Solanum key for India

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Gurcharan Singh

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Mar 25, 2011, 4:14:04 AM3/25/11
to efloraofindia, Dinesh Valke
I have further worked on the Solanum key uploaded few months earlier. This one is more formal dichotomous key. Please point out if there is any species to add:


Key to Indian Species of Solanum (Wild or cultivated*)

1.Plants herbaceous throughout 
   2.Prickles absent
      3.Leaves simple, entire or slightly lobed
         4.Flowers <5 mm across; anthers 1.5 mm long; fruiting pedicels
           erect; fruit 6 -7 mm, black, shining........................................1. S. americanum Mill. (syn: S. nigrum Trimen (non L.)
4.Flowers > 5 mm across;  anthers 2-3 mm long; fruiting pedicels
           reflexed; fruit > 7mm; green, yellow, orange or black, not shining
   5.Plants villous with glandular hairs; Infl. 3-5 flowered; peduncle in
              fruit <13 mm; fruit  longer than broad, red, orange or green.............2. S.  villosum (L.) Moench. 
   5.Plants appressed hairy with eglandular hairs;  Infl. 5-20 flowered;
              peduncle in fruit > 15 mm; fruit broader than long, fruit dull 
              purple, black or yellowish green.........................................3. S. nigrum L.   
      3.Leaves pinnate Compound 
         6.Flowers yellow; plants densely hairy; underground tubers absent.............4. S. lycopersicum L.* (syn: Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.)
         6.Flowers white or purplish;plants sparsely hairy; underground tubers absent..5. S. tuberosum L.*     
   2.Prickles present
      7.Flowers mauve; fruit ovoid-oblong,4-7 cm long, yellow, pointed, with basal
        lobes; leaves entire or slightly lobed.........................................6. S. mammosum L.*
      7.Flowers white; fruit globose, 1-1.5 cm, bright red, enclosed in prickly calyx;
        leaves deeply pinnately lobed..................................................7. S. sisymbrifolium Lam.     
1.Plants partly or wholly woody
   8.Plants woody only at base, herbaceous above
      9.Usually unarmed, sometimes armed in wild; floccose-pubescent; leaves sinuate;
        flowers usually solitary, rarely few-flowered; corolla 2-4 cm across, bluish;
        fruits globose or ovoid, more than 6 cm long...................................8. S.melanogena L.
      9.usually armed with hooked prickles; plant scurfy; lleaves sinuately lobed;
        flowers in clusters of 2-6, 2 cm across, white; fruit globose, scarlet or 
        yellow, 4-6 cm across..........................................................9. S. integrifolium Poir.     

   8.Plants mostly woody
      10.The Plants climbing
         11.Prickles absent
            12.Leaves simple or lobed at base
               13.Flowers white or tinged blue;corolla lobes spreading.................10. S. laxum Spreng.*(syn: Jasminoides Paxt.)
               13.Flowers violet, spotted with green; corolla lobes reflexed;
                  fruit ovoid, scarlet, 8-10 mm across.................................11. S. dulcamara L.*
            12.Leaves pinnate, flowers lilac; fruit globose, bright red,
               7-9 mm across...........................................................12. S. seaforthianum Andr.*
         11.Prickles present
            14.Leaves pinnate; prickles curved; flowers lilac 5-6 cm across; fruit 
               globose, 7-10 cm across.................................................13. S. wendlandii Hook.f.*
            14.Leaves 3-5 lobed; flowers bluish-violet, 2.5-3 cm across; fruit 
               globose, 6-8 mm across..................................................14. S. trilobatum L.    
      10.The Plants woody shrubs or trees
         15.Plants unarmed
            16.Flowers white
               17. Glabrous shrubs, leaves less than 10 cm long
                  18.Leaves narrow-oblong to oblanceolate,less than 2 cm broad, entire
                     peduncle almost absent; fls 1-3 together, 1-1.5 cm across; fruit 
                     1-2 cm across, scarlet or orange...................................15. S. pseudocapsicum L.*
                  18.Leaves elliptic, more than 2 cm broad, in unequal pairs; peduncle
                     distinct, 3-12 mm long; flowers more than 3, 4-6 mm across; fruit 
                     7-12 mm across, erect, orange, slightly bilobed....................16. S. diphyllum L.*
               17.Stellate-pubescent shrubs; leaves longer than 10 cm, crowded towards
                  tips of branches, with yellowish hairs beneath; flowers creamy white;
                  fruit globose, 1 cm across, yellow, covered with stellate hairs.......17. S. erianthum D. Don (syn: S. verbascifolium Clarke (non L.) 
            16.Flowers blue or purple
               19.Flowers 2-3 cm across; one anther 8 mm long, 4 half as long;fruit
                  globose, glossy red, 1.5 cm across; stem with ashy-grey tomentum;
                  leaves 3-8 cm long....................................................18. S. pubescens Willd.
               19.Flowers less than 1.5 cm across; all anthers equal
                  20.Leaves axils with pairs of small auricle-like leaves; leaves
                     15-30 cm long, 7-11 cm broad, softly pubescent, upper surface
                     dark green, lower pale green; corollblue, 9-11 mm across;fruit
                     globose, 1.5 cm across, orange-yellow, densely stellate pubescent..19. S. mauritianum Scop. (syn: S. auriculatum Ait.)   
                  20.Leaf axils without auricles; leaves shoter than 12 cm, deeply
                     lobed; flowers 8-10 mm across, purple..............................20. S. kurzii Brace 
         15.Plants armed with prickles
            21.Prickles straight, without broad base
               22.Flowers white
                  23.Leaves usually shorter than 20 cm, acutely lobed;calyx 
                     prickly; corolla 6 mm across; fruit globose, 2.5 cm across,
                     pale green with dark green markings, orange red when mature........21. S. capsicoides All. (syn: S. aculeatssimum Clarke (non Jacq);
                                                                                                                S. ciliatum Lam.)
                  23.Leaves longer than 20 cm, with acutely triangular lobes;
                     infl few-flowered; corolla 1.2 cm across; fruit globose,
                     2-3 cm across, orange, densely covered with hairs..................22. S. lasiocarpum Scop. (syn: S. ferox Clarke (non L.);S. indicum L.;
                                                                                                                 S. straminifolium Gandhi & Saldanha (non Jacq.) 
               22.Flowers blue or violet; Small spreading shrub up to 50 cm;
                  prickles yellow; leaves deeply lobed, greenish and glabrescent;
                  flowers 2 cm across, violet; fruit globose, yellow, 2 cm across.......23. S. virginianum L. (syn: S. xanthocarpum Schrad. & Wendl.;
                                                                                                              S. surattense Burm.f.)
            21.Prickles curved or straight, with broad base
               24.Flowers white or pink
                  25.Leaves shallowly lobed 
                     26.Leaves coarsely sinuate, unequal sided at base; inflorescence
                        with numerous flowers, dichotomous; flowers 2-2.5 cm across,
                        white;fruit 8-12 mm across, globose, yellow turning orange.......24. S. torvum Sw.
                     26.Leaves elliptic-ovate with 2-4 pairs of lobes, base oblique;
                        flowers in raceme-like cyme, 5-20-fld; corolla 6-12 mm across;
                        white with occasional purple veins on outer surface; fruit
                        subglobose, 7-18 mm green or white when young, red when ripe,
                        in clusters of up to 20 fruits...................................25. S. anguivi Lam. (syn: S. distichum Schum.; S. indicum auct
                                                                                                           (non L.); S. sodomeum L.)
                  25.Leaves deeply lobed
                     27.Plant ferruginous, leaves deeply pinnately lobed; corolla 3 cm
                        across, white;fruit globose, 1.5 cm across, yellowish brown;
                        prickles short, curved down......................................26. S. hispidum Pers.
                     27.Plant hirsute; prickles straight as well as curved
                        28.Glandular hairs absent, with long soft hairs, leaves deeply 
                           lobed;prickes up to 2 cm long;corolla white or pink, 2 cm 
                           across; berry globose, 2-3 cm across pale yellow..............27. S. aculeatissimum Jacq. (syn: S. khasianum Clarke)
                        28.Glandular hairs present; prickles up to 5 mm long;infl.
                           1-5-fld, peduncle reduced; corolla white, berry pale
                           yellow, 2-3 cm across.........................................28. S. viarum Dunal (syn: S. khasianum var. chatterjeanum S. Gupta) 
               24.Flowers blue or purple, prickles curved
                  29.Prickles on both stem and leaves; leaves lobed, unequal at base;
                     corolla blue-purple, 2-2.5 cm across; fruit globose, orange, 
                     1 cm across.........................................................29. S. violaceum Ortega (syn: S. indicum Clarke (non L.)
                  29.Prickles only on stem, not on leaves
                     30.Tree-like, prickles short, stout; leaves oblong-lanceolate,
                        entire, glossy above, silvery white beneath; cymose clusters
                        on 2-3 cm long peduncle; flowers mauve, 1 cm across; fruit
                        9-11 mm across, globose, glossy, red when mature.................30. S. giganteum Jacq.
                     30.Small shrub; hairs stellate; leaves small, about 4 cm long,
                        cordate; infl. 1-3 fld; fls 2 cm across..........................31. S. gracilipes Decne. 



 

--
Dr. Gurcharan Singh
Retired  Associate Professor
SGTB Khalsa College, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007
Res: 932 Anand Kunj, Vikas Puri, New Delhi-110018.
Phone: 011-25518297  Mob: 9810359089
http://people.du.ac.in/~singhg45/

manudev madhavan

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Mar 25, 2011, 7:19:59 AM3/25/11
to Gurcharan Singh, efloraofindia, Dinesh Valke
very useful sir ji...
--
Manudev K Madhavan
Junior Research Fellow
Systematic & Floristic Lab,
Department of Botany, 
Centre for Postgraduate Studies & Research 
St. Joseph's College, Devagiri
Kozhikode- 673 008
Mob: 9496470738

Gurcharan Singh

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Mar 25, 2011, 7:24:02 AM3/25/11
to manudev madhavan, efloraofindia, Dinesh Valke
I have uploaded the key to the Solanum page under Solanaceae

-- 
Dr. Gurcharan Singh
Retired  Associate Professor
SGTB Khalsa College, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007
Res: 932 Anand Kunj, Vikas Puri, New Delhi-110018.
Phone: 011-25518297  Mob: 9810359089
http://people.du.ac.in/~singhg45/ 

Gurcharan Singh

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Mar 26, 2011, 12:46:52 AM3/26/11
to manudev madhavan, efloraofindia, Dinesh Valke
Dear Friends 
I have created Solanum page on our website in preparation for our next episode on Solanaceae in the first week of April


I have also created species pages for S. diphyllum and S. pseudocapsicum. These can be reached by clicking from the key or from the list at the bottom of the page. I have tried to include all uploads of photographs for these species and links to the discussion thread. Please provide your feedback so that relevant changes can be made.


-- 
Dr. Gurcharan Singh
Retired  Associate Professor
SGTB Khalsa College, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007
Res: 932 Anand Kunj, Vikas Puri, New Delhi-110018.
Phone: 011-25518297  Mob: 9810359089
http://people.du.ac.in/~singhg45/ 

Gurcharan Singh

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Mar 26, 2011, 2:21:09 AM3/26/11
to manudev madhavan, efloraofindia, Dinesh Valke

Perhaps we will have to make an important decision: Should we have yoked (indented key) as uploaded for Solanum page, or should it be bracketed (parallel), or still better serial (numbered key). I will upload the bracketed key also for comparison. The yoked key is easier to work especially when it is short (on single page) but alternate leads (choices) are difficult to locate in long keys. It also wastes  a lot of space because of indentation. The parallel is convenient for such long keys but may not be easier to look at. You may compare and give your opinion.

For those interested to know more here are some pages from my book.


-- 
Dr. Gurcharan Singh
Retired Associate Professor, Department of Botany, SGTB Khalsa College

University of Delhi, Delhi-110007
Res: 932 Anand Kunj, Vikas Puri, New Delhi-110018
Phone: 01125518297; Mobile: 9810359089
http://people.du.ac.in/~singhg45/ 
Keys.pdf

Gurcharan Singh

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Mar 26, 2011, 4:42:01 AM3/26/11
to manudev madhavan, efloraofindia, Dinesh Valke
I have also uploaded the bracketed (parallel key) key. Please use both formats, and let us see which works better, especially for non-botanists.


-- 
Dr. Gurcharan Singh
Retired  Associate Professor
SGTB Khalsa College, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007
Res: 932 Anand Kunj, Vikas Puri, New Delhi-110018.
Phone: 011-25518297  Mob: 9810359089
http://people.du.ac.in/~singhg45/ 
 

Senthilkumar

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Mar 26, 2011, 6:50:48 AM3/26/11
to Gurcharan Singh, manudev madhavan, efloraofindia, Dinesh Valke
Dear Sir

It is a good piece of work which can occupy the reference shelf of the botanists as well as can be used as a field guide.

Regards
Senthilkumar U.
--
Senthilkumar U.
ATREE & 
School of Ecology and Conservation,
University of Agricultural Sciences,
Bangalore-560 065.
Karnataka, India

Vijayasankar

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Mar 26, 2011, 7:16:01 AM3/26/11
to Senthilkumar, Gurcharan Singh, manudev madhavan, efloraofindia, Dinesh Valke
Gurcharan ji, I strongly feel we should go for bracketed keys. It works very well in efloras. Since our keys would be for entire India, the number of taxa would be high at all levels. Indented keys, as you said, will consume lots of space and the 2nd lead in a couplet would be far away from the first one. Even here, we might provide links to the couplets and taxa in future as done in FoC for e.g. Indented keys would do good for florulas with less number of taxa and brief couplets. So my vote here is for bracketed keys :)
 
Regards 
 
Vijayasankar Raman
National Center for Natural Products Research
University of Mississippi

Gurcharan Singh

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Mar 26, 2011, 7:40:16 AM3/26/11
to Vijayasankar, Senthilkumar, manudev madhavan, efloraofindia, Dinesh Valke
Vijayasankar ji
My personal vote is also for bracketed key because of large number of species in most genera when considered in Indian context. Dinesh ji has given a really clean look to the key. Let us find observations of some nonbotanists also.


-- 
Dr. Gurcharan Singh
Retired  Associate Professor
SGTB Khalsa College, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007
Res: 932 Anand Kunj, Vikas Puri, New Delhi-110018.
Phone: 011-25518297  Mob: 9810359089
http://people.du.ac.in/~singhg45/ 

Samir Mehta

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Mar 26, 2011, 11:06:50 PM3/26/11
to efloraofindia
'Let us find observations of some nonbotanists also.'

Multi access keys would be my preferred choice (if that option is
available).

Samir



On Mar 26, 4:40 pm, Gurcharan Singh <singh...@gmail.com> wrote:
> Vijayasankar ji
> My personal vote is also for bracketed key because of large number of
> species in most genera when considered in Indian context. Dinesh ji has
> given a really clean look to the key. Let us find observations of some
> nonbotanists also.
>
> --
> Dr. Gurcharan Singh
> Retired  Associate Professor
> SGTB Khalsa College, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007
> Res: 932 Anand Kunj, Vikas Puri, New Delhi-110018.
> Phone: 011-25518297  Mob: 9810359089http://people.du.ac.in/~singhg45/
>
> On Sat, Mar 26, 2011 at 4:46 PM, Vijayasankar <vijay.botan...@gmail.com>wrote:
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
> > Gurcharan ji, I strongly feel we should go for bracketed keys. It works
> > very well in efloras. Since our keys would be for entire India, the number
> > of taxa would be high at all levels. Indented keys, as you said, will
> > consume lots of space and the 2nd lead in a couplet would be far away from
> > the first one. Even here, we might provide links to the couplets and taxa in
> > future as done in FoC for e.g. Indented keys would do good for florulas with
> > less number of taxa and brief couplets. So my vote here is for bracketed
> > keys :)
>
> > Regards
>
> > Vijayasankar Raman
> > National Center for Natural Products Research
> > University of Mississippi
>
> > On Sat, Mar 26, 2011 at 5:50 AM, Senthilkumar <sensonsa...@gmail.com>wrote:
>
> >> Dear Sir
>
> >> It is a good piece of work which can occupy the reference shelf of the
> >> botanists as well as can be used as a field guide.
>
> >> Regards
> >> Senthilkumar U.
>
> >> On 26 March 2011 14:12, Gurcharan Singh <singh...@gmail.com> wrote:
>
> >>> I have also uploaded the bracketed (parallel key) key. Please use both
> >>> formats, and let us see which works better, especially for non-botanists.
>
> >>> --
> >>> Dr. Gurcharan Singh
> >>> Retired  Associate Professor
> >>> SGTB Khalsa College, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007
> >>> Res: 932 Anand Kunj, Vikas Puri, New Delhi-110018.
> >>> Phone: 011-25518297  Mob: 9810359089
> >>>http://people.du.ac.in/~singhg45/
>
> >>> On Sat, Mar 26, 2011 at 11:51 AM, Gurcharan Singh <singh...@gmail.com>wrote:
>
> >>>> Perhaps we will have to make an important decision: Should we have yoked
> >>>> (indented key) as uploaded for Solanum page, or should it be bracketed
> >>>> (parallel), or still better serial (numbered key). I will upload the
> >>>> bracketed key also for comparison. The yoked key is easier to work
> >>>> especially when it is short (on single page) but alternate leads (choices)
> >>>> are difficult to locate in long keys. It also wastes  a lot of space because
> >>>> of indentation. The parallel is convenient for such long keys but may not be
> >>>> easier to look at. You may compare and give your opinion.
>
> >>>> For those interested to know more here are some pages from my book.
>
> >>>> --
> >>>> Dr. Gurcharan Singh
> >>>> Retired Associate Professor, Department of Botany, SGTB Khalsa College
>
> >>>> University of Delhi, Delhi-110007
> >>>> Res: 932 Anand Kunj, Vikas Puri, New Delhi-110018
> >>>> Phone: 01125518297; Mobile: 9810359089
>
> >>>>http://people.du.ac.in/~singhg45/
>
> >>>> On Sat, Mar 26, 2011 at 10:16 AM, Gurcharan Singh <singh...@gmail.com>wrote:
>
> >>>>> Dear Friends
> >>>>> I have created Solanum page on our website in preparation for our next
> >>>>> episode on Solanaceae in the first week of April
>
> >>>>>https://sites.google.com/site/efloraofindia/species/s/solanaceae/solanum
>
> >>>>> <https://sites.google.com/site/efloraofindia/species/s/solanaceae/solanum>I
> >>>>> have also created species pages for S. diphyllum and S. pseudocapsicum.
> >>>>> These can be reached by clicking from the key or from the list at the bottom
> >>>>> of the page. I have tried to include all uploads of photographs for these
> >>>>> species and links to the discussion thread. Please provide your feedback so
> >>>>> that relevant changes can be made.
>
> >>>>> --
> >>>>> Dr. Gurcharan Singh
> >>>>> Retired  Associate Professor
> >>>>> SGTB Khalsa College, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007
> >>>>> Res: 932 Anand Kunj, Vikas Puri, New Delhi-110018.
> >>>>> Phone: 011-25518297  Mob: 9810359089
> >>>>>http://people.du.ac.in/~singhg45/
>
> >>>>> On Fri, Mar 25, 2011 at 4:54 PM, Gurcharan Singh <singh...@gmail.com>wrote:
>
> >>>>>> I have uploaded the key to the Solanum page under Solanaceae
>
> >>>>>> --
>
> >>>>>> Dr. Gurcharan Singh
> >>>>>> Retired  Associate Professor
> >>>>>> SGTB Khalsa College, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007
> >>>>>> Res: 932 Anand Kunj, Vikas Puri, New Delhi-110018.
> >>>>>> Phone: 011-25518297  Mob: 9810359089
> >>>>>>http://people.du.ac.in/~singhg45/
>
> >>>>>> On Fri, Mar 25, 2011 at 4:49 PM, manudev madhavan <
> >>>>>> manudevkmadha...@gmail.com> wrote:
>
> >>>>>>> very useful sir ji...
>
> >>>>>>> On Fri, Mar 25, 2011 at 1:44 PM, Gurcharan Singh <singh...@gmail.com
> ...
>
> read more »

Gurcharan Singh

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Mar 26, 2011, 11:12:53 PM3/26/11
to Samir Mehta, efloraofindia
Samir ji
May be at a later stage. Have a sample of that for Genera being taught graduate level in DU (don't click families link as some file is missing):




-- 
Dr. Gurcharan Singh
Retired  Associate Professor
SGTB Khalsa College, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007
Res: 932 Anand Kunj, Vikas Puri, New Delhi-110018.
Phone: 011-25518297  Mob: 9810359089
http://people.du.ac.in/~singhg45/ 

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