As stated in the official documentation:
Unlike a Cloud Run service, which listens for and serves requests, a Cloud Run job only runs its tasks and exits when finished. A job does not listen for or serve requests, and cannot accept arbitrary parameters at execution.
Therefore, there is no way for a Cloud Run job to receive parameters at execution time.
An approach could be as stated in the Stack Overflow answer:To update the parameters as stated in Configure container entrypoint command and arguments, then execute the job.