A per-field breakdown is a bit of work that I'm not sure that when our team might have time to assemble for you, but I can at least provide some high-level info that might help get you started:
All main entities have an entry on the object table, which is where they get their ID. This object ID value is typically used as the key to link entities across tables.
The main data on a description export will come from the information_object and information_object_i18n tables. Note fields - of which there are a few in ISAD, more in DACS, and a LOT in the RAD template - are in their own separate table, so take a look at note and note_i18n.
Other related entities linked to the description will have entries on their own primary tables - so for example, you'd find linked subject access points on the term and term_i18n tables, the linked archival institution on nthe repository and repository_i18n tables, related authorities and name access points on the actor and actor_i18n tables, etc...
If the description was first created via an import, then the sourcename (a parameter that can be passed during a CLI import - or else it defaults to using the filename of the CSV) and the legacyID values from the original import will be stored in the keymap table.
I would suggest that you take a look at some of the example queries on this page, which may also help: