Revised identification key for woody species of Euphorbia

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Gurcharan Singh

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Mar 11, 2011, 9:11:40 AM3/11/11
to efloraofindia
Revised identification key for the woody species of Euphorbia 

Stems unarmed; without stipular spines
     Leaves shorter than 10 cm, all leaves of same colour 
          Stem and leaves uniformly red, leaves in whorls of three, petiole almost as long as blade.......E. cotoniifolia
          Stem and leaves green, leaves alternate, petiole much shorter than blade
               Leaves shorter than 2 cm, less than 2 mm broad, branches straight, mostly leafless
                                        (leaves early deciduous)......................................................................E. tirucalli
               Leaves longer than 3 cm, more than 2 cm broad, branches zigzag, mostly with leaves.......E. tithymaloides
     Leaves longer than 10 cm;  lower leaves green, upper partly or uniformally coloured 
- Hide quoted text -
               Leaves below the inflorescence uniformally coloured (red, white or yellow); leaves not lobed...E. pulcherrima
               Leaves below the inflorescence coloured only at base; leaves lobed or not
                    Base of upper leaves pale green or pale white; leaves lobed or not...............................E. heterophylla
                    Base of upper leaves red; leaves lobed......................................................................E. cyathophora
Stems armed with spines
     Spines borne on stem, usually longer than 1 cm; two showy bracts around cyathium...................E. milii
     Spines borne on raised shield, usually shorter than 1 cm, two showy bracts lacking                    
          Stem rounded, not angled or winged
               Shrub wiithout trunk with branches arising from base, smaller leaves (3-8 cm long)
                                                                                             and longer spines 0.5-1 cm.............E caducifolia
               Tree with distinct trunk, leaves 10-25 cm long, spines shorter than 0.5 cm........................E. nivulia).
          Stem angled or winged
                Angles not produced into wing, spirally arranged:....................................................... E. neriifolia
               Angles produced into wings
                    Wings 3-4
                          The wings running straight, sinuate, regularly dentate
                                             Stems green without white bands....................................................E. antiquorum
                                             Stems white wholly or partially
                                                        The stems with white bands on faces
                                                              Apex of stem not cristate (without crowns at tips)...........E. lactea
                                                              Apex of stem cristate (with crowns at tips)......................E lactea cv. Cristata           
                                                       The  stems uniformly greyish white...................................... ...E. lactea cv. White Ghost     
                         The wings running spirally, ...................................................................................E. tortilis 
                 Wings 5-6, undulate.....................................................................................................E. royleana
                       


--
Dr. Gurcharan Singh
Retired  Associate Professor
SGTB Khalsa College, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007
Res: 932 Anand Kunj, Vikas Puri, New Delhi-110018.
Phone: 011-25518297  Mob: 9810359089
http://people.du.ac.in/~singhg45/

Rashida Atthar

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Mar 11, 2011, 9:47:37 AM3/11/11
to Gurcharan Singh, efloraofindia
Sir, wanted to clarify  two keys whether they should be included or not :  
One :      Stems not  developed above ground  leaves all radical and
              Stem well developed above ground , leaves not radical 
Second : Cyathia is red in E. caducifolia
              Cyathia is green in E. neriifolia.
 
regards,
Rashida.

Pankaj Kumar

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Mar 11, 2011, 9:55:37 AM3/11/11
to Gurcharan Singh, efloraofindia
Stem without spines
   Leaves red/brown/reddish-brown …………………………........Euphorbia cotinifolia
   Leaves green or green with variegations
      Leaves usually present for short
      duration towards the terminal end of stem ..……………......Euphorbia tirucallii
      Leaves present for longer duration
      not just confined to the terminal ends
         Leaves alternate scattered distichously …………............Euphorbia tithymaloides
         Leaves alternate, scattered spirally
         (not distichously atleast)
            Bracts uniformly coloured
            (yellow or red or white in colour) …………………….......Euphorbia pulcherrima
            Bracts coloured but not completely
               Bracts red coloured towards
               the basal part  ……………………………......………...Euphorbia heterophylla
               Bracts white coloured towards
               the basal part …………………………………....……...Euphorbia cyathophora

Stem with spines
   Stem red/brown/reddish-brown in colour,
   normally not more than 1.5cm thick ……………………….......Euphorbia milii
                                                                        (excluding polyploid hybrids)
   Stem green/white/greyish-green/variegated,
   normally more than 3cm thick
      Stem almost cylindric
         Trunk absent, place of attachment
         of spines raised ……………………………………..............Euphorbia caducifolia
         Trunk present, place of attachment
         of spines almost embedded atleast not raised …………...Euphorbia nivulia
     Stem angular or winged
        Wings 3-4
              Wings straight, sinuate or dentate
                 Stem green without
                 white bands …………………..............................…Euphorbia antiquorum
                 Stem variegated with
                 white or white bands
                 between two wings …………..…......................…...Euphorbia lactea
            Wings spiral ………………………........................…….Euphorbia tortilis
        Wings 5-6 ……………………………......................…...….Euphorbia royleana

Varieties may be kept separately I assume.
Key is 98% yours and I just added and deleted few things so even less than 2% of my knowledge involved.
Regards
Pankaj


--
***********************************************
"TAXONOMISTS GETTING EXTINCT AND SPECIES DATA DEFICIENT !!"


Pankaj Kumar Ph.D. (Orchidaceae)
Research Associate
Greater Kailash Sacred Landscape Project
Department of Habitat Ecology
Wildlife Institute of India
Post Box # 18
Dehradun - 248001, India

Gurcharan Singh

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Mar 11, 2011, 10:05:50 AM3/11/11
to Pankaj Kumar, efloraofindia
Thanks a lot Pankaj ji

Members can take help of both the keys.


-- 
Dr. Gurcharan Singh
Retired  Associate Professor
SGTB Khalsa College, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007
Res: 932 Anand Kunj, Vikas Puri, New Delhi-110018.
Phone: 011-25518297  Mob: 9810359089
http://people.du.ac.in/~singhg45/ 

Gurcharan Singh

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Mar 11, 2011, 10:10:57 AM3/11/11
to Pankaj Kumar, efloraofindia
Rashida ji
Stem is developed in both. In practice in shrubs the branches arising from base are known as stems only. The difference is of common stem better known as trunk. In trees we have a trunk which is single for some distance after which the branches arise (E. nivulia and others). In Shrubs there is no trunk and individual branches (stems) arise from the base.



-- 
Dr. Gurcharan Singh
Retired  Associate Professor
SGTB Khalsa College, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007
Res: 932 Anand Kunj, Vikas Puri, New Delhi-110018.
Phone: 011-25518297  Mob: 9810359089
http://people.du.ac.in/~singhg45/ 

Rashida Atthar

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Mar 11, 2011, 10:25:25 AM3/11/11
to Gurcharan Singh, Pankaj Kumar, efloraofindia
Sir, my clarification is for - the leaves all radical  and leaves not all radical - should it be be a key or  not .
 
Sir, also request you to have  a relook at Samir ji's post and the colour of the cyathia  I think red should be E. caducifolia and   green  should be E. neriifolia. Sorry, but  I  feel omission of important floral elements will lead to some confusion in the keys. Hope this is taken as constructive criticism!
 
regards,
Rashida.  

Gurcharan Singh

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Mar 11, 2011, 10:46:37 AM3/11/11
to Rashida Atthar, Pankaj Kumar, efloraofindia
Rashida ji
Please clarify where you want to use radical leaves or not. All leaves radical means there is  no stem at all and a leafless scape would arise at the time of flowering to carry the inflorescence up. On the other hand if all leaves are not radical means there would be some radical (basal) leaves and then some leaves on the aerial stem. 



-- 
Dr. Gurcharan Singh
Retired  Associate Professor
SGTB Khalsa College, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007
Res: 932 Anand Kunj, Vikas Puri, New Delhi-110018.
Phone: 011-25518297  Mob: 9810359089
http://people.du.ac.in/~singhg45/ 

Samir Mehta

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Mar 11, 2011, 11:05:25 AM3/11/11
to efloraofindia
'Shrub wiithout trunk with branches arising from base, smaller
leaves (3-8 cm long) and longer spines 0.5-1 cm.............E
caducifolia

Trunk absent, place of attachment of spines raised ........E.
caducifolia'


Gurcharan ji,

Pankaj ji's and your (relevant portion of the) keys, for the
identification of E. cadufolia are presented above and my relevant
observations below:

1) the spines on the image I posted as E. cadufolia were definitely
>0.5 cm, closer to 1cm.
2) the place of attachment of spines is raised - no doubt on that
score.

The two above observations together with Rashida ji's point on color
of cyathia make a compelling case for my post to be labeled E.
cadufolia. May I request you to reassess your doubts in the matter.

Regards,

Samir




On Mar 11, 8:46 pm, Gurcharan Singh <singh...@gmail.com> wrote:
> Rashida ji
> Please clarify where you want to use radical leaves or not. All leaves
> radical means there is  no stem at all and a leafless scape would arise at
> the time of flowering to carry the inflorescence up. On the other hand if
> all leaves are not radical means there would be some radical (basal) leaves
> and then some leaves on the aerial stem.
>
> --
> Dr. Gurcharan Singh
> Retired  Associate Professor
> SGTB Khalsa College, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007
> Res: 932 Anand Kunj, Vikas Puri, New Delhi-110018.
> Phone: 011-25518297  Mob: 9810359089http://people.du.ac.in/~singhg45/
>
> On Fri, Mar 11, 2011 at 8:55 PM, Rashida Atthar <atthar.rash...@gmail.com>wrote:
>
> > Sir, my clarification is for - the leaves all radical  and leaves not all
> > radical - should it be be a key or  not .
>
> > Sir, also request you to have  a relook at Samir ji's post and the colour
> > of the cyathia  I think red should be E. caducifolia and   green  should be
> > E. neriifolia. Sorry, but  I  feel omission of important floral elements
> > will lead to some confusion in the keys. Hope this is taken as constructive
> > criticism!
>
> > regards,
> > Rashida.
> > On Fri, Mar 11, 2011 at 8:40 PM, Gurcharan Singh <singh...@gmail.com>wrote:
>
> >> Rashida ji
> >> Stem is developed in both. In practice in shrubs the branches arising from
> >> base are known as stems only. The difference is of common stem better known
> >> as trunk. In trees we have a trunk which is single for some distance after
> >> which the branches arise (E. nivulia and others). In Shrubs there is no
> >> trunk and individual branches (stems) arise from the base.
>
> >> --
> >> Dr. Gurcharan Singh
> >> Retired  Associate Professor
> >> SGTB Khalsa College, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007
> >> Res: 932 Anand Kunj, Vikas Puri, New Delhi-110018.
> >> Phone: 011-25518297  Mob: 9810359089
> >>http://people.du.ac.in/~singhg45/
>
> >>   On Fri, Mar 11, 2011 at 8:35 PM, Gurcharan Singh <singh...@gmail.com>wrote:
>
> >>> Thanks a lot Pankaj ji
>
> >>> Members can take help of both the keys.
>
> >>> --
>
> >>> Dr. Gurcharan Singh
> >>> Retired  Associate Professor
> >>> SGTB Khalsa College, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007
> >>> Res: 932 Anand Kunj, Vikas Puri, New Delhi-110018.
> >>> Phone: 011-25518297  Mob: 9810359089
> >>>http://people.du.ac.in/~singhg45/
>

Gurcharan Singh

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Mar 11, 2011, 11:11:47 AM3/11/11
to Samir Mehta, efloraofindia
Samir ji
Please look at the second photograph in your post. If they are the same plant, you can clearly see spirally arranged spines in the second photograph even from a distance. They are never so in E. caducifolia. As for the colour observe the following plant of E. caducifolia



-- 
Dr. Gurcharan Singh
Retired  Associate Professor
SGTB Khalsa College, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007
Res: 932 Anand Kunj, Vikas Puri, New Delhi-110018.
Phone: 011-25518297  Mob: 9810359089
http://people.du.ac.in/~singhg45/ 

Rashida Atthar

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Mar 11, 2011, 11:12:36 AM3/11/11
to Gurcharan Singh, Pankaj Kumar, efloraofindia
Sir my querries based on the following key from Dr. Almeida's flora on Euphorbia L. :
1. Stems not developed above ground; leaves all radical--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2
      2. Cymes only once dichotomous-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------  E. fusiformis
      2. Cymes 3 or more than 3 times dichotomous ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3
          3.  Cymes 3 times dichotomous; bracts triangular -acute or triangular -lanceolate----- -------------------E. panchganensis
          3.  Cymes 4-5 times dichotomous; bracts broadly triangula--------------------------------------------------------E. Khandalensis
1. Stems well developed above ground; leaves not all  radical--------------------------------------------------------------------------------4
          4. ---------
The entire long keys follows.  Have uploaded the same in one of mails in the last few days. 
 
Would like to get your opinion on omission of floral info. in keys  to be  developed  and whether that would ensure correctness of the keys. Thankyou.

Gurcharan Singh

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Mar 11, 2011, 11:17:42 AM3/11/11
to Rashida Atthar, Pankaj Kumar, efloraofindia
Rashida ji
I don't know much about these herbaceous species. May be it is fine if given in Dr. Almeida's Flora. Only don't copy it as such. Modify it keeping Indian perspective in mind.


-- 
Dr. Gurcharan Singh
Retired  Associate Professor
SGTB Khalsa College, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007
Res: 932 Anand Kunj, Vikas Puri, New Delhi-110018.
Phone: 011-25518297  Mob: 9810359089
http://people.du.ac.in/~singhg45/ 

Rashida Atthar

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Mar 11, 2011, 11:22:03 AM3/11/11
to Gurcharan Singh, Samir Mehta, efloraofindia
Sir I think there is some confusion here.  The keys from Dr. Almeida's flora and Aima's  book which have pictures also  do not show green cyathia. Besides both say stipular spines on prominent tubercules are arranged in spirals.  Perhaps the wiki plant is E. neriifolia than? . seek your clarification. Thankyou. Will try to scan and send the pictures from Aima's book also. 
 
regards,
Rashida. 

Pankaj Kumar

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Mar 11, 2011, 11:18:11 AM3/11/11
to Gurcharan Singh, Samir Mehta, efloraofindia
My key was deliberatey based on non floral characters, except for use of bracts at one branch. It can be used without even touching the plant. But yes, the usage of floral characters is always advisable.
Pankaj

Gurcharan Singh

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Mar 11, 2011, 11:35:39 AM3/11/11
to Pankaj Kumar, Samir Mehta, efloraofindia
You are right Pankaj ji
Our idea is to develop keys which can be used by common members without much knowledge of floral structure. Fortunately it helps in Euphorbia which have little cyathial diversity except for number of glands and gland appendages.

-- 
Dr. Gurcharan Singh
Retired  Associate Professor
SGTB Khalsa College, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007
Res: 932 Anand Kunj, Vikas Puri, New Delhi-110018.
Phone: 011-25518297  Mob: 9810359089
http://people.du.ac.in/~singhg45/ 

Gurcharan Singh

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Mar 11, 2011, 11:44:55 AM3/11/11
to Pankaj Kumar, Samir Mehta, efloraofindia
Rashida ji
Please realise that in E. nerifolia the spines are borne on spirally arranged ribbed, whereas in both E. nivulia and E caducifolia the stem is neither ribbed, angled or winged. In E. caducifolia the cyathia are yellow in flower, reddish in fruit. Please see the following link



-- 
Dr. Gurcharan Singh
Retired  Associate Professor
SGTB Khalsa College, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007
Res: 932 Anand Kunj, Vikas Puri, New Delhi-110018.
Phone: 011-25518297  Mob: 9810359089
http://people.du.ac.in/~singhg45/ 

Samir Mehta

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Mar 11, 2011, 11:46:32 AM3/11/11
to efloraofindia
No doubt of the spiral arrangement of the spines in the second image
Gurcharan ji.
Many thanks for the clarification.

Regards,

Samir



On Mar 11, 9:11 pm, Gurcharan Singh <singh...@gmail.com> wrote:
> Samir ji
> Please look at the second photograph in your post. If they are the same
> plant, you can clearly see spirally arranged spines in the second photograph
> even from a distance. They are never so in E. caducifolia. As for the colour
> observe the following plant of E. caducifolia
>
> http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Euphorbia_caducifolia2_ies.jpg
>
> <http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Euphorbia_caducifolia2_ies.jpg>
> --
> Dr. Gurcharan Singh
> Retired  Associate Professor
> SGTB Khalsa College, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007
> Res: 932 Anand Kunj, Vikas Puri, New Delhi-110018.
> Phone: 011-25518297  Mob: 9810359089http://people.du.ac.in/~singhg45/
>

Rashida Atthar

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Mar 11, 2011, 12:05:03 PM3/11/11
to Gurcharan Singh, Pankaj Kumar, efloraofindia
Sir the above keys are in Flora of Maharashtra ! 

Rashida Atthar

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Mar 11, 2011, 12:10:48 PM3/11/11
to Gurcharan Singh, Pankaj Kumar, Samir Mehta, efloraofindia
Thankyou Sir for the clarifications. So I take it that the keys in the flora mentioning the red cyathia are incorect or incomplete which led me to  seek these clarifications. 
 
regards,
Rashida.

Gurcharan Singh

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Mar 11, 2011, 10:45:22 PM3/11/11
to Rashida Atthar, Pankaj Kumar, Samir Mehta, efloraofindia
With the addition of Euphorbia pseudograntii (formerly Synadenium grantii) the revised key is enlarged below



Stems unarmed; without stipular spines
     All leaves of same colour 
          Leaves longer than 8 cm, green.............................................................................................E. pseudograntii
          Leaves up to 8 cm long
               Stem and leaves uniformly red, leaves in whorls of three, petiole almost as long as blade.......E. cotoniifolia
               Stem and leaves green, leaves alternate, petiole much shorter than blade
                     Leaves shorter than 2 cm, less than 2 mm broad, branches straight, mostly leafless
                                             (leaves early deciduous)......................................................................E. tirucalli
                      Leaves longer than 3 cm, more than 2 cm broad, branches zigzag, mostly with leaves....E. tithymaloides
    All leaves not of same colour;  lower leaves green, upper partly or uniformally coloured; leaves longer than 8 cm 
               Leaves below the inflorescence uniformally coloured (red, white or yellow); leaves not lobed...E. pulcherrima
               Leaves below the inflorescence coloured only at base; leaves lobed or not
                    Base of upper leaves pale green or pale white; leaves lobed or not...................................E. heterophylla
                    Base of upper leaves red; leaves lobed..........................................................................E. cyathophora
Stems armed with spines
     Spines borne on stem, usually longer than 1 cm; two showy bracts around cyathium.......................E. milii
     Spines borne on raised shield, usually shorter than 1 cm, two showy bracts lacking                    
          Stem rounded, not angled or winged
               Shrub wiithout trunk with branches arising from base, smaller leaves (3-8 cm long)
                                                                                             and longer spines 0.5-1 cm.............E caducifolia
               Tree with distinct trunk, leaves 10-25 cm long, spines shorter than 0.5 cm........................E. nivulia).
          Stem angled or winged
                Angles not produced into wing, spirally arranged:....................................................... E. neriifolia
               Angles produced into wings
                    Wings 3-4
                          The wings running straight, sinuate, regularly dentate
                                             Stems green without white bands....................................................E. antiquorum
                                             Stems white wholly or partially
                                                        The stems with white bands on faces
                                                              Apex of stem not cristate (without crowns at tips)...........E. lactea
                                                              Apex of stem cristate (with crowns at tips)......................E lactea cv. Cristata           
                                                       The  stems uniformly greyish white...................................... ...E. lactea cv. White Ghost     
                         The wings running spirally, ...................................................................................E. tortilis 
                 Wings 5-6, undulate.....................................................................................................E. royleana
                       
Dr. Gurcharan Singh
Retired  Associate Professor
SGTB Khalsa College, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007
Res: 932 Anand Kunj, Vikas Puri, New Delhi-110018.
Phone: 011-25518297  Mob: 9810359089
http://people.du.ac.in/~singhg45/ 

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