone> dye sold under the trade
> name "Suranji". Morindone is used for the dyeing of
> wool<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wool>in shades of red, chocolate or
> purple. The colouring matter is found
> principally in the root bark and is collected when the plants reach three to
> four years of age. If the trees are allowed to mature then hardly any
> colouring substance remains. The small roots yield the most dye and those
> above about 1 cm diameter are discarded. The active substance is extracted
> hydrolysis <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydrolysis> produces the dye.
> Morindone is a mordant dye <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mordant> giving a
> yellowish-red colour with an aluminium mordant, chocolate with a chromium
> mordant, and dull purple to black with an iron mordant.
>
> Morindin is also present in *Morinda umbellata* but not in *Morinda
> longiflora*, a native of West Africa<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/West_Africa>.
> Although imported into Britain <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/UK> and applied
> to wool and cotton, the dye did not find commercial success.
>
> 2009/6/17 Hemanth <hemanthtripa...@gmail.com>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
> > I think, the images belong to *M. tinctoria.*
>
> > *M. citrifolia:* has smooth, shiny and light green leaves. The leaves have
> > citric smell and fruits are not that precisely lobed as seen in M.
> > tinctoria.
>
> > *M. tomentosa :* the leaves are a bit bigger in size compared to M.
> > tinctoria. Leaves of M. tomentosa are tomentose I.e. with smooth hairs/
> > velvety. The texture is very soft.
>
> > *M. tinctoria:* the leaves are shiny but darker and not as smooth or
> > glabrous as M. citrifolia or not as velvety as M. tomentosa.
>
> > * *
>
> > *M. tinctoria* is very common around and is wild. I am seeing *M.
> > tinctoria* in Borivali NP since 7 years. *M. tomentosa* is also seen wild
> > mixed with *M. tinctoria. *
>
> > And hey, there can’t be any rule to the number of fruit ends i.e. no hard
> > and fast rule on the 12 ends. It should be a misconception that baratondi
> > should always have 12 ends. I have seen *M. tinctoria *with more than 14
> > ends and less than 12 ends also.
>
> > Cultivation: *M. tinctoria* and *M. tomentosa* are wild and common in
> > forests. *M. citrifolia *I think is the cultivated one as I have seen this
> > species only in gardens (there is one in byculla zoo also, checkout)
>
> > Experts correct me if I am wrong ;)
>
> > -          Hemanth
>
> > (the unemployed plant explorer ;)
>
> > *From:* indian...@googlegroups.com [mailto:
> > indian...@googlegroups.com] *On Behalf Of *drneilsoa...@yahoo.com
> > *Sent:* Tuesday, June 16, 2009 10:46 PM
> > *To:* J.M. Garg
> > *Cc:* indian...@googlegroups.com
> > *Subject:* [indiantreepix:13277] Re: Morinda citrifolia (Noni)
>
> > Hi Mr.Garg,
>
> >  It is Morinda citrifolia.
>
> > M.pubescens [M.tomentosa] has hairy [tomentose] leaves whereas in
> > M.citrifolia they are larger and glabrous. Also M.citrifolia has fragrant
> > flowes.
>
> >  Incidentally M.tinctoria is not found in the Borivali N.P. and is
> > cultivated more along the coast.
>
> >                With regards,
>
> >                  Neil Soares.
>
> > --- On *Tue, 6/16/09, J.M. Garg <jmga...@gmail.com>* wrote:
>
> > From: J.M. Garg <jmga...@gmail.com>
> > Subject: [indiantreepix:13265] Re: Morinda citrifolia (Noni)
> > To: "Prashant awale" <pkaw...@gmail.com>
> > Cc: "indiantreepix" <indian...@googlegroups.com>
> > Date: Tuesday, June 16, 2009, 9:12 PM
>
> > Thanks, Prashant ji.
>
> > How to differentiate between two species i.e. *Morinda pubescens* & *Morinda
> > citrifolia? *They look similar to me while going through Shrikant ji's
> > book.
>
> > 2009/6/16 Prashant awale <pkaw...@gmail.com<http://us.mc339.mail.yahoo.com/mc/compose?to=pkaw...@gmail.com>
>
> > Dear Garg Ji,
>
> > Good snaps. I think this should be  "Morinda pubescens". We call it
> > "Baratondi" due to around 12+ buldges on its fruit..
>
> > best wishes
> > Prashant..
>
> > On Tue, Jun 16, 2009 at 8:47 AM, J.M. Garg <jmga...@gmail.com<http://us.mc339.mail.yahoo.com/mc/compose?to=jmga...@gmail.com>>
> J.M.Garghttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User:Jmgarg1
> 'Creating awareness of Indian Flora & Fauna'
> Image Resource of thousands of my images of Birds, Butterflies, Flora etc.
> (arranged alphabetically & place-wise):http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:J.M.Garg
> For learning about Indian Flora, visit/ join Google e-group- Indiantreepix:http://groups.google.co.in/group/indiantreepix?hl=en- Hide quoted text -
>
> - Show quoted text -
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