Spilanthes acmella confusion: 1-Blainvillea acmella from near Dakpathar

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Gurcharan Singh

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Oct 16, 2011, 10:43:52 AM10/16/11
to efloraofindia
Blainvillea acmella (Linnaeus) Philipson, Blumea 6 350 1950.
syn: Verbesina acmella L.; Blainvillea alba Edgew.; Blainvillea platyphylla DC

Roughly hairy stiff erect herb; lower leaves opposite, upper alternate, ovate to deltate, up to 7 cm long, toothed; heads radiate, 8-12 mm in diam; phyllaries few, outer leaflike; ray usually white, 2-3 lobed, disc 5-merous; achenes 3-angled, inner flattened; pappus of 2-5 unequal bristles. 

Photographed from near Dakpathar on way to Chakrata.  

Perhaps no other binomial has been so confused as Spilanthes acmella 

The name Spilanthes acmella is based on Verbesina acmella L. The combination under Spilanthes appeared in Syst. Veg., ed. 13" 610 1774. Till recently the combination was attributed to Murray in many reputed books, Floras and databases (The Plant List, eFlora publications,etc.) but as turns out Murray was only the editor of this publication and Linnaeus the author of this combination, which should correctly be cited as Spilanthes acmella (L.) L. Flora of British India recognises four varieties under this: var acmella proper, var. calva, var. oleracea and var. paniculata. Interestingly Koster and Philipson (1950) discovered that the Verbesina acmella L., actually belongs to Blainvillea and should be better known as Blainvillea acmella (L.) Philipson. The other names stay under newly recognised genus Acmella and none (Indian species) under Spilanthes. Incidently also the Blainvillea acmella (L.) Philipson includes another species described in Indian Floras as Blainvillea platyphylla DC. The species originally described as Spilanthes may accordingly include following within Indian boundaries:

Blainvillea acmella (L.) Philipson (syn: Verbesina acmella L.; Spilanthes acmella (L.) L.; Blainvillea latifolia (L.f.) DC) 

Acmella calva (DC) R. K. Jensen (syn: Spilanthes acmella var. calva (DC.) Clarke ex Hooker f.; Spilanthes javanica Sch.Bip. ex Miq.)

Acmella ciliata (Kunth) Cass. (syn: Spilanthes ciliata Kunth.)

Acmella oleracea (L.) R. K. Jensen (syn: Spilanthes acmella var. oleracea (L.) C.B.Clarke ex Hook.f.; Spilanthes oleracea L.)

Acmella paniculata (Wall. ex DC) R. K. Jensen (syn: Spilanthes acmella var. paniculata (Wall. ex DC.) C.B. Clarke ex Hook. f.; Spilanthes paniculata Wall. ex DC.

Acmella radicans (Jacq.) R. K. Jensen var. radicans (syn: Spilanthes radicans Jacq.)

The following key can help differentiating species

1a. Heads with white ray florets, achenes 3-angled.......................................................... Blainvillea acmella
1b. Heads discoid or with yellow ray florets, achenes flattened.........................................(2)

2a. Heads discoid.........................................................................................................(3)
2b. Heads radiate, ray florets very small, achenes ciliate, pappus of 2-3 bristles.................(7)

3a. Corolla white, greenish white or with purple tinge, 4-merous, pappus of 2-3 bristles...........Acmella radicans var. radicans
3b. Corolla pale yellow, yellow or orange yellow.................................................................(4) 

4a. Pappus absent; stems decumbent, rooting at nodes; leaves ovate, ahenes 1.7-2.2 mm,
     glabrous, if sparsely hairy then hairs hooked .................................................................Acmella calva 
4b. Pappus of 2-3 bristles, achenes hairy, hairs straight, stems erect without nodal roots.......(5)

5a. Mature achenes with cork-like margin; surface tuberculate..............................................Acmella paniculata
5b. Mature achenes without cork-like margin; surface not tuberculate....................................(6)

6a. Corolla (disc floret) 4-merous, phyllaries 5-6, uniseriate, heads 5.8-8 mm high, 
      4-6 mm diam.,receptacle 3-6 mm high...........................................................................Acmella uliginosa
6b. Corolla 5-merous, phyllaries 15-18, triseriate, heads 8-23 mm high, 6-17 mm diam.,
      receptacle 6-21 mm high, leaves ovate-deltate................................................................Acmella oleracea

7a. Mature achenes with evident cork-like margin; disc corolla 5-merous; heads 
     ovoid; leaves broadly ovate with rounded to cordate base; phyllaries 7-10, biseriate;
     heads 6-10 mm high, 6-9 mm in diam, receptacle 4-8 mm high.........................................Acmella ciliata
7b. Mature achenes without cork-like margin; disc corolla 4-merous, heads cone-shaped;
      leaves elliptic to narrowly ovate, cuneate at base; phyllaries 5-6, heads 5.8-8 mm high,
      4-6 mm diam.,receptacle 3-6 mm high............................................................................Acmella uliginosa 

I will be uploading Blainvillea acmella, Acmella ciliata, Acmella ciliata, A. uliginosa and A. oleracea

Other friends may try to upload Acmella calva, Acmella paniculata and Acmella rdicans, which are available especially in Mysore and other parts of Karnataka

I am uploading this key in the website also for convenience.



--
Dr. Gurcharan Singh
Retired  Associate Professor
SGTB Khalsa College, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007
Res: 932 Anand Kunj, Vikas Puri, New Delhi-110018.
Phone: 011-25518297  Mob: 9810359089
http://people.du.ac.in/~singhg45/

Blainvillea-acmella-near Dakpathar-1.jpg
Blainvillea-acmella-near Dakpathar-2.jpg
Blainvillea-acmella-near Dakpathar-3.jpg

Prabhu kumar KM

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Jan 12, 2012, 1:24:33 AM1/12/12
to Gurcharan Singh, efloraofindia

Dear sir,
Very nice description with detailed keys.
yes, to me also Blainvillea acmella (L.) Philip.
Syn: Verbesina acmella L.; Blainvillea latifolia (L. f.) DC.; Eclipta latifolia L. f.; Blainvillea rhomboidea Cass.
 
Anyway it is not coming under the genus Spilanthes (Syn: Acmella).

--
Prabhu Kumar K M
Scientist 
Plant Systematics & Genetic Resources Division
Centre for Medicinal Plant Research (CMPR)
& 'CMPR' Herbarium
Kottakkal Arya Vaidya Sala
Kottakkal, Malappuram

Ritesh Kumar Choudhary

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Jan 12, 2012, 2:24:44 AM1/12/12
to efloraofindia
Nice closeups and very useful key sir!

Thanks for sharing.

Regards,
Ritesh.

Giby Kuriakose

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Jan 12, 2012, 6:54:08 AM1/12/12
to Gurcharan Singh, efloraofindia
Very useful and easy key
Thank you sir for the same.

Thanks and Regards
Giby


--
GIBY KURIAKOSE PhD
Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment (ATREE),
Royal Enclave,
Jakkur Post, Srirampura
Bangalore- 560064
India
Phone - +91 9448714856 (Mobile)
visit my pictures @ http://www.flickr.com/photos/giby

Gurcharan Singh

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Dec 4, 2012, 11:47:55 PM12/4/12
to Giby Kuriakose, efloraofindia
Although not given in the original key of Acmella Monograph by Jansen, but in the description is mentioned that heads of Acmella calva are mostly discoid but may be rarely radiate. I have as such modified the key for Indian species to accomodate  this. This is also available on our website:

https://sites.google.com/site/efloraofindia/species/a---l/ar/asteraceae/acmella


The following key can help differentiating species in India of species earlier treated under Spilanthes

1a. Heads with white ray florets, achenes 3-angled............. Blainvillea acmella
1b. Heads discoid or with yellow ray florets, achenes flattened....................(2)

2a. Heads discoid...................................................................................(3)
2b. Heads radiate, ray florets very small, achenes ciliate, 
     pappus of 2-3 bristles.........................................................................(7)

3a. Corolla white, greenish white or with purple tinge, 4-merous, 
      pappus of 2-3 bristles................................Acmella radicans var. radicans
3b. Corolla pale yellow, yellow or orange yellow.........................................(4) 

4a. Pappus absent; stems decumbent, rooting at nodes; leaves ovate,
     ahenes 1.7-2.2 mm, glabrous, if sparsely hairy then 
     hairs hooked ........................................................................Acmella calva 
4b. Pappus of 2-3 bristles, achenes hairy, hairs straight, stems
     erect without nodal roots.....................................................................(5)

5a. Mature achenes with cork-like margin; surface 
     tuberculate....................................................................Acmella paniculata
5b. Mature achenes without cork-like margin; surface not tuberculate..........(6)

6a. Corolla (disc floret) 4-merous, phyllaries 5-6, uniseriate, heads
      5.8-8 mm high,  4-6 mm diam.,receptacle 3-6 mm high.....Acmella uliginosa
6b. Corolla 5-merous, phyllaries 15-18, triseriate, 
      heads 8-23 mm high, 6-17 mm diam., receptacle 6-21
      mm high, leaves ovate-deltate........................................Acmella oleracea

7a. Mature achenes with evident cork-like margin; disc
     corolla 5-merous; heads ovoid; leaves broadly ovate with
     rounded to cordate base; phyllaries 7-10, biseriate;
     heads 6-10 mm high, 6-9 mm in diam, receptacle 4-8 mm    
     high..............................................................................Acmella ciliata
7b. Mature achenes without cork-like margin; leaf base cuneate.................(8)

8a. Disc corolla 4-merous, heads cone-shaped; leaves elliptic  
      to narrowly ovate, cuneate at base; phyllaries 5-6, heads
      5.8-8 mm high, 4-6 mm diam. receptacle 3-6 mm high; 
      achenes 1.2-1.8 mm long, ciliate with straight hairs; 
      pappus of two unequal or subequal bristles, one up to
      0.7 mm long second up to 0.5 mm long..........................Acmella uliginosa 
8b. Disc corolla 5-merous; phyllaries 8-11, biseriate;
      heads 7.5-11.5 mm high, 6-8.5 mm diam, receptacle
      5-8.5 mm high;  achenes ahenes 1.7-2.2 mm, glabrous,
      if sparsely hairy then hairs hooked; pappus absent.........Acmella calva

  

-- 
Dr. Gurcharan Singh
Retired  Associate Professor
SGTB Khalsa College, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007
Res: 932 Anand Kunj, Vikas Puri, New Delhi-110018.
Phone: 011-25518297  Mob: 9810359089

Dinesh Valke

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Dec 5, 2012, 12:01:14 AM12/5/12
to Gurcharan Singh, Giby Kuriakose, efloraofindia
Gurcharan ji ... these are very useful keys. Thank you very much.
Regards.
Dinesh.


--
 
 
 

Chitra Shanker

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Dec 5, 2012, 1:04:33 AM12/5/12
to Gurcharan Singh, Giby Kuriakose, efloraofindia
Wow Sir Thank you for the keys.
Chitra

On Wed, Dec 5, 2012 at 10:17 AM, Gurcharan Singh <sing...@gmail.com> wrote:

--
 
 
 



--
Dr. Chitra Shanker
Sr. Scientist (Entomology)
Directorate of Rice Research,
Rajendranagar, Hyderabad -500030


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