Fwd: PARIJAT TREE

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sibdas ghosh

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Mar 3, 2010, 11:52:56 AM3/3/10
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From: Pradyot Bhanja <pbh...@gmail.com>
Date: 3 March 2010 21:12
Subject: PARIJAT TREE
To: Sibdas Ghosh <sibda...@gmail.com>


শিব Forwarding a mail I received for the knowledge of our members. What is this plant shown in the postal stamp labeled as Parijat? 

PARIJAT TREE

Stamp Issue Date : 08/03/1997
Postage Stamp Denomination : 5.00 & 6.00
Postal Stamp Serial Number : 1705
Postal Stamp Name : PARIJAT TREE (SE-TENANT)
Stamp Currency : P
Stamp Type : COMMEMORATIVE
Stamp Language : English

Plants of India: Parijata

Parijata-The Wish-Granting Tree
by Christopher McMahon

* Part 1: Collecting Parijat

[নিচের* এইটা শিউলী সম্বন্ধেই লেখা হয়েছে সে বিষয়ে কোনও সন্দেহের অবকাশ নেই ! ~ প্রদ্যোত।]

This January(1998) we(Ramakant Harlalka and I) were on our morning walk in the Matunga section of Mumbai. Along a busy thoroughfare we spotted a beautiful parijat tree(Nycanthes arbortrisis) growing near an apartment complex. As it was the sunrise hour, the delicate flowers were gently falling to the ground and covering the pavement with elegant beauty. We carefully collected a few of them and placing them in my palm I inhaled a lovely bouquet that reminded one of the essense of orange flowers and jasmine. It had a slightly sharper penetrating note but the overall effect was soft and sweet. We decided to collect a small basket of them so we could photograph them in the small studio we had set-up in the flat I was staying. As we picked up one ethereal flower after another, I felt as if I was joining hands with generation after generations of Indians who have collected them for offering at home alters or in the numerous temples that are to be found in countryside, town and city. In ancient Hindu literature the parijatak tree appears as one of the first gifts to humankind hence its sacred status. It was a simple, pleasurable activity that did not harm the tree and gave us a lot of joy because we could come close to the plant and appreciate a little more what a special role it played in the lives of the Indian people.

The tree we were collecting flowers from was located on a main street and even at that early hour the constant flow of buses, trucks, scooters, and cars with their accompanying noise had commenced. The enviroment in which the tree was living was far from ideal both from the viewpoint of air and sound pollution and the neglected soil in which it was growing yet it gave of its fragrant essence for one and all to enjoy. Its concern was not for caste, color or creed but only to serve the purpose for which it had been created. Its scattered fragrant flower, for the most part, were neglected and trod underfoot as the people rushed to their various jobs, unaware of the refined beauty and aroma within easy reach of their hands. I found in its example a very good lesson for my own life in that a person should always strive to do good no matter how adverse the outer circumstances may be. It is not an easy lesson to learn but one well worth considering as through it nobility of character is built and inner peace is attained.

The parijatak tree is known in Hindi as harsinghar and Bengali as shifali. It bears the botanical name of Nycathus arbortristis. It is a hardy large shrub or small tree sometimes reaching a height of 30 feet. Its bark is green is grey to greenish-white in color and a bit rough in texture. It has a thick branching structure with green oval-shaped leaves. Its 4 to 8 flower petals are arranged about a vibrant orange tube in a pinwheel pattern. These highly fragrant flowers open at night perfuming the surrounding area with an intensely sweet floral aroma. The morning following the night bloom, the flowers fall to the earth carpeting it with their fragile beauty. In the ancient times sages and seers noted each intesting quality of individual plants and in order to teach the people to closely observe their life cycles they created beautiful stories


http://www.whitelotusaromatics.com/fragrant/parijat2.html

Plants of India: Parijata

Parijata-The Wish-Granting Tree
by Christopher McMahon

Part 2: Stories of Parijata

With regards to the parijatak tree this story is often narrated in certain communities.

Once a royal princess fell in love with the sun god-Surya Dev. She was enamored of his brilliance and beauty as he daily passed through the sky from east to west in his fiery chariot. Her devotion attracted his attention and for a while he favored her with his attention but after awhile he was distracted with other interests and she was deserted. In despair she killed herself and from her cremated ashes the parijatak tree arose. Since she was rejected by Surya Dev, the flowers of the tree only bloom at night. Then before the sun rises the flowers fall so its rays will not strike her. Based on this story the tree was given the species name ëarbortristisí which means ëtree of sorrowí.

Another story surrounding the treesí origin is found in several ancient Indian scriptures called the Puranas. It is said that when the celestial beings, at the behest of Hari-the Preserver of the Universe, churned the cosmic ocean to obtain certain boons that would help alleviate suffering and protect the powers of good from the powers of evil one of the parijatak tree appeared as one of the divine treasures. Its perfume was said to permeate the entire universe. Because the tree holds such a elevated place in Indiaís sacred lore, the tree is revered by devote Hindus. The story, on one level, clearly illustrates that trees, flowers and fragrance represent some of the finest boons for humankind.

After the parijatak tree emerged from the ocean of existence it taken to the heaven worlds and planted in the pleasure garden of Indra- the lord of the gods. One day a great sage of ancient times named Narad Muni visited this garden in his meditations visited this garden and saw this lovely tree emitting its divine perfume. Using his yogic powers he gathered up some of these ethereal blossoms and brought them back to the physical plane and gave them to Rukmini, the favorite wife of the renowned avatar of Vishnu, Lord Krishna, who was at that time dwelling in Dwaraka in north India. The flowers were so lovely and the fragrance so delicate that Satyabhama another wife of Lord Krishna became desirous of possessing that celestial tree and having it planted in her own garden. She was jealous of the attention Krishna was showing to Rukmini and wanted him to give more time to her. She implored him to obtain the tree for her. To satisfy her desire he entered into a state of deep meditation and in that state plucked up the tree from the garden. Before leaving that place he was accosted by the keepers of the garden and was told he would incur the wrath of Indra as the tree belonged to his wife Sachi. But Satyabhama would not be put off by any obstacle and said that the tree was the common property of all and had as much place on earth as it had in the heavens. As a result Krishna waged a great war with Indra and his celestial army. In the end Krishnaís strength prevailed and Indra was forced to retreat. At that time Satyabhama taunted him as being a coward but decided to give back his celestial tree. Krishna also consented to return the tree to its celestial abode. But Indra said that there was no shame in being defeated by the avatar of Vishnu and that the tree should be taken to earth and planted in Dwarka where its fragrance could be enjoined by all the people of the earth. Thus the first parijatak tree was planted and its divine fragrance was said to spread for three furlongs. Its aroma was charged with so much power that it would help people enhaling it to remember events of their past lives. In this instance also we can see that the sages were explaining to the people that fragrance was a valuable means of accessing stored memories. In the East memory has a much more comprehensive meaning than in the West as it can include past lives as it is believed that the soul takes countless births on its journey to perfection but the same basic principal is explained in this story as is encountered in western literature regarding how fragrance stimulates memories of past events in ones life.

The above mentioned stories come down to us out of Indiaís rich cultural and spiritual heritage and are charged with tremendous meaning. The key to understanding can only be obtained by deep thought and contemplation and even this process may not totally unlock their secret is much is lost in translation or in change in the story over a period of time. Still, on a very basic level we can say that sages were trying to create in the mindís of the people a powerful remembrance of the plants that surrounded them so that they would learn to observe them minutely and learn to love and appreciate them. If a person could be encouraged to do this then they would definitely learn that every created object had numerous qualities that could prove beneficial in the form of foods, medicines, condiments, construction materials, cosmetics, and the like. Knowing this a simple hearted person would want to nourish, protect and propogate such plants so that their would be a constant supply of its beneficial products for one and all to use. It is in this way that a refined social consciousness was developed that did not depend on any external agencies but rather on the individuals efforts to keep the environment healthy and intact.


Parijata-The Wish-Granting Tree
by Christopher McMahon

Part 3: Cultural Significance of Parijata

The parijatak tree is native to India and in its natural habitat is found growing up to an altitude of 1,500 meters. It adapts well to dry slopes and rocky ground. Because of its fragrant flowers it is cultivated in gardens throughout the country. Even when neglected it still produces fragrant flowers in abundance. Its greatest enemy is standing water which causes the roots to rot and die. If a little care is given to the plant in the form of periodic deep waterings, well rotted compost, and judicious pruning it can take on the form of a trully elegant specimen. Its flowering season is quite long, extending from August to December in most regions. It is an excellent selection for planting in semi-shady situations.

Aside from its esteemed position in the home garden parijatak has sometimes been planted in the precincts of temples as its fragrance creates a devotional atmosphere that aids in the remembrance of the sublime power embodied by the particular diety worshipped in that place. The flowers are particularly offered to Lord Ganesh, Satyanaryana, Samba and Swarna Gowri. In the Indian system of belief these dieties are embodiments of particular qualities or virtues which assist in the aspirants spiritual quest and so the offering of particlar flowers is highly significant. As with many of the ancient traditions the reasons for offering a flower with a particular shape, color and fragrance have been lost or is in the hands of a rare few individuals but one thing we now know is that specific odors can stimulate certain centers in the brain to act in a particular way. It is not an exact science as it can vary from individual from individual and from culture to culture. But in India the science of fragrance was highly evolved and could serve to evoke a particular response on a large group of people who commonly shared in the worship of a particular diety. That particular fragrance could bring the minds of those people a shared devotional aspiration. In that atmosphere fragrance along with several other rites and rituals could produce a state of profound concentration that would allow an openess to occur that would refresh a persons heart and mind and bring them into unity with the community in which they lived and with the mystery of life in which everyone was a participant. It is also possible that the sages knew that the perfume of a particular flower when inhaled could help stimulate the immune system against certain disease organisms prevailing at the season of the year in which it was blooming. We now know that natural fragrances do have some anti-bacterial and anti-viral properties so it is not impossible that ancient sages discovered these properties, not with technical instruments which they did not posses, but through the powers of keen observation which they had in abundance.

In India the parijat tree is planted in the precincts of temples because of the sublime atmosphere created by the aroma of its flowers. I know the fragrance of parijatak is dear to my wife, Suzanne and I, as we use fo go for a walk about a small temple in the suburbs of Bombay every evening during the month of January. A number of parijatak trees were planted in the shrines vicinity as we would inhale the delicious odor of the last flowers of the season as we slowly strolled about the complex. The refreshing odor helped sustain the beautiful time we had just spent listening create a mood of peace and relaxation that allowed us to quietly digest the words of a great sage whose discourse we had just listened too. To this day the memory of that time is quickly awakened when we smell the fragrance of parijat. The flower itself conveys a very special message to those who know how to read its language. If one closely observes its delicate beauty one will observe that it has a vibrant orange center. This color is a symbol of fire in the Hindu tradition. Fire, in turn, is considered that power which purifies a persons heart and mind so that all desires for the world are consumed. leaving only a pure consciousness which directly communes with the Hidden Power within that has been and is called by many names. The white petals which surround the orange center symbolic of that pure consciousness. In the ancient times Buddhist monks and Hindu ascetics dyed their robes a rich fiery color to show that they had renounced the world. This dye was produced from the very same orange centers of the parijat. When the flowers would fall to the ground, people would collect them and separte the orange tube from the white petals and dry them. Once they were dried they could be used for making this saffron-colored dye. At one time an attempt was made to commercialize this dye as it gave a fine color to cotton and silk but due to the labor intensive nature of its collection and the fact that a good means of fixing it were not obtained the concept was abandoned. Perhaps in the future the study of this dye will be resumed and a cottage industry developed where its beautiful color could be extracted.

The Muslim people, too, have an affection for the flower and it is said that it is planted in their grave yards. In the morning the ethereal flowers carpet the tombs with a natural aromatic floral display. The story that this tells is simple and beautiful. In nature, the parijat tree grows to a mature specimen which produces innummerable flowers. These flowers grow to maturity and for a brief time give off their fragrance for one and all to enjoy. When the perfume is exhausted, they fall to the earth, wither, and die having fulfilled the mission of their life. Our lives, in the ideal sense, should follow their example. We, as part of the human family, are like the flowers of the mother plant. In the beginning our innate beauty is hidden as it can only be developed through the experiences of life both good and bad. Through the ups and downs of life, if we are fortunate, we come to the point where out of the heart comes a sweet perfume of love and compassion for one and all. Having given of that perfume in a quiet, unassuming way, the time comes when the bodies resources are exhausted and we depart from this plane of existences and our soul essence reunites with the invisible essence from which we come.




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sibdas ghosh
pariflower.gif
parikrishna.gif
paribasket.gif
837603_f260.jpg

tanay bose

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Mar 3, 2010, 12:17:28 PM3/3/10
to sibdas ghosh, indiantreepix
Dear Sibdas da,
Palmately compound leaf with five leaflet and also it's a tree , this can be seen from the stamp. I am hoping it to be Aesculus flava. Leaving this name nothing more is coming to my mind at this moment.
Regards,
Tanay

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Dinesh Valke

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Mar 3, 2010, 12:32:08 PM3/3/10
to tanay bose, sibdas ghosh, indiantreepix
... one of googled result is this page: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parijaat_tree,_Kintur
Not sure whether it agrees with the tree on the Indian stamp.

Regards.

tanay bose

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Mar 3, 2010, 12:38:23 PM3/3/10
to Dinesh Valke, sibdas ghosh, indiantreepix
Dinesh Ji 's Guess can be true "GOD KNOWS" our postal department stamps are same as there service both are quit troublesome.
 
Tanay

Gurcharan Singh

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Mar 3, 2010, 12:39:17 PM3/3/10
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Tanay ji and Sibdas ji

Parijat is commonly used name for Nyctanthes arbortristis as also mentioned in the text above. The tree on the stamp is not this as evident from Palmate leaves. It is also not Aesculus which has much smaller flowers in racemes or panicles. This tree from its trunk and flower, to me appears to be Adansonia digitata. The trunk sometimes becomes hollow and stores water. It is known as Boab, Monkey bread tree, and sometimes Kalp Variksh., although I have not been able to find Parijat as name for this tree.


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Retired  Associate Professor
SGTB Khalsa College, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007
Res: 932 Anand Kunj, Vikas Puri, New Delhi-110018.
Phone: 011-25518297  Mob: 9810359089
http://people.du.ac.in/~singhg45/ 

 

On Wed, Mar 3, 2010 at 10:47 PM, tanay bose <tanay...@gmail.com> wrote:

tanay bose

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Mar 3, 2010, 12:47:18 PM3/3/10
to Gurcharan Singh, sibdas ghosh, indiantreepix
Thank you Sir I followed Dinesh Ji's link to wikipedia and same the link of Boab tree and also the name Adansonia digitata but was not sure of the fact. thanks again sir for enriching my knowledge.
 
Regards,
tanay

Pankaj Oudhia

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Mar 3, 2010, 2:18:32 PM3/3/10
to efloraofindia, Gurcharan Singh, sibdas ghosh
Please see this news clipping which says Parijat is Adansonia digitata.

http://www.khabarexpress.com/04/08/2009/Chennai-School-children-tie-Rakhi-to-trees-news_97439.html

It is new information for me.

Pankaj Oudhia

R. Vijayasankar

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Mar 3, 2010, 7:03:32 PM3/3/10
to Gurcharan Singh, tanay bose, sibdas ghosh, indiantreepix
It is interesting to note that Adansonia, a South African species, has been discussed in our ancient Indian literature and considered much sacred. Whereas, the other candidate, Nyctanthes, is an indigenous species here.
 
Referred an article in the net, which reads: "The baobab is one of the longest-lived trees in the world. The French botanist Adanson contended that some specimens of the baobab were as much as 5000 years old. In Senegal (West Africa), it is reputed to live to an age of 5000 yearshttp://www.ias.ac.in/currsci/dec252004/1709.pdf

So, which is the actual Parijatha - Adansonia or Nyctanthes? eager to know. By the way, anyone has copy of the book titled "The problem of the introduction of Adansonia digitata into India"? and what was the 'problem'? http://indianmedicine.eldoc.ub.rug.nl/root/B/7967/?pFullItemRecord=ON

And the flower painting on the stamp looks slightly different to me. http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Baobab.html
With regards

R. Vijayasankar
National Center for Natural Products Research,
The University of Mississippi,
Oxford, MS-38677, USA.

Gurcharan Singh

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Mar 3, 2010, 8:42:25 PM3/3/10
to R. Vijayasankar, tanay bose, sibdas ghosh, indiantreepix
I is nice to confirm from independent souces (Pankaj ji, Dinesh ji and Vijayasankar ji) that the plant on the stamp is Adansonia digitata and it is also known as Parijat, I had known about this plant from my brother 40 years back when he had visited Central India and had told me about the swollen trunk and plant being called as Kalp variksh (probably because of long life span as mentioned by Vijayasankar ji). This stamp I suppose is based on painting, which I have seen in some book I don't recall at present.
   I am happy that the group is evolving into a robust forum of information exchange and our your younger colleagues are playing a big part in this.


-- 
Dr. Gurcharan Singh
Retired  Associate Professor
SGTB Khalsa College, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007
Res: 932 Anand Kunj, Vikas Puri, New Delhi-110018.
Phone: 011-25518297  Mob: 9810359089
http://people.du.ac.in/~singhg45/ 

tanay bose

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Mar 3, 2010, 11:22:05 PM3/3/10
to Gurcharan Singh, R. Vijayasankar, sibdas ghosh, indiantreepix

TRYING TO BRING A CONCLUSION TO POSSIBLE MIGRATION OF Adansonia sp FROM AFRICA & AUSTRALIA  TO INDIA.

Baobab trees attract attention because of their striking shape and the large number of different uses to which they can be put by human cultures (including food, water storage, medicine, raw materials for rope, cloth, twine, boats etc.). There are eight extant species of baobab (Adansonia spp.): six in Madagascar, one (A. digitata) on the African continent and one (A. gregorii) in the Kimberley region of north-western Australia. The Kimberley species is an obvious geographical outlier, and there are several different scenarios for the presence of the A. gregorii in Australia.

One theory proposes that Adansonia spp. share a common origin in Western Gondwana (Wickens 2008). However, recent molecular analysis has demonstrated that the Australian baobab, A. gregorii, is very closely related to the African species, A. digitata (Baum 1998). The genetic distance between the two species is far smaller than would be expected for a >100 Myr Gondwana connection. This led to the suggestion that the baobab must have undergone transoceanic dispersal (Baum et al 1998), presumably via floating seed pods. However, this theory is mechanistically constrained by several factors: (a) A. gregorii seed pod has the thinnest shell of all Adansonia spp., making it unlikely that seed pods would survive such a long oceanic journey (b) oceanic currents are unfavourable for the observed dispersal pattern and (c) A. gregorii is not present at other locations on the North-West Australian coast where it would readily grow and where oceanic dispersal would be expected to have delivered seeds.

While investigating a third scenario based on the very close genetic relationship between A. gregorii and A. digitata: transoceanic dispersal mediated by human migrations out of Africa around 60-70,000 yrs ago [during this time Homo sapiens evolved in Africa and later stared migrating to Asia and Europe]. Interestingly, the geographical distribution of the Kimberley species overlaps almost perfectly with a particular type of ancient rock art known as Bradshaw paintings. The aetiology of these painting is under hot debate: some maintain that they are part of the extensive Aboriginal rock art found across Australia, and some maintain that these images were painted by a distinct culture which no longer survives in Australia. Bradshaw rock art is significantly different from other rock art in Australia in terms of style and materials used. Scenes from daily life are strikingly well executed and fauna is very accurately depicted (Pettigrew et al 2008). Moreover, there are many references in art that support a relationship between the artists, the baobab trees and intercontinental travel, for example: (1) the fruit and flowers of baobabs appear to be well represented in the images (2) large boats are featured in some paintings; these boats carry up to 30 passengers and have a very high prow indicating oceanic capability. One of the most striking things about these paintings is that they are remarkably reminiscent of modern African culture. It seems very likely that a stone-age African oceanic migrant might have chosen such a useful cargo as baobab, with its two dozen separate roles , not to mention the durability of the nutritious fruit (the Vitamin C-rich pulp lasts more than a year).

ATTACHED DOCUMENTS:
  1. PLEASE SEE THE PAPER OF BRAUM ET.AL 1998 SUGGESTING THE EVOLUTIONARY PATTERN OF Adansonia sp.

  2. HYPOTHETICAL MAP TO SUPPORT THE ADANSONIA MIGRATION THEORY.

Adansonia.pdf
map of possible migration.jpg

Bhatt Sweta

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Mar 4, 2010, 12:57:55 AM3/4/10
to tanay bose, Gurcharan Singh, R. Vijayasankar, sibdas ghosh, indiantreepix
Thanks a lot for so much information flowing over the group!!!
Just a little addition to the vast pool of knowledge already there;
Nyctanthes flower stalks are aoften used as an adulterant in Kesar/Saffron.
And Adansonia's fruits are edible whereas the trunk is believed to store water in huge quantities!

 

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Pankaj Oudhia

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Mar 4, 2010, 1:05:49 AM3/4/10
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sibdas ghosh

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Mar 4, 2010, 12:22:38 PM3/4/10
to Pankaj Oudhia, Gurcharan Singh, R. Vijayasankar, tanay bose, indiantreepix
Thanks to all for such a long discussion. I like to add some for points. I did not have the idea that Baobab tree, which is so uncommon, is also known as Parijat tree. By Parijat we generally refer to Har Singar/ Shefalika/ Seoli etc., associated with puranic versions involving Sri Krishna, Satyabhama and also Sun God stories. However, according to Shushruta- Mandar and Parijat are identical. Moreover, the same claim has been made in in the books- Wealth of India and The useful Plants of India.  Mandar- Erythrina indica, is also known as Indian Coral Tree. The Coral Tree has also been identified by Sk. Habibur Rahman in his story book - The Coral Tree (Parijat) published in the year 1912. Tagore had referred Parijat in a number of poems and songs, some time identifying it with Mandar, but assigning many heavenly qualities as very fine scented, brightly coloured and with voluminous pollen grains , making it quite different from any known plants, perhaps with the message it is a heavenly plant not an earthly one. In Santiniketan tree planting festival takes place every year. In 1966 - a sapling was planted which was labeled as Parijat, which was actually a Brownea coccinea. (It  also looks like a heavenly plant). In Manipur Rangoon Creeper (Quisqualis indica) is also known as Parijat( again a very charming creeper). So we have different types of Parijats, which make our flora rich.
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sibdas ghosh

Anand Kumar Bhatt

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Mar 7, 2010, 8:08:47 AM3/7/10
to sibdas ghosh, Pankaj Oudhia, Gurcharan Singh, R. Vijayasankar, tanay bose, indiantreepix
 Quite a few months back there was protracted discussion on Paarijaat flower in which I haad mentioned a book on the Trees in Hindu mythology and folklore, or some such name. Nalini Bhat had given another version of the story of tussle between Rukmini and Satyabhama about the tree and how Krishna solved it by  planting it in one's garden and the flowers falling in another's.I will search for the link.
The only place where I have seen a large number of baobab trees is residency in Indore, where now the VIP guest house and other rest houses ar situated. My guess is that they were planted by some Englishman who had earlier been to Africa.
ak
Anand Kumar Bhatt
A-59, B.S.F.Colony, Airport Road
Gwalior. 474 005.
Tele: 0751-247 2233. Mobile 0 94253 09780.
My blogsite is at:
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Anand Kumar Bhatt

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Mar 7, 2010, 8:13:12 AM3/7/10
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---------- Forwarded message ----------
From: Anand Kumar Bhatt <anand...@gmail.com>
Date: Sun, Mar 7, 2010 at 6:42 PM
Subject: Re: [efloraofindia:28786] Fwd: PARIJAT TREE
To: tanay bose <tanay...@gmail.com>


yes the link to earlier discussion is:

https://mail.google.com/mail/?shva=1#search/parijat+tree/11cc8d5e45c9ded6

ak


On Sun, Mar 7, 2010 at 6:38 PM, tanay bose <tanay...@gmail.com> wrote:
Thank you very much for mailing me. I will reply as soon as possible.

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Anand Kumar Bhatt
A-59, B.S.F.Colony, Airport Road
Gwalior. 474 005.
Tele: 0751-247 2233. Mobile 0 94253 09780.
My blogsite is at:
http://anandkbhatt.blogspot.com
And the photo site:
www.flickr.com/photos/akbhatt/
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Ten most  common surnames of Indians: Singh, Kumar, Sharma,Patel, Shah, Lal, Gupta, Bhat, Rao, Reddy. Cheers!

promila chaturvedi

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Mar 7, 2010, 8:13:53 AM3/7/10
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Anand ji,
Nalilni ji's version of the story is correct. I also read it.
Promila
 

Date: Sun, 7 Mar 2010 18:38:47 +0530
Subject: Re: [efloraofindia:29027] Fwd: PARIJAT TREE
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