FAMILY OF THE WEEK: SOLANACEAE

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satish phadke

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Jan 30, 2009, 11:00:24 AM1/30/09
to indiantreepix Indian, wildflowerindia
FAMILY OF THE WEEK: SOLANACEAE (NIGHTSHADE FAMILY)
A large family with over 2000 species worldwide. In India there are 15 genera and 88 species. Many species are cultivated while others occur chiefly in Himalayas and southern and eastern parts of India.
Vegetative characters:
They are mostly annual or perennial herbs, sometimes shrubs or small trees and rarely climbers. The stems are prickly or spinous, the spines are modified branches. The vascular bundles are bicollateral. Underground tubers are found in Solanum tuberosum. The leaves are alternate,exstipulate, simple,entire, lobed or pinnatified. In the inflorescence portion the leaves often become subopposite or opposite.
Inflorescence and flowers:
Often cymes which are lateral, axillary or terminal. In some species of Solanum they are extraaxillary appearing to arise from the middle of an internode. Very frequently they are solitary and axillary as in Datura and Nicardia and rarely clustered as in Withania. The bracts and bracteoles are absent.
The flowers are actinomorphic or sometimes zygomorphic, bisexual, pentamerous and hypogynous. The calyx is five lobed or five partite and usually persistent and much enlarged in fruit. The corolla is gamopetalous and funnell shaped(Datura) campanuloate(Physalis) or rotate(Solanum) The limb is usually five lobed or rarely ten lobed as in Datura and the lobes are folded contorted or valvate. The stamens are usually five,epipetalous on the corolla tube and alternate with the lobes. They are commonly of unequal heights. The anthers are ovate or oblong, sometimes connivant into a cone as in Solanum, dithecous,introrse and dehiscing by longitudinal slits or by apical pores.(Solanum)
Thhe gynoecium is typically bicarpellary and syncarpous. The ovary is superior and bilocular with axile placentation.The style is linear and the stigma is capitate or shortly lobed.
A hypogynous nectariferous disc is usually present at the base of the ovary.
Fruits and seeds:
The fruit is a berry which is sometimes (Physalis)enclosed within an inflated bladder-like calyx or capsule. The seeds are numerous, compressed, discoid or subreniform, endospermic and with a curved or straight embryo.
Pollination and dispersal:
Conspicuous flowers and nectariferous disc favor insect pollination. Solanum tuberosum is devoid of nectar and is scarcely visited by insects. Here usually self pollination occurs by the style curving backwards to touch the anthers.
The seeds are usually dispersed by birds and animals.Species of Datura,Atropa and Hyoscyamus are dispersed by water.
Examples:
Solanum tuberosum (Potato, Batata)
Solanum melongena (Egg plant,Brinjal,Baingan,Wang) Lycopersicon esculentum(Tomato)
Capsicum annuum
(Chillies, Mirch)
Nicotiana tobacum
(Tobacco)
Atropa belladonna
(Belladonna)
Hyoscymus niger
Datura stramonium
Withania somnifera
(Ashwagandha)
Withania coagulans (Indian rennett)
Petunia



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http:// satishphadke.blogspot.com
DSCN1167a.jpg
DSCN1179a.jpg
Solanum1.jpg
Solanum anguivi1.jpg
Solanum.jpg

satish phadke

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Jan 30, 2009, 11:03:28 AM1/30/09
to indiantreepix Indian, wildflowerindia
I am aware that many photographs of this family have been posted by the members. I have added only few of the readily available pictures at prsent. All are welcome to post more pictures.
Dr Phadke

2009/1/30 satish phadke <phadke...@gmail.com>



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http:// satishphadke.blogspot.com

Satish Phadke

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Apr 5, 2011, 9:16:40 AM4/5/11
to indiantreepix Indian
Forwarding again my post to INDIANTREEPIX dated 30Jan 2009.
Please correct me if any errors/mistakes.
Dr Phadke
DSCN1167a.jpg
DSCN1179a.jpg
Solanum1.jpg
Solanum anguivi1.jpg
Solanum.jpg

Gurcharan Singh

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Apr 5, 2011, 9:32:50 AM4/5/11
to Satish Phadke, indiantreepix Indian
Very nice and useful write up Satish ji


-- 
Dr. Gurcharan Singh
Retired  Associate Professor
SGTB Khalsa College, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007
Res: 932 Anand Kunj, Vikas Puri, New Delhi-110018.
Phone: 011-25518297  Mob: 9810359089
http://people.du.ac.in/~singhg45/ 
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