January 1993 GNU's Bulletin

Skip to first unread message


Apr 21, 1993, 2:15:05 AM4/21/93
to info...@prep.ai.mit.edu
Here is the ascii version of the latest GNU's Bulletin, which was first
distributed at the January 93 Usenix in San Diego, CA. This ascii version is
essentially the same as the printed version except for typography, a few
graphics, a few corrections and a few additions.

Please freely redistribute this text to other forums under the term of the
Copyright Notice below.

If you would like a hardcopy, send your request to the FSF address below
(including a small donation to cover copying costs is appreciated, but is not
required). If you live in an area served by the US Post Office, please also
include a SASE (Self-Addressed Stamped ($0.52) Number 10 or A5 sized
Envelope). If you're from outside the USA, sending a mailing label rather
than an envelope, and enough International Reply Coupons for a package of
about 100 grams is appreciated but not required. (Including a few extra
International Reply Coupons for copying costs is also appreciated.)

thanx -len

Member of the League for Programming Freedom.
Ask <l...@uunet.uu.net> via e-mail for information.


GNU's Bulletin January, 1993

The GNU's Bulletin is the semi-annual newsletter of the
Free Software Foundation, bringing you news about the GNU Project.

Free Software Foundation, Inc. Telephone: (617) 876-3296
675 Massachusetts Avenue Electronic mail: `g...@prep.ai.mit.edu'
Cambridge, MA 02139 USA


GNU's Who
GNU's Bulletin
What Is the Free Software Foundation?
What Is Copyleft?
LGPL Query
Free Software Support
Free Software Support Far From Home
GNUs Flashes
Please Support Free Software
Cygnus Matches Donations!
Andrew Toolkit Stays Free
GNU Zip to Replace Compress
What Is the LPF?
Project GNU Status Report
Sources of Free Information
GNU Software Worldwide
Another Kernel Built with GCC
GNU in Japan
GNU Technical Seminar in Tokyo
Moscow Free Software Conference
Project GNU Wish List
A Small Way to Help Free Software
GNU Documentation
How to Get GNU Software
GNU Software Available Now
Contents of the Emacs Tape
Contents of the Languages Tape
Contents of the Utilities Tape
Contents of the Experimental Tape
Contents of the X11 Tapes
Berkeley Networking 2 Tape
VMS Emacs and Compiler Tapes
GNU Source Code CD-ROM
MS-DOS Distribution
Contents of the Demacs diskettes
Contents of the DJGPP diskettes
Contents of the Selected Utilities diskettes
Contents of the Windows diskette
The Deluxe Distribution
Tape Subscription Service
Free Software for Microcomputers
Announcing FSF T-shirts
Thank GNUs
Free Software Foundation Order Form

GNU's Who

Michael Bushnell is working on the GNU operating system and maintains GNU
`tar'. Jim Blandy is preparing GNU Emacs 19. Roland McGrath is polishing
the C library, maintains GNU `make', and helps with the GNU operating system.

Tom Lord is writing a graphics library and working on Oleo, the GNU
spreadsheet. Brian Fox is improving various programs that he has written
including `makeinfo', `info', the `readline' library, and BASH, and is
writing the `BASH' manual. Jan Brittenson is working on the C interpreter and
maintaining `finger'. Mike Haertel is making GNU `grep' POSIX-compliant and
beginning work on optical character recognition. David MacKenzie maintains
most of GNU's small utilities--more programs than nearly everyone else

Melissa Weisshaus is editing documentation and writing the `GNU Utilities'
manual. Robert J. Chassell, our Secretary/Treasurer, handles our publishing
in addition to many other tasks.

Noah Friedman is our system ambiguator. Lisa `Opus' Goldstein continues to
run the business end of FSF, with Gena Lynne Bean assisting in the office.
Spike MacPhee assists RMS with administrative tasks. Charles Hannum works on
typesetting and many other jobs.

Richard Stallman continues as a volunteer who does countless tasks, such as C
compiler maintenance and finishing the `C Library' manual.

Volunteer Len Tower remains our on-line JOAT (jack-of-all-trades), handling
mailing lists and gnUSENET, information requests, etc.

GNU's Bulletin

Written and Edited by: Melissa Weisshaus, Noah S. Friedman,
Charles Hannum, Robert J. Chassell, Lisa Goldstein,
and Richard Stallman.

Illustrations by: Etienne Suvasa and Jamal Hannah

Japanese Edition by: Mieko Hikichi and Nobuyuki Hikichi

The GNU's Bulletin is published in January and June of each year. Please
note that there is no postal mailing list. To get a copy, send your name and
address with your request to the address on the front page. Enclosing a
business sized self-addressed stamped envelope ($0.52) and/or a donation to
cover copying costs is appreciated but not required. If you're from outside
the USA, sending a mailing label rather than an envelope, and enough
International Reply Coupons for a package of about 100 grams is appreciated
but not required. (Including a few extra International Reply Coupons for
copying costs is also appreciated.)

Copyright (C) 1993 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

Permission is granted to anyone to make or distribute verbatim copies of this
document as received, in any medium, provided that the copyright notice and
permission notice are preserved, and that the distributor grants the
recipient permission for further redistribution as permitted by this notice.

What Is the Free Software Foundation?

The Free Software Foundation is dedicated to eliminating restrictions on
people's abilities and rights to copy, redistribute, understand, and modify
computer programs. We do this by promoting the development and use of free
software in all areas of computer use. Specifically, we are putting together
a complete integrated software system named "GNU" (GNU's Not Unix) that will
be upwardly compatible with Unix. Most parts of this system are already
working, and we are distributing them now.

The word "free" in our name pertains to freedom, not price. You may or may
not pay money to get GNU software. Either way, you have two specific
freedoms once you have the software: first, the freedom to copy the program
and give it away to your friends and co-workers; and second, the freedom to
change the program as you wish, by having full access to source code.
Furthermore, you can study the source and learn how such programs are
written. You may then be able to port it, improve it, and share your changes
with others. If you redistribute GNU software, you may charge a fee for the
physical act of transferring a copy, or you may give away copies.

Other organizations distribute whatever free software happens to be
available. By contrast, the Free Software Foundation concentrates on
development of new free software, working towards a GNU system complete
enough to eliminate the need for you to purchase a proprietary system.

Besides developing GNU, FSF distributes copies of GNU software and manuals
for a distribution fee, and accepts tax-deductible gifts to support GNU
development. Most of FSF's funds come from its distribution service. We are
tax exempt; you can deduct donations to us on your U.S. tax returns.

The Board of the Foundation is: Richard M. Stallman, President;
Robert J. Chassell, Secretary/Treasurer; Gerald J. Sussman, Harold Abelson,
and Leonard H. Tower Jr., Directors.

What Is Copyleft?

The simplest way to make a program free is to put it in the public domain,
uncopyrighted. But this allows anyone to copyright and restrict its use
against the author's wishes, thus denying others the right to access and
freely redistribute it. This completely perverts the original intent.

To prevent this, we copyright our software and manuals in a novel manner.
Typical software companies use copyrights to take away your freedoms. We use
the "copyleft" to preserve them. It is a legal instrument that requires
those who pass on the program to include the rights to further redistribute
it, and to see and change the code; the code and rights become legally

The copyleft used by the GNU Project is made from a combination of a regular
copyright notice and the "GNU General Public License" (GPL). The GPL is a
copying license which basically says (in several pages of legalese) that you
have the freedoms discussed above. An alternate form, the "GNU Library
General Public License" (LGPL), applies to certain GNU Libraries. This
license permits linking the libraries into proprietary executables under
certain conditions. The appropriate license is included in all GNU source
code distributions and in many of our manuals. We will also send you a copy.
Please send your request to either address on the front cover.

Note that the library license actually represents a strategic retreat. We
would prefer to insist as much as possible that programs based on GNU
software must themselves be free. However, in the case of libraries, we
found that insisting they be used only in free software appeared to
discourage use of the libraries rather than encouraging free applications.

We strongly encourage you to copyleft your programs and documentation, and we
have made it as simple as possible for you to do so. The details on how to
apply either license appear at the end of each license.

LGPL Query

Both `libg++' and `libc' are covered by the Library General Public License.
Do you use either of these libraries in a proprietary application under the
terms of the LGPL? We would like to know to help evaluate whether the LGPL
is doing the job it was designed to do. Please send mail to
`g...@prep.ai.mit.edu', or to the postal address on the front cover of this

Free Software Support

The Free Software Foundation does not provide any technical support.
Although we create software, we leave it to others to earn a living providing
support. We see programmers as providing a service, much as doctors and
lawyers now do; both medical and legal knowledge are freely redistributable
entities for which the practitioners charge a distribution and service fee.

We maintain a list of people who offer support and other consulting services,
called the GNU Service Directory. It is in the file `etc/SERVICE' in the GNU
Emacs distribution, `SERVICE' in the GCC distribution, and
`/pub/gnu/GNUinfo/SERVICE' on `prep.ai.mit.edu'. Contact us if you would
like a printed copy or wish to be listed in it.

If you find a deficiency in any GNU software, we want to know. We have many
Internet mailing lists for announcements, bug reports, and questions. They
are also gatewayed into USENET news as the `gnu.*' newsgroups. You can get a
list of the mailing lists available by mailing your request to either address
on the front cover.

If you have no Internet access, you can get mail and USENET news via UUCP.
Contact a local UUCP site, or a commercial UUCP site such as:

UUNET Communications Services,
3110 Fairview Park Drive - Suite 570,
Falls Church, VA 22042
Phone: (703) 876-5050
E-mail: `in...@uunet.uu.net'

A list of commercial uucp and networking providers is posted periodically to
USENET in newsgroup `news.announce.newusers' with Subject: `How to become a
USENET site'.

When we receive a bug report, we usually try to fix the problem. While our
bug fixes may seem like individual assistance, they are not. Our task is so
large that we must focus on that which helps the community as a whole. We do
not have the resources to help individuals. We may send you a patch for a
bug that helps us test the fix and ensure its quality. If your bug report
does not evoke a solution from us, you may still get one from another user
who reads our bug report mailing lists. Otherwise, use the Service Directory.

So, please do not ask us to help you install the software or figure out how
to use it--but do tell us how an installation script does not work or where
the documentation is unclear.

Free Software Support Far From Home

Here are some free software support companies that we have not mentioned
before. We urge you to employ support service companies such as these,
because you help the industry as well as yourself by getting your pick of
support vendors. The FSF is not affiliated with any of these companies. For
the addresses of other support companies, please consult the Service

* From the Far East . . .

People in Japan can now contact a local company for GNU software
support. The company is named Wingnut (Fax only: +81-3-3954-5174). The
organizers were inspired by the GNU Manifesto. Wingnut provides two
services: porting and customizing GNU software, and answering technical
questions (including how to install the software). Wingnut also helped
support the recent GNU Technical Seminar in Tokyo.

* . . . to Europe . . .

Signum Support AB, in Linkoping, Sweden, is a software company that
supports free software. It has experience in such diverse areas as
compiler internals, computer graphics, version control systems, and

The company can provide precompiled, ready-to-install binaries along
with the source (currently only for Sun-3 and Sun-4), and it offers a
subscription service for new versions which can be sent monthly or at
any other interval.

Signum also specializes in finding, investigating, and recommending
other free software in any area of the customer's choice.

Signum's service costs vary. The consulting cost ranges from 400-600
SEK/hour. You can contact Signum Support AB as follows:

Signum Support AB
Box 2044
S-580 02 Linkoping
+46 (0)13 21 46 00 (voice)
+46 (0)13 21 47 00 (fax)

* . . . to the Far West!

Hundred Acre Consulting provides support and development services to
organizations of all sizes. It specializes in supporting GNU C++ and C;
but also provides support for all other GNU software, and some other
free and public domain software as well. Hundred Acre Consulting
operates on a service contract basis, which can include email,
telephone, and on-site support depending on the level of the contract.

Rates vary from $58 to $75 per hour or are based on a fixed bid. You
can contact Hundred Acre Consulting at:

Hundred Acre Consulting
1280 Terminal Way, Suite 26
Reno, NV 89502-3243 USA

GNUs Flashes

* Conference in GNU Russia

A conference on Free Software will take place in Moscow from April 19
through 23, 1993. See the article "Moscow Free Software Conference".

* Compress Suppressed

`gzip' is the GNU replacement for `compress'. It is currently in beta
release. `gzip' compresses much more than `compress' does; a file
compressed with `gzip' is usually two thirds the size of a file
compressed with `compress'. Additionally, although `gzip' is slower
than `compress', `gunzip' is faster than `uncompress'. This is
important for the users of software distributions.

* Free Software Association of Germany

The Free Software Association of Germany (FSAG) is a group of people
developing free software. However, they also want to support the Free
Software Foundation. They have offered to sell FSF tapes through their
offices and send the proceeds to the FSF.

You can order FSF tapes and manuals from FSAG at:

c/o Michaela Merz
Heimatring 19
6000 Frankfurt/Main 70
fidonet: fsag, 2:247/14

phone: ++49-69-6312083
bbs: ++49-69-6312934
bbs: ++49-69-6312083
bbs: ++49-69-634588

If you are in Europe and find it inconvenient to do business across the
Atlantic, we urge you to get your GNU software from FSAG as a way of
supporting the GNU Project.

* New Programs on the Emacs Tape

CLISP 1993.01.01 and PCL 1992.12.08 have been added to the Emacs tape.
See "Contents of the Emacs Tape" for more information.

* New Programs on the Utilities Tape

Autoconf 1.2, Fax 3.2.1, mtools, recode, `wdiff' 0.4, `screen' 3.2b, and
Termcap 1.1 have all been recently added to the Utilities tape. See
"Contents of the Utilities Tape" for more information.

* New programs on the Experimental Tape

Binutils 2.0 and Oleo 1.2.1 have been added to the Experimental tape.
See "Contents of the Experimental Tape" for more information.

* GDB 4 is out of beta test

As of version 4.7, the GNU source-level C and C++ debugger is out of
beta test. For more information, see "Contents of the Languages Tape."

* Runtime Support for Objective C

A runtime system for the Objective C language is now available. As of
version 2.3, GCC can run Objective C programs on any of the supported
target machines.

* New Items Available

The Free Software Foundation has several new items and distribution
formats available.

* First CD-ROM

We have produced our first CD-ROM, which contains sources to the GNU
Project distribution and other free software (see "GNU Source Code

* FSF Distributing on Exabyte Cassettes

We are now offering our software on 8mm Exabyte cassettes in
addition to our regular formats.

* MS-DOS GNU Software on Diskettes

We are now distributing diskettes with some of the software that has
been ported to MS-DOS (see "MS-DOS Distribution").

* FSF Distributing Executables

The Deluxe Distribution Package includes executables and source for
all of our software in a choice of formats, as well as a printed
copy of each of our manuals (see "The Deluxe Distribution").

* Quarterly Subscription Service

The new quarterly Subscription Service provides four new versions
of the tape of your choice; we are offering this only for tapes
that change frequently (see "Tape Subscription Service").

* FSF T-shirts

And finally, we proudly offer GNU T-shirts; they are 100% cotton
and are available in two colors with a picture of a madly hacking
gnu. See "Announcing FSF T-shirts" for a fuller description.

* C Library Manual on tapes

Source for the `GNU C Library Reference Manual' is being distributed on
the Experimental Tape with the GNU C library. (It is not yet published
on paper.)

Please Support Free Software

If you believe in free software and you want to make sure there is more in
the future--please support the efforts of the FSF with a donation!

Your tax-deductible donation (on U.S. tax returns) will greatly help us reach
our goals.

$500 $250 $100 $50 other $______

Foreign currency:______

Circle the amount you are donating, cut out this form, and send it with your
donation to:

Free Software Foundation
675 Massachusetts Avenue
Cambridge, MA 02139 USA

Cygnus Matches Donations!

To encourage cash donations to the Free Software Foundation, Cygnus Support
will match gifts by its employees, and by its customers and their employees.

Cygnus will match donations from its employees up to a maximum of $1000 per
employee, and will match donations from customers and their employees at 50%
to a maximum of $1000 per customer. Cygnus Support will donate up to a total
of $10,000 in 1993.

Donations payable to the Free Software Foundation should be sent to Cygnus
Support where they will be matched and forwarded to the FSF each quarter.
The FSF will provide the contributor with a receipt to recognize the
contribution (which is tax-deductible on U.S. tax returns). Donations sent
to the FSF directly will not be matched, except by prior arrangement with
Cygnus Support.

Andrew Toolkit Stays Free

The Andrew Toolkit is both an extensible, object-oriented toolkit for
graphical user interfaces and a package of applications. The most
widely-used application is the Andrew Message System (AMS). The Toolkit is
distributed on the GNU Project's "optional" X Windows tape, and the GNU
Project's Source Code CD-ROM.

Not long ago, several people asked whether the Toolkit would stay free. It
will. The Andrew Toolkit Consortium plans to continue to make versions of
the Toolkit and the AMS freely usable and distributable. However, there is
(as there always has been) a catch: members of the Consortium get updates
sooner and more frequently than the rest of us. This provides Consortium
members with another incentive to continue as members.

GNU Zip to Replace Compress

by Richard Stallman

We finally have a data compression program that is as good as `compress'
(actually, somewhat better) and patent-free for the moment. It is called
`gzip' and was written by Jean-Loup Gailly, `jl...@chorus.fr'.

When compressing, `gzip' produces a new format all its own. We cannot
implement `compress'-compatible compression because of the LZW algorithm
patents. However, the patents do not prohibit uncompression, so `gzip' is
designed to recognize and properly uncompress files that were made by

`gzip' uses the file suffix `.z' for compressed files. We chose this because
GNU programs such as GNU `tar' and the Emacs 19 Dired mode use `z' as an
option or command pertaining to compression, and these would be less natural
and harder to remember if compressed files did not have `z' in their names.
This suffix conflicts with the `compact' program, but this does not seem to be
a big problem; distribution of `compact' files is not widespread.

We are gradually converting our FTP distribution files on `prep.ai.mit.edu'
to use `gzip'. We hope to stop distribution of `compress' soon. In the GNU
system, we plan to make the `compress' command run `gzip'.

While we think `gzip' does not infringe any patents we know of, it is always
possible it infringes others we have not heard about. Even if it is
patent-free today, new software patents are issued every day, and one
covering `gzip' may be issued at any moment. In September 1991, when we were
a week away from releasing another data compression program, a patent was
issued which covered the algorithm that it used. We never released that

Unfortunately, patents endanger any software development activity, and you
cannot effectively protect yourself from them except through political action
to change the law in your country and elsewhere. The author of `compress'
and the author of the program we almost used in 1991 have both joined the LPF.

What Is the LPF?

The League for Programming Freedom (LPF) aims to protect the freedom to write
software. This freedom is threatened by "look-and-feel" interface copyright
lawsuits and by software patents. The LPF does not endorse free software or
the FSF.

The League's members include programmers, entrepreneurs, students,
professors, and even some software companies.

From the League membership form:

The League for Programming Freedom is a grass-roots organization of
professors, students, business people, programmers, and users dedicated
to bringing back the freedom to write programs. The League is not
opposed to the legal system that Congress intended--copyright on
individual programs. Our aim is to reverse the recent changes made by
judges in response to special interests.

Membership dues in the League are $42 per year for programmers, managers
and professionals; $10.50 for students; $21 for others.

To join, please send a check and the following information:

* Your name and phone numbers (home, work, or both).

* The address to use for League mailings, a few each year (please
indicate whether it is your home address or your work address).

* The company you work for, and your position.

* Your email address, so the League can contact you for political
action. (If you don't want to be contacted for this, please say
so, but please give your email address anyway.)

* Please mention anything about you which would enable your
endorsement of LPF to impress the public.

* Please say whether you would like to help with LPF activities.

The League is not connected with the Free Software Foundation and is not
itself a free software organization. The FSF supports the League because,
like any software developer smaller than IBM, it is endangered by software
patents. You are in danger too! It would be easy to ignore the problem
until the day you or your employer is sued, but it is more prudent to
organize before that happens.

The address is:

League for Programming Freedom
1 Kendall Square - #143
P.O. Box 9171
Cambridge, MA 02139
Email: `l...@uunet.uu.net'
Phone: (617) 243-4091

If you haven't made up your mind yet, write to LPF for more information, or
send Internet mail to `l...@uunet.uu.net'.

Project GNU Status Report

* GNU Software Configuration Scheme

We now have a uniform scheme for configuring GNU software packages in
order to compile them. This makes it possible to configure all GNU
software in the same way. In particular, all GNU software will support
the same alternatives for naming machine types and system types.

The configuration scheme also supports configuring a directory that
contains several GNU packages with one command. When we have a complete
system, this will make it possible to configure the entire system at
once, eliminating the need to learn how to configure each of the
individual packages that make up the GNU system.

For tools used in compilation, the configuration scheme also lets you
specify both the host system and the target system, so you can configure
and build cross-compilation tools easily.

GCC version 2 and GDB version 4 support the new configuration scheme, as
do most of our other programs and collections (Emacs 19 will also
support it). The main exception now is Emacs version 18.

* The Hurd

We are developing the GNU Hurd, a set of servers that run on top of
Mach. Mach is a free message-passing kernel being developed by CMU.
The Hurd servers, in combination with the GNU C Library, provide
Unix-like functionality. Together with Mach they are the last major
components necessary for a complete GNU system. Currently there are
free ports of the Mach kernel to the 386 PC and the DEC PMAX
workstation. (The PMAX is one kind of MIPS-based DECstation.) Other
free ports of Mach are in progress. Contact CMU for more information if
you want to help with one of those or start one of your own. Porting
the GNU Hurd is easy (easier than porting GNU Emacs, certainly easier
than porting GCC) once a Mach port to a particular kind of hardware

There are some large projects relating to the Hurd that can be done by
volunteers. Those who can read and understand the source code with
fewer than two questions, and have the time for a large project, are
invited to make themselves known to Michael Bushnell.

* GNU Emacs

Emacs is the extensible, customizable, self-documenting real-time
display editor. GNU Emacs 18.59 is the current version. Emacs 18
maintenance continues for simple bug fixes.

Version 19 is being pretested. Its new features include:

* before and after change hooks

* source-level debugging of Emacs Lisp programs

* support for European character sets

* floating point numbers

* improved buffer allocation, using a new mechanism capable of
returning storage to the system when a buffer is killed

* simplified and improved processing of function keys, mouse clicks,
and mouse movement

* multiple X windows (`frames' to Emacs), with a separate X window
for the minibuffer or with a minibuffer attached to each X window

* X selection processing, including CLIPBOARD selections

* popup menus defined by keymaps

* interfacing with the X resource manager

* scrollbars

* support for the GNU configuration scheme

Thanks go to Alan Carroll and the people who worked on Epoch for
generating initial feedback to a multi-windowed Emacs.

Other features under consideration for later releases of Version 19

* associating property lists with regions of text in a buffer

* multiple font, color, and pixmaps defined by those properties

* different visibility conditions for the regions, and for various
windows showing one buffer

* hooks to be run if point or mouse moves outside a certain range

* incrementally saving the undo history in a file, so that
`recover-file' also reinstalls the buffer's undo history

* static menu bars

* C Compiler

GCC supports both ANSI standard and traditional C, as well as the GNU
extensions to C. Two versions of GCC are being maintained in parallel.
Version 1 is stable, but is still maintained with bug fixes. For more
information about version 1, see "Contents of the Languages Tape."

Version 2 of GCC is in late beta test and is getting close to being
reliable. It includes front ends for the languages C++ and Objective C.

New front ends are being developed, but they are not part of GCC yet. A
front end for Fortran is in alpha test. A front end for Ada is being
funded through the Ada 9X standards committee. Since it is a quite
complex language, we expect completion to take a while. Volunteers are
also developing front ends for Modula-3 and Pascal. There are mumblings
about other languages, but no one has volunteered to do Cobol yet. For
more information about version 2, see "Contents of the Experimental

* Binutils

Steve Chamberlain, Per Bothner, and others at Cygnus Support have
rewritten the binary utilities (including the linker). Version 2.0 is
based on the same Binary File Descriptor (BFD) library used by GDB. All
the tools can be run on a host that differs from the target (e.g.
cross-linking is supported). Furthermore, various forms of COFF and
other object file formats are supported. A tool can now deal with
object files in multiple formats all at once. For example, the linker
can read object files using two different formats, and write the output
in a third format. The linker interprets a superset of the AT&T Linker
Command Language, which allows very general control over where segments
are placed in memory.

Improvements planned for release 2.1 include better Posix-compatible
archive handling and reduced memory use by the executables.

* GAS using BFD is on its way

This will complete the support for various object file formats.
Sometime before that there will be a bug-fix release of GAS.

* GNU C Library

Roland McGrath continues to work on the GNU C Library. It now conforms
to ANSI C-1989 and POSIX 1003.1-1990, and work is in progress on POSIX
1003.2 and Unix functions (BSD and System V). In the Hurd, the C
Library will do much of what the system calls do in Unix. Mike Haertel
has written a fast `malloc' which wastes less memory than the old GNU
`malloc'. The GNU regular-expression functions (`regex') now mostly
conform to the POSIX 1003.2 standard, and a new, faster regex
implementation should be ready soon.

GNU `stdio' lets you define new kinds of streams, just by writing a few
C functions. The `fmemopen' function uses this to open a stream on a
string, which can grow as necessary. You can define your own `printf'
formats to use a C function you have written. Also, you can safely use
format strings from user input to implement a `printf'-like function for
another programming language, for example. Extended `getopt' functions
are already used to parse options, including long options, in many GNU

The current version is 1.05. Version 1.06 will include complete support
for SVR4 and Solaris 2, and better support for Linux. For more
information, see "Contents of Experimental Tape."

The `GNU C Library Reference Manual' describes all the library
facilities, including both what Unix calls "library functions" and
"system calls." It is new, and we would like corrections and
improvements. Please send them to `bug-glib...@prep.ai.mit.edu'.
We won't print this manual on paper until it is more stable.


Aubrey Jaffer has written JACAL, a symbolic mathematics system for the
simplification and manipulation of equations and single- and
multiple-valued algebraic expressions constructed of numbers, variables,
radicals, and algebraic functions, differential operators, and holonomic
functions. In addition, vectors and matrices of the above objects are

JACAL is written in Scheme. An IEEE P1178 and R4RS compliant version of
Scheme ("SCM") written in C is available with JACAL. SCM runs on Amiga,
Atari-ST, MS-DOS, NOS/VE, VMS, Unix, and similar systems. SLIB is a
portable Scheme library that JACAL uses. JACAL, SLIB, and SCM sources
are available via anonymous FTP from `altdorf.ai.mit.edu' in
`/archive/scm' or `nexus.yorku.ca' in `/pub/scheme/new'.

The FSF is not distributing JACAL on tape yet. To receive an IBM PC
floppy disk with the source and executable files, send $99.00 to:

Aubrey Jaffer
84 Pleasant Street
Wakefield, MA 01880 USA

* `make'

GNU `make' version 3.63 has just been released. New features include a
standard GNU `configure' script, long option support, more flexible
environment variable support, and an improved `include' directive. GNU
`make' is fully compliant with the POSIX.2 standard, and also supports
parallel command execution, flexible implicit pattern rules, conditional
execution, and powerful text manipulation functions.

* Oleo

Oleo is a spreadsheet program. It still needs documentation. If you
would like to write a Texinfo manual for Oleo, contact Tom Lord,
`lo...@andrew.cmu.edu'. Please send bug reports regarding Oleo to
`bug-...@prep.ai.mit.edu'. For more information, see "Contents of
Experimental Tape."

* finger

Originally, each host on the Internet consisted of a single, reasonably
powerful computer, capable of handling many users at the same time.
Typically, a "site" (a physical location of computer users) would have
only one or two computers, even if they had 20 or more people who used
them. If a user at site A wanted to know about users logged on at site
B, a simple program could be invoked to query the host at site B about
the users who were logged on.

With the onset of more-power-per-person computing, the mainframe has
been set aside. A modern computing facility usually consists of one
user per host, and many hosts per site. This makes it a trial to find
out about logged-on users at another site, since you must query each
host to find out about the single user who is logged on.

GNU Finger is a simple and effective way around this problem, and serves
as a direct replacement for existing finger programs. For sites with
many hosts, a single host may be designated as the finger "server" host.
This host collects information about who is logged on to other hosts at
that site. If a user at site A wants to know about users logged on at
site B, only the server host need be queried, instead of each host at
that site. This is very convenient. (See "Contents of the Utilities

* Ghostscript

The current version of Ghostscript is 2.5.2. Features include the
ability to specify device resolution and output file (including piping)
from the command line; many new output devices and file formats,
including PBM/PGM/PPM, GIF, and PCX; many more Postscript Level 2
facilities; improved character rendering; and incorporation of the
standard Adobe font metrics into the Ghostscript fonts.

Ghostscript 2.5.2 accepts commands in Postscript and executes them by
drawing on an X window, writing to a file that you can print later, or
writing directly to a printer. Volunteer Tim Theisen,
`ghos...@cs.wisc.edu', has created a previewer for multi-page files,
called Ghostview, on top of Ghostscript.

Ghostscript includes a C-callable graphics library (for client programs
that do not want to deal with the Postscript language). It also
supports IBM PCs and compatibles with EGA, VGA, or SuperVGA graphics
(but do not ask the FSF staff any questions about this; we do not use

* Smalltalk

GNU Smalltalk implements the traditional features of the Smalltalk
language, but not the graphics and window features. Recently someone
has implemented these and they will appear in a future release.

* `groff'

James Clark has completed `groff' (GNU `troff' and related programs).
Version 1.06 is now available (see "Contents of the Utilities Tape").
`groff' is written in C++. It can be compiled with GNU C++ Version 2.3
or later.

Bugs in `groff' will be fixed, but no major new developments are
currently planned. However, `groff' users are encouraged to continue to
contribute enhancements. Most needed are complete Texinfo
documentation, a `grap' emulation (a `pic' preprocessor for typesetting
graphs), a page-makeup postprocessor similar to `pm' (see `Computing
Systems', Vol. 2, No. 2), and an ASCII output class for `pic' so that
`pic' can be integrated with Texinfo.

Thanks to all those who have contributed bug reports.

* Texinfo 2

The Texinfo 2 package includes an enhanced Texinfo mode for GNU Emacs,
new versions of the formatting utilities, and the second edition of
`Texinfo' (which is more thorough than the first edition and describes
over 50 new commands). Texinfo mode now includes commands for
automatically creating and updating nodes and menus, a tedious task when
done by hand. The package includes `makeinfo', a standalone formatter,
and `info', a standalone Info reader. Both are written in C and are
independent of GNU Emacs.

* GNU Chess

GNU Chess is a program that plays chess with you. The program is
written entirely in the C language and has been ported to the PC, the
Cray-2, and numerous other machines. It has also been ported to other
operating systems, including Windows and MS-DOS, though these versions
are not being supported by the maintainer.

GNU Chess implements many specialized features including the null move
heuristic, a hash table with aging, the history heuristic (another form
of the earlier killer heuristic), caching of static evaluations, a
sophisticated database which lets the program play the first several
moves in the game quickly, and so forth.

The program recently won the Uniform Platform event in London, England.
This is unusual for a source-available program. The event tests
algorithms only, as all chess program entrants ran on identical hardware.

GNU Chess is primarily supported by Stuart Cracraft on behalf of the
Free Software Foundation.

Stuart Cracraft
P.O. Box 2841
Laguna Hills, CA USA
(714) 770-8532

* GNU Fortran (`g77')

GNU Fortran is in "private" alpha test (testing by a small group of
experts) and is not yet publicly released.

The primary focus of the alpha test is to test the `g77' front end,
since that has most of the new code. The secondary focus of the alpha
test is to test the integration between the front end and the back end.
Currently, this is where most of the bugs seem to be. The tertiary
focus is the quality of code generated by the GNU back end.

A mailing list exists for those interested in the Fortran front end for
GCC. To subscribe, ask: `info-gnu-for...@prep.ai.mit.edu'. If
you would like to contact the author and/or current maintainer of GNU
Fortran, write to `for...@prep.ai.mit.edu'.

* Tar

A new version of `tar' and a new manual will be released soon. The
manual will describe `tar' and related programs; how to make backups,
how to restore files, how to put files on tapes for interchange
purposes, and so on.

* Porting

Although we do not yet have a complete GNU system, it is already possible
for you to begin porting it. This is because the unfinished part, the
Hurd, is basically portable. The parts of the system that really need
porting are Mach and `libc', which are already available.

Sources of Free Information

There is more to `freely redistributable' than software. Here is a partial
list of organizations providing freely redistributable information.

* Project Gutenberg

Project Gutenberg is the brainchild of Michael Hart. Back in 1971, he
decided to use extra computer time to type in copyright-free articles,
and he has not stopped since. What started with the Declaration of
Independence has grown to include text ranging from the King James
version of the Bible, to `The Scarlet Letter', to data from the 1990
U.S. Census.

Professor Hart's hope for ultimate success derives from the nature of
what he calls `Replicator Technology': once anything is stored in a
computer, it can be reproduced indefinitely, making it available to all
who want it.

Texts from Project Gutenberg are available at a number of FTP sites,
including `mrcnext.cso.uiuc.edu' (in `/etext') and `oes.orst.edu'
(filename `/pub/almanac/etext'). For instructions on how to obtain text
from Bitnet, send the word `HELP' in the body of a message to
`BITFTP@PUCC'. Instructions will be mailed. Or look at
`bit.listserv.gutnberg', a USENET group.

* The Online Book Initiative

The Online Book Initiative focuses on books, conference proceedings,
reference material, catalogues, etc. that can be freely shared.
Currently, OBI has about 200MB of (mostly compressed) text online,
ranging from poetry to standards documents to novels. Everything can be
accessed via anonymous FTP to `obi.std.com'. You can also dial
`world.std.com' with a modem (617-739-9753, 8N1) and create an account
to access this information (login as `new'). Accounts on `world' are
charged for their connect time (send to `off...@world.std.com' for

* FreeLore

John Goodwin, `jgoo...@adcalc.fnal.gov', is working on a project called
"FreeLore". One goal is to create a core of useful, copylefted
textbooks. Currently, he is testing a prototype curriculum for students
from junior-high school through early college; the curriculum uses
Texinfo. The FreeLore project is looking for volunteers. For more
information, contact Mr. Goodwin.

GNU Software Worldwide

by Melissa Weisshaus

Users world-wide now have easier access to GNU and other free software.
Users in the United States have been able to get free software from the FSF
and numerous other FTP sites for some time. Recently, free software oriented
companies and FTP sites have appeared around the world, making GNU and other
free software more easily available to users in Europe, Asia, and Australia.
Additionally, there has been increased interest among the world business
community in GNU software.

Companies have been set up to support, develop, and in some cases distribute
GNU and other free software. Some companies that we know of are Wingnut in
Japan, the Free Software Association of Germany, and Signum Support AB in
Sweden. Additionally, the "Center for GNU Development" in Moscow is
translating GNU documentation into Russian.

There are now FTP sites available in ten countries in North America, Europe,
Asia, and Australia. Please see the updated list in "How to Get Gnu
Software" for an expanded list of international FTP sites and for FTP sites
in your area.

In December of 1992, the FSF, the Japan Unix Society, and the Software
Engineers Association of Japan jointly sponsored a GNU Technical Seminar in
Tokyo. The conference was quite successful, attended by over 130 GNU
enthusiasts. In April of 1993, a conference will take place in Moscow;
Richard Stallman will attend that conference also.

See the articles entitled "GNU Technical Seminar in Tokyo" and "GNU in Japan"
for more information about Japanese GNU development. For information
regarding the Moscow conference, see the article entitled "Moscow Free
Software Conference". See the "GNUs Flashes" to get information about the
Free Software Association of Germany, and "Free Software Support Far From
Home" for information about Wingnut and Signum Support AB.

Another Kernel Built with GCC

Version 2.1 of AMIX (Commodore's SVR4-based Unix for the Amiga 2000 and 3000)
has its kernel built with GCC. The stated reason is better performance.

GNU in Japan

Mieko, `h-m...@sra.co.jp', and Nobuyuki Hikichi, `hik...@sra.co.jp',
continue to work on the GNU Project in Japan. They translate GNU
information, write columns (and a book), request donations, and consult about
GNU. They have translated Version 1 of the GNU General Public License into
Japanese and have arranged for the translation of Version 2, which will be
available soon. They also provided invaluable help supporting the recent GNU
Technical Seminar in Tokyo.

Japanese versions of Emacs (`nemacs') and Epoch (`nepoch') are available.
Both of them are widely used in Japan.

MULE (the MULtilingual Enhancement of GNU Emacs) is a version of GNU Emacs
that can handle many character sets at once. Eventually the features it
provides will be merged into the FSF version of Emacs. Ken'ichi Handa,
`ha...@etl.go.jp', is beta testing MULE; you can FTP sources from
`sh.wide.ad.jp:/JAPAN/mule' or `etlport.etl.go.jp:/pub/mule'.

The Village Center, Inc. has printed a Japanese translation of the `GNU Emacs
Lisp Reference' manual and also uploaded the Texinfo source to various
bulletin boards. They are donating part of the revenue that generated by
distributing the manual to the FSF. Their address is: Fujimi-cho 2-2-12,
Choufu City, Tokyo 182.

A group connected with the commercial personal computer network in Japan is
writing and distributing a copylefted hardware (circuit diagram) design and
associated software that uses a MIPS-architecture based CPU. The OS which
runs on this machine, `t2', is a subset of Unix that uses GCC and GDB as the
system's compiler and debugger. They are also running MIPS-BSD, which is
based on both the 386BSD and Mach kernels.

Many groups in Japan distribute GNU software, including JUG (a PC user
group), Nikkei Business Publications and ASCII (publishers), and the Fujitsu
FM Towns users group. Anonymous UUCP is also now available in Japan; for more
information contact `to...@dit.co.jp'.

You can also order GNU software directly from the FSF--indeed, we encourage
you to do so: every 150 tape orders allows FSF to hire a programmer for a
year to create more free software.

The FSF does not distribute `nemacs', `nepoch', or MULE on tape; however
`nemacs' is available on the GNU Source CD-ROM.

GNU Technical Seminar in Tokyo

The FSF, together with the Software Engineers Association of Japan (SEA) and
the Japan Unix Society (JUS), sponsored a GNU Technical Seminar in Tokyo on
December 2 and 3, 1992. The speakers were Richard Stallman, Michael
Bushnell, and Ken'ichi Handa. Bob Myers and David Littleboy translated the
English talks into Japanese. Software Research Associates, Inc. provided
help in countless ways. The FSF also unveiled both the newly released GNU
Source Code CD-ROM and the new GNU T-shirts.

Over 130 people attended the seminar and many members of the Japanese press
interviewed Richard Stallman. (Look for a cover story in an upcoming issue
of Asahi Pasocon.) We are considering more seminars both in Japan and
elsewhere if there is sufficient interest in any one region.

The FSF had a booth and a visible presence at the Japan Unix Society Fair '92
held in Yokohama from December 9 through 11. JUS provided the booth, and JUS
volunteers pitched in to help staff it. This was so successful we hope to
appear at other Unix events in Japan in the future.

On December 10, Richard Stallman gave a talk at Toshiba Corporation which was
attended by 70 people. The following day, he spoke at Aoyama Gakuin

Both the seminar and the booth succeeded beyond our expectations. We
received many unsolicited donations from individual supporters and users'
groups, and were surprised and pleased by the number of the enthusiastic
volunteers who came forward to help us at our various events.

Moscow Free Software Conference

A conference on free software will take place in Moscow on April 19-23, 1993.
It will be hosted by the Society of Unix User Groups (formerly the Soviet
Unix Users Group), the Russian Center for Systems Programming, and the
International Center for Scientific and Technical Information.

Participants are coming from North America, Europe and Japan, including
Richard Stallman, who founded the Free Software Foundation.

The main topics include: the current state of the GNU project and other FSF
projects; free software portability in open systems environments; user
experiences with free software; free software in education and training;
legal aspects of free software; relevance of free software to modernization
and democracy in Russia and other parts of the former Soviet Union; and how
to contribute to free software.

The hosts of the conference are requesting submissions of original designs,
papers and ideas, and welcome the participation of computer and software

For further information, you may contact any of the following members of the
program committee. In Moscow, you may contact Sergei Kuznetsov,
`k...@ivann.delta.msk.su', at +7-095-272-4425; Mr. Kuznetsov is the chair of
the meeting. You may also contact Peter Brusilovski, `p...@plb.icsti.su' at
+7-095-198-7055, or Dmitry Volodin, `d...@hq.demos.su' at +7-095-231-2129. In
Boston, contact Geoffrey S. Knauth, `g...@marble.com', at +1-617-891-5555.

*...imagine how little used calculus would have been if a court had
decided that no one could study, use or do research on it without paying
a royalty to Newton's designated heirs.*

-- The Independent, October 5, 1992

Project GNU Wish List

Wishes for this issue are for:

* Both `libg++' and `libc' are covered by the GNU Library General Public
License. Do you use either of these libraries in a proprietary
application under the terms of the LGPL? We would like to know to help
evaluate whether the LGPL is doing the job it was designed to do. If
you do (or know of someone who does) please send mail to
`lgpl-...@gnu.ai.mit.edu', or to either address on the front cover of
this Bulletin.

* Volunteers to distribute this Bulletin at technical conferences and
trade shows. Please call the phone number on the front cover to make

* 600 Megabyte (or larger) SCSI disk drives to give us more space to
develop our software.

* A 386 or 486 PC compatible with at least 200 Megabytes of hard disk and
an Ethernet card.

* A 4 mm DAT tape drive.

* An Exabyte tape drive.

* A Sun SPARCstation.

* A Sun-3/60.

* Companies to lend us capable programmers and technical writers for at
least six months. True wizards may be welcome for shorter periods, but
we have found that six months is the minimum time for a good programmer
to finish a worthwhile project.

* Professors who might be interested in sponsoring or hosting research
assistants to do GNU development, with FSF support.

* Volunteers to help write programs and documentation. Send mail to
`g...@prep.ai.mit.edu' for the task list and coding standards.

* Speech and character recognition software and systems (if the devices
aren't too weird), with the device drivers if possible. This would help
the productivity of partially disabled people (including a few we know).

* New quotes and ideas for articles in the GNU's Bulletin. We
particularly like to highlight organizations involved with free
information exchange and companies providing free software support as a
primary business.

* Copies of newspaper and journal articles mentioning the GNU Project or
GNU software. Send these to the address on the front cover, or send a
citation to `g...@prep.ai.mit.edu'.

* Money, as always. If you use and appreciate our software, please send a

One way to give us a small amount of money is to order a distribution
tape or CD-ROM. This may not count as a donation for tax purposes, but
it can qualify as a business expense. This is especially helpful if you
work for a business at which the word "donation" is anathema.

A Small Way to Help Free Software

If you find that GNU software has been helpful to you, and in particular if
you have benefitted from having sources freely available, please help support
the spread of free software by telling others. For example, you might say in
published papers and internal project reports:

"We were able to modify the `fubar' utility to serve our particular
needs because it is free software. As a result, we were able to finish
the XYZ project thirty weeks earlier."

Let users, management, and friends know! And send us a copy. Thanks!

GNU Documentation

GNU manuals are intended to explain the underlying concepts, describe how to
use all the features of each program, and give examples of command use. GNU
documentation is distributed as Texinfo source files, which yield both
typeset hardcopy and an on-line hypertext-like presentation via the
menu-driven Info system. These manuals, provided with our software, are also
available in hardcopy; see the "FSF Order Form" inside the back cover.

The `Emacs manual' describes editing with GNU Emacs. It also explains
advanced features, such as outline mode and regular expression search, and
how to use special modes for programming in languages like C and Lisp.

The `Emacs Lisp Reference manual' covers the GNU Emacs Lisp programming
language in great depth, including data types, control structures, functions,
macros, syntax tables, searching and matching, modes, windows, keymaps, byte
compilation, markers, and the operating system interface.

The `Texinfo manual' explains the markup language used to generate both the
online Info documentation and typeset hardcopies. It tells you how to make
tables, lists, chapters, nodes, indexes, cross references, how to use Texinfo
mode in GNU Emacs, and how to catch mistakes.

The `GAWK manual' describes how to use the GNU implementation of `awk'. It
is written for someone who has never used `awk' and describes all the
features of this powerful string manipulation language.

The `Make manual' describes GNU `make', a program used to rebuild parts of
other programs. The manual tells how to write "makefiles", which specify how
a program is to be compiled and how its files depend on each other. The new
edition of the manual describes the new features in version 3.63, and
includes a new introductory chapter for novice users, as well as a new
section on automatically generated dependencies.

`Debugging with GDB' explains how to use the GNU Debugger, including how to
run your program under debugger control, how to examine and alter data, how
to modify the flow of control within the program, and how to use GDB through
GNU Emacs.

The `Bison manual' teaches how to write context-free grammars for the Bison
program that convert into C-coded parsers. You need no prior knowledge of
parser generators.

The `Flex manual' tells you how to write a lexical scanner definition for the
`flex' program to create a C-coded scanner that will recognize the patterns
described. You need no prior knowledge of scanner generators.

`Using and Porting GNU CC' explains how to run, install, and port the GNU C
compiler. Currently, we are distributing two versions of GCC, version 1 and
version 2, each documented by a different version of the manual.

The `Termcap manual', often described as "Twice as much as you ever wanted to
know about Termcap," details the format of the Termcap database, the
definitions of terminal capabilities, and the process of interrogating a
terminal description. This manual is primarily for programmers.

The `Emacs Calc manual' includes both a tutorial and a reference manual for
Calc. It describes how to do ordinary arithmetic, how to use Calc for
algebra, calculus, and other forms of mathematics, and how to extend Calc.

How to Get GNU Software

All the software and publications from the Free Software Foundation are
distributed with permission to copy and redistribute. The easiest way to get
GNU software is to copy it from someone else who has it.

You can get GNU software direct from the FSF by ordering a distribution tape
or CD-ROM. Such orders provide most of the funds for the FSF staff, so
please support us by ordering if you can. See the "FSF Order Form".

If you have Internet access, you can get the software via anonymous FTP from
the host `prep.ai.mit.edu' (the IP address is `'). Get file
`/pub/gnu/GETTING.GNU.SOFTWARE' for more information.

There are also third party groups who distribute our software; they do not
work with us, but can provide our software in other forms. For your
convenience we list some of them; see "Free Software for Microcomputers".
Please note that the Free Software Foundation is not affiliated with them in
any way and is responsible for neither the currency of their versions nor the
swiftness of their responses.

These TCP/IP Internet sites provide GNU software via anonymous FTP (program:
`ftp', user: `anonymous', password: YOUR NAME, mode: `binary'):

* Australasia: `archie.oz.au' (`archie.oz' for ACSnet),
`utsun.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp', `ftp.cs.titech.ac.jp'.

* Europe: `ugle.unit.no', `ftp.stacken.kth.se', `isy.liu.se',
`ftp.win.tue.nl', `ftp.informatik.tu-muenchen.de', `ftp.denet.dk',
`ftp.eunet.ch', `nic.switch.ch', `nic.funet.fi', `ftp.eu.net'.

* USA: `labrea.stanford.edu', `jaguar.cs.utah.edu', `cc.utah.edu'
(VMS GNU Emacs), `ftp.cs.widener.edu', `wuarchive.wustl.edu',
`uxc.cso.uiuc.edu', `gatekeeper.dec.com', `mango.rsmas.miami.edu'
(VMS GCC), `ftp.uu.net' (under `/packages/gnu').

Those on the SPAN network can ask rdss::corbet.

Those on JANET can look under `src.doc.ic.ac.uk:/gnu'.

You can get some GNU programs via UUCP. Ohio State University posts their
UUCP instructions regularly to newsgroup `comp.sources.d' on USENET. These
people will send you UUCP instructions via electronic mail:

hao!scicom!qetzal!upba!ugn!nepa!denny, uunet!hutch!barber,
s...@contrib.de (Europe), ja...@bigtex.cactus.org,
acornrc!bob, uu...@cis.ohio-state.edu, and in...@uunet.uu.net

For those without Internet access, see the section entitled "Free Software
Support" for information on receiving electronic mail via UUCP.

*As we enjoy great advantages from the inventions of others, we should
be glad of an opportunity to serve others by any invention of ours.*

--Benjamin Franklin

GNU Software Available Now

We offer Unix software source distribution tapes in `tar' format on the
following media: 1600 bpi 9-track reel tape, 8mm Exabyte cartridges, Sun
QIC-24 cartridges, Hewlett-Packard 16-track cartridges, and IBM RS/6000
QIC-150 cartridges (the RS/6000 Emacs tape has an Emacs binary as well). We
also offer: a CD-ROM (see "GNU Source Code CD-ROM"); MS-DOS diskettes with
some GNU software (see "MS-DOS Distribution"); and VMS tapes (which include
sources and executables) for GNU Emacs and the GNU C compiler (see "VMS Emacs
and Compiler Tapes").

The contents of the various 9-track and cartridge tapes for Unix systems are
the same (except for the RS/6000 Emacs tape, which also has executables);
only the media are different (see the "FSF Order Form"). Documentation comes
in Texinfo format. We welcome any bug reports.

Some of the files on the tapes may be compressed to make them fit. Refer to
the top-level `README' file at the beginning of the tapes for instructions on
decompressing them. `uncompress' may not work!

Version numbers listed by program names were current at the time this
Bulletin was published. When you order a distribution tape, some of the
programs might be newer, and therefore the version number higher.

Contents of the Emacs Tape

* GNU Emacs 18.59

In 1975, Richard Stallman developed the first Emacs, an extensible,
customizable real-time display editor. GNU Emacs is his second
implementation. It's the first Emacs for Unix systems that offers true
Lisp--smoothly integrated into the editor--for writing extensions, and
provides an interface to MIT's X Window System. In addition to its
powerful native command set, extensions which emulate other popular
editors are distributed: vi, EDT (DEC's VMS editor), and Gosling (aka
Unipress) Emacs. It has many other features, which make it a full
computing support environment. It is described by the `GNU Emacs'
manual, the `GNU Emacs Lisp Reference' manual, and a reference card.
Source for all three come with the software.

GNU Emacs 18.59 runs on many Unix systems (arranged by hardware): Alliant
FX/80 & FX/2800, Altos 3068, Amdahl (UTS), Apollo, AT&T (3B machines &
7300 PC), DG Aviion, Bull DPX/2 (2nn or 3nn) CCI 5/32 & 6/32, Celerity,
Convex, Digital (DECstation 3100 & 5000 (Pmaxes), Mips, VAX (BSD, System
V, or VMS)), Motorola Delta 147 & 187 Dual, Elxsi 6400, Encore (DPC,
APC, & XPC), Gould, HP (9000 series 200, 300, 700, & 800, but not series
500), HLH Orion (original & 1/05), IBM (RS/6000 (AIX), RT/PC (4.2 &
AIX), & PS/2 (AIX (386 only))), ISI (Optimum V, 80386), Intel 860 &
80386 (BSD, Esix, SVR3, SVR4, SCO, ISC, IX, AIX, & others (for MS-DOS
see "MS-DOS Distribution" and"Free Software for Microcomputers")), Iris
(2500, 2500 Turbo, & 4D), Masscomp, MIPS, National Semiconductor 32000,
NeXT (Mach), NCR Tower 32 (SVR2 or SVR3), Nixdorf Targon 31, Nu (TI or
LMI), pfa50, Plexus, Prime EXL, Pyramid (original & MIPS), Sequent
(Balance & Symmetry), SONY News (m68k & MIPS), Stride (system release
2), all Suns (including 386i), all SunOS versions, Tadpole, Tahoe,
Tandem Integrity S2, Tektronix (16000 & 4300), Triton 88, Ustation E30
(SS5E), Whitechapel (MG1), & Wicat.

Arranged by operating system: AIX (RS/6000, RT/PC, 386-PS/2), BSD
(versions 4.1, 4.2, 4.3), DomainOS, Esix (386), HP-UX (HP 9000 series
200, 300, 700, & 800 but not series 500), ISC (386), IX (386), Mach,
Microport, NewsOS (Sony m68k & MIPS) SCO (386), SVR0 (Vaxen and AT&T 3b
machines), SVR2, SVR3, SVR4, Solaris 2.0, SunOS, UTS (Amdahl), Ultrix
(versions 3.0, 4,1), Uniplus 5.2 (Dual machines), VMS (versions 4.0,
4.2, 4.4, 5,5), and Xenix (386).

* GNU Calc 2.02

Calc (written by Dave Gillespie in Emacs Lisp) is an extensible,
advanced desk calculator and mathematical tool that runs as part of GNU
Emacs. It comes with source for the `Calc' manual, which serves as a
tutorial and reference. If you wish, you can use Calc only as a simple
four-function calculator, but it provides additional features including
choice of algebraic or RPN (stack-based) entry, logarithmic functions,
trigonometric and financial functions, arbitrary precision, complex
numbers, vectors, matrices, dates, times, infinities, sets, algebraic
simplification, differentiation, and integration.

* MIT Scheme 7.0

Scheme is a simplified, lexically-scoped dialect of Lisp. It was
designed at MIT and other universities to teach students the art of
programming and to research new parallel programming constructs and
compilation techniques. MIT Scheme is written in C and the interpreter
runs on many Unix systems. It conforms to the "Revised^3 Report On the
Algorithmic Language Scheme" (MIT AI Lab Memo 848a), for which TeX
source is included.

* Yale T 3.1

T is a variant of Scheme developed at Yale University; it is intended
for production use in program development. T contains a native-code
optimizing compiler that produces code that runs at speeds comparable to
the speeds of programs written in conventional languages. It runs on
BSD VAXen, 680x0 systems, SPARCs, and MIPS R2000 workstations (including
the DECstation 3100), & NS32000 machines (including the Encore
Multimax). T is written in itself and cannot be bootstrapped without a
binary (which is included), but it is great if you can use it. Some
documentation is included.

* CLISP 1993.01.01

CLISP is a Common Lisp implementation by Bruno Haible and Michael Stoll.
It mostly conforms to the version of Common Lisp described by `Common
LISP: The Language (1st edition)'. CLISP runs on many microcomputers
including the Atari ST, Amiga 500-2000, most MS-DOS systems, and OS/2)
as well as on Unix workstations (Linux, SunOS (SPARC), Sun386, HP-UX (HP
9000/800), and others) and needs only 1.5 MB of memory. CLISP includes
an interpreter, a compiler and, for some machines, a screen editor.

* PCL 92.12.08

PCL is a freely available implementation of a large subset of CLOS, the
Common Lisp Object System. PCL was written by Xerox Corporation.

* `gzip' 0.6

Some of the contents of our tape distribution is compressed. We include
software on the tapes to compress/decompress these files. Due to patent
troubles with `compress', we are switching to another compression
program, `gzip'. `gzip' can uncompress LZW-compressed files but uses a
different algorithm for compression which generally produces better
results. It is presently in beta test but we hope people will begin
using it. This year we are converting all our compressed distribution
files on `prep.ai.mit.edu', as well as our distribution tapes.

* `make' 3.63

GNU `make' has nearly all the features of the BSD and System V versions
of `make', as well as many of our own extensions. It complies with
POSIX 1003.2. GNU extensions include parallel compilation, conditional
execution, and text manipulation. Source for the `Make' manual comes
with the program.

GNU `make' is distributed on several of the tapes because native `make'
programs lack essential features for using the GNU configure system to
its full extent.

* Texinfo 2.16

Texinfo is a set of utilities which generate printed manuals and online
hypertext-style manuals (called "Info"). The late beta test Texinfo 2
package contains enhancements to the current suite and source for the
`Texinfo' manual.

Texinfo is distributed on several of the tapes to insure that it is
possible to rebuild and read info files for various programs.

Contents of the Languages Tape

This tape contains programming tools: compilers, interpreters, and related
programs (parsers, conversion programs, debuggers, etc.).

* GCC 1.42

The GNU C compiler is a fairly portable optimizing compiler which
performs automatic register allocation, common sub-expression
elimination, invariant code motion from loops, induction variable
optimizations, constant propagation and copy propagation, delayed
popping of function call arguments, tail recursion elimination,
integration of inline functions, and frame pointer elimination, plus
many local optimizations that are automatically deduced from the machine

GCC supports full ANSI C, traditional C, and GNU C extensions. It
generates good code for the 32000, 680x0, 80386, Alliant, Convex, Tahoe
& VAX CPUs, and for these RISC CPUs: i860, Pyramid, SPARC, & SPUR. The
MIPS RISC CPU is also supported. Other supported systems include
(arranged by hardware): 386 (AIX), Alliant FX/8, Altos 3068, Apollo
68000/68020 (Aegis), AT&T 3B1, Convex C1 & C2, DECstation 3100 & 5000,
DEC VAX, Encore MultiMax (NS32000), Genix NS32000, Harris HCX-7 & HCX-9,
HP-UX 68000/68020, HP (BSD), IBM PS/2 (AIX), Intel 386 (System V, Xenix,
BSD, but not MS-DOS (but see "MS-DOS Distribution" and"Free Software for
Microcomputers")), Iris MIPS machine, ISI 68000/68020, MIPS, NeXT,
Pyramid (original), Sequent Balance (NS32000) and Symmetry (i386), SONY
News, Sun (2, 3 (optionally with FPA), 4, SPARCstation, & Sun-386i).

Arranged by operating system: AIX (i386-PS/2), BSD (Alliant FX/8,
Apollo, Convex, HP m68k, i386, ISI m68k, MIPS, Pyramid (original),
Sequent Balance/Symmetry), Genix (NS32000), HP-UX (m68k), Irix (Iris
MIPS), Mach (NeXT m68k), NewsOS (Sony m68k), SunOS (Sun-2, Sun-3, Sun-4,
SPARC, & Sun-386i), System V (i386, Altos 3068, AT&T 3B1), Ultrix
(DECstation 3100 & 5000, VAX), Umax (Encore NS32000), and Xenix (i386).

Source for the GCC manual, `Using and Porting GNU CC', is included with
the compiler. The manual describes how to run and install the GNU C
compiler, and how to port it to new systems. It describes new features
and incompatibilities of the compiler, but people not familiar with C
will also need a good reference on the C programming language.

* G++ 1.42.0

G++ is a set of changes for GCC version 1 which supports C++. As far as
possible, G++ is kept compatible with the evolving draft ANSI standard,
but not with `cfront' (the AT&T compiler), as `cfront' has been
diverging from ANSI. G++ comes with source for the `GNU G++ User's
Guide' (not yet published on paper). G++ compiles source quickly,
provides good error messages, and works well with GDB. As G++ depends
on GCC, it must be used with a specific numbered version of GCC.

* libg++ 1.39.0

The GNU C++ library, libg++, is an extensive, documented collection of
C++ classes and support tools for use with G++.

* NIH Class Library 3.0

The NIH Class Library (formerly known as "OOPS", Object-Oriented Program
Support) is a portable collection of classes, similar to those in
Smalltalk-80, which has been developed by Keith Gorlen of the National
Institutes of Health (NIH), using the C++ programming language.


The BFD (Binary File Descriptor) library allows a program which operates
on object files (such as `ld' or GDB) to support many different formats
in a clean way. BFD provides a portable interface, so that only BFD
needs to know the actual details of a particular format. One
consequence of this design is that all of the programs using BFD will
support formats such as a.out, COFF, ELF, and ROSE. BFD comes with

* GDB 4.7

GDB 4 is no longer considered beta test and replaces GDB 3.5, which was
previously on this tape. Object files and symbol tables are now read
via the BFD library, which allows a single copy of GDB to debug programs
of multiple object file types such as a.out and COFF. Other features
include improvements to the command language, remote debugging over
serial lines or TCP/IP, and watchpoints (breakpoints triggered when the
value of an expression changes); when used with GCC version 2, exception
handling, support for SunOS shared libraries, and C++ multiple

GDB 4 can perform cross-debugging. To say that GDB 4 *targets* a
platform means that it can perform native or cross-debugging for it. To
say that GDB 4 can *host* a given platform means that it can be built on
it, but cannot necessarily debug native programs. GDB 4 can:

* *target* and *host*: Amiga 3000 (Amix), DECstation 3100 & 5000, HP
9000/370 (BSD), IBM RS/6000 (AIX), i386 (BSD, SCO, or Linux),
Motorola Delta 88000 (System V), NCR 3000 (SVR4), SGI Iris (MIPS
running Irix V3 or V4), SONY News (NewsOS 3.x), Sun 3 & SPARC
(SunOS 4.1 or Solaris 2.0), & Ultracomputer (29K running Sym1).

* *target*, but not *host*: i960 Nindy, AMD 29000 (COFF or a.out),
Fujitsu SPARClite, Hitachi H8/300, m68k, and m68332.

* *host*, but not *target*: Intel 386 (Mach), IBM RT/PC, HP/Apollo
68k (BSD)

In addition, GDB 4 can use the symbol tables emitted by the compilers
supplied by most vendors of MIPS-based machines, including DEC. (These
symbol tables are in a format which almost nobody else uses.)

* `ae'

`ae' works with GCC to produce more complete profiling information.

* binutils 1.9

The binutils include `ar', `gprof', `ld', `nm', `ranlib', `size', and
`strip'. The GNU linker `ld' is fast, and is the only linker which
emits source-line numbered error messages for multiply-defined symbols
and undefined references.

* Bison 1.19

Bison is an upwardly compatible replacement for the parser generator
`yacc', with more features. Source for the `Bison' manual is included.

* COFF Support

The entire suite of GNU software tools can be run on System V, replacing
COFF entirely. The GNU tools can operate on BSD object files with a
COFF header the System V kernel will accept. `robotussin' is supplied
for converting standard libraries to this format. However, this
workaround is becoming obsolete, as BFD is replacing it (see the entry
on "BFD").

* `dld' 3.2.3

`dld' is a dynamic linker written by W. Wilson Ho. Linking your program
with the `dld' library allows you to dynamically load object files into
the running binary.

* `f2c' 3.2.90

`f2c' converts Fortran-77 source files into C or C++.

* `flex' 2.3.7

`flex' is a mostly-compatible replacement for the Unix `lex' scanner
generator, written by Vern Paxson of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory.
`flex' generates far more efficient scanners than `lex' does. Source
for the `Flex' manual is included.

* GAS 1.38.1

The GNU assembler (GAS) is a fairly portable, one pass assembler that is
almost twice as fast as Unix `as' and works for 32x32, 680x0, 80386,
SPARC (Sun-4), and VAXen.

* GAWK 2.14

GAWK is upwardly compatible with the System V Release 4 version of
`awk'. Source for the `GAWK' manual comes with the software.

* `gdbm' 1.5

The `gdbm' library is the GNU replacement for the standard `dbm' and
`ndbm' libraries. `gdbm' supports both styles but does not need sparse
database formats (unlike its Unix counterparts).

* `gmp' 1.2

GNU MP (`gmp') is a library for arbitrary precision arithmetic,
operating on signed integers and rational numbers. It has a rich set of
functions, all with a regular interface.

* `gperf' 2.1

`gperf' is a "perfect" hash-table generation utility. There are
actually two implementations of `gperf', one written in C and one in
C++. Both will produce hash functions in either C or C++.

* `indent' 1.6

`indent' is the GNU-modified version of the freely-redistributable BSD
program of the same name. It formats C source according to GNU coding
standards by default, though the original default and other formats are
available as options.

* `perl' 4.035

Larry Wall has written a fast interpreter named `perl' which combines
the features of `sed', `awk', `sh', and C. It has all these programs'
capabilities, as well as interfaces to all the system calls and many C
library routines.

* Smalltalk 1.1.1

GNU Smalltalk is an interpreted object-oriented programming language
system written in portable C. Features include an incremental garbage
collector, a binary image save capability, the ability to invoke
user-written C code and pass parameters to it, a GNU Emacs editing mode,
optional byte-code compilation tracing and byte-code execution tracing,
and automatically loaded per-user initialization files.

* superopt 2.1

Superopt is a function sequence generator that uses an exhaustive
generate-and-test approach to find the shortest instruction sequence for
a given function. You have to tell the superoptimizer which function
and which CPU you want to generate code for, and how many instructions
you can accept. The GNU superoptimizer and its application in GCC is
described in the `ACM SIGPLAN PLDI'92 proceedings'. Superopt presently
supports 7 CPUs: SPARC, m68000, m68020, m88000, IBM RS/6000, AMD 29000,
Intel 80x86, and Pyramid.

* Texinfo 2.16, `gzip' 0.6, and `make' 3.63

See "Contents of the Emacs Tape" for a full description of these

Contents of the Utilities Tape

This tape consists mostly of smaller utilities and miscellaneous applications
not available on the other GNU tapes.

* Autoconf 1.2

Autoconf produces shell scripts which automatically configure source
code packages. These scripts can adapt the packages to many kinds of
Unix-like systems without manual user intervention. Autoconf creates a
configuration script for a package from a template file which lists the
operating system features which the package can use, in the form of `m4'
macro calls. Many GNU programs use Autoconf-generated configure scripts

* BASH 1.12

The GNU shell, BASH (for Bourne Again SHell), is compatible with the
Unix `sh' and offers many extensions found in `csh' and `ksh'. BASH has
job control, `csh'-style command history, and command-line editing (with
Emacs and `vi' modes built-in and the ability to rebind keys).

* `bc' 1.02

`bc' is an interactive algebraic language with arbitrary precision. GNU
`bc' was implemented from the POSIX 1003.2 draft standard, but it has
several extensions including multi-character variable names, an `else'
statement, and full Boolean expressions.

* `cpio' 2.2

`cpio' is an alternative archive program with all the features of SVR4
`cpio', including support for the final POSIX 1003.1 `ustar' standard.

* CVS 1.3

The Concurrent Version System, CVS, manages software revision and release
control in a multi-developer, multi-directory, multi-group environment.
It works best in conjunction with RCS versions 4 and above, but will
parse older RCS formats with the loss of CVS's fancier features. See
Berliner, Brian, "CVS-II: Parallelizing Software Development,"
`Proceedings of the Winter 1990 USENIX Association Conference.'

* `diff' 2.0

GNU `diff' compares files showing line-by-line changes in several
flexible formats. It is much faster than the traditional Unix versions.
The "diff" distribution contains `diff', `diff3', `sdiff', and `cmp'.

* `elvis' 1.6

`elvis' is a clone of the `vi'/`ex' Unix editor. It supports nearly all
of the `vi'/`ex' commands in both visual and line mode. `elvis' runs
under BSD, System V, Xenix, Minix, MS-DOS, and Atari TOS, and it should
be easy to port to many other systems.

* Fax 3.2.1

The GNU Project is distributing the freely-available MIT AI Lab fax
spooling system, which provides Group 3 fax transmission and reception
services for a networked Unix system. It requires a faxmodem which
conforms to the new EIA-592 Asynchronous Facsimile DCE Control Standard,
Service Class 2.

* `find' 3.7

`find' is frequently used both interactively and in shell scripts to
find files which match certain criteria and perform arbitrary operations
on them. `xargs' and `locate' are also included.

* `finger' 1.37

GNU Finger should work on a wide variety of systems. For more
information, see the "GNU Project Status Report."

* fontutils 0.6

The "fontutils" can create fonts for use with Ghostscript or TeX,
starting with a scanned type image and converting the bitmaps to
outlines. They also contain general conversion programs and other

* Fun and Games: MandelSpawn 0.06, GNU Chess 4.0.pl58, NetHack 3.0, GnuGo
1.1, and `hello' 1.1

MandelSpawn is a parallel Mandelbrot program for the MIT X Window
System. GNU Chess has text and X display interfaces (see "Project GNU
Status Report"). NetHack is a display-oriented adventure game similar
to Rogue. GnuGo plays the game of Go (Wei-Chi); it is not yet very

The GNU `hello' program produces a familiar, friendly greeting. It
allows non-programmers to use a classic computer science tool which would
otherwise be unavailable to them. Because it is protected by the GNU
General Public License, users are free to share and change it.

* Ghostscript 2.5.2 and Ghostview 1.4.1

Ghostscript is GNU's graphics language which is almost fully compatible
with Postscript (see "Project GNU Status Report"). Ghostview provides
an X11 user interface for the Ghostscript interpreter. Ghostview and
Ghostscript function as two cooperating programs; Ghostview creates a
viewing window and Ghostscript draws in it.

* `gnuplot' 3.2

`gnuplot' is an interactive program for plotting mathematical
expressions and data. Curiously, the program was neither written nor
named for the GNU Project; the name is a coincidence.

See the entry on GNU Graphics "Contents of the Experimental Tape" for
information on a related program.

* `gptx' 0.2

`gptx' is the GNU version of `ptx', a permuted index generator. Among
other things, it produces readable "KWIC" (KeyWords In Context) indexes
without the need of `nroff', and there is an option to produce TeX code
as output.

* `grep'/`egrep' 1.6 and `fgrep' 1.1

The `[ef]grep' programs are GNU's versions of the Unix programs of the
same name. They are much faster than the traditional Unix versions.

* `groff' 1.06 and `mgm' 1.07

`groff' is a document formatting system, which includes implementations
of `troff', `pic', `eqn', `tbl', `refer', the `man', `ms', and `mm'
macros, as well as drivers for Postscript, TeX dvi format, and
typewriter-like devices. Also included is a modified version of the
Berkeley `me' macros and an enhanced version of the X11 `xditview'

`mgm' is a macro package for `groff'. It is almost compatible with the
DWB `mm' macros and has several extensions.

* `less' 177

`less' is a paginator similar to `more' and `pg' but with various
features (such as the ability to scroll backwards) which most pagers

* `m4' 1.0.3

GNU `m4' is an implementation of the traditional Unix macro processor
and is mostly System V Release 4 compatible, although it has some
extensions (for example, handling more than 9 positional parameters to
macros). `m4' also has built-in functions for including files, running
shell commands, doing arithmetic, etc.

* mtools 2.0.7

Mtools is a public domain collection of programs to allow Unix systems
to read, write, and manipulate files on an MS-DOS file system (typically
a diskette).

* `patch' 2.0.12g8

`patch' is our version of Larry Wall's program to take `diff''s output
and apply those differences to an original file to generate the modified

* RCS 5.6

The Revision Control System, RCS, is used for version control and
management of software projects. When used with GNU `diff', RCS can
handle binary files (executables, object files, 8-bit data, etc).

* `recode' 3.2.4

`recode' converts files between character sets and usages. When exact
transliterations are not possible, it may get rid of offending
characters or fall back on approximations. It recognizes or produces
more than a dozen character sets and can convert each character set to
almost any other one. `recode' pays special attention to
superimposition of diacritics, particularly for French.

* `screen' 3.2b

`screen' is a terminal multiplexor which allows you to handle several
independent "screens" (ttys) on a single physical terminal. Each
virtual terminal emulates a DEC VT100 plus several ANSI X3.64 and ISO
2022 functions. `screen' sessions can be detached and resumed later on
a different terminal.

* `sed' 1.13

`sed' is a stream-oriented version of `ed'. It is used frequently in
shell scripts.

* `tar' 1.11.1

GNU `tar' includes multivolume support, the ability to archive sparse
files, automatic archive compression/decompression, remote archives, and
special features to allow `tar' to be used for incremental and full
backups. Unfortunately GNU `tar' implements an early draft of the POSIX
1003.1 `ustar' standard which is different from the final standard.
Adding support for the new changes in a backward-compatible fashion is
not trivial.

* Termcap 1.1

The GNU Termcap library is a drop-in replacement for `libtermcap.a' on
any system. It does not place an arbitrary limit on the size of Termcap
entries, unlike most other Termcap libraries. Included is extensive
documentation in Texinfo format.

* `time' 1.4

`time' is used to report statistics (usually from a shell) about the
amount of user, system, and real time used by a process.

* `tput' 1.0

`tput' is a portable way to allow shell scripts to use special terminal
capabilities. GNU `tput' uses the Termcap database, rather than
Terminfo as most implementations do.

* `wdiff' 0.4

`wdiff' compares two files, finding which words have been deleted or
added to the first in order to obtain the second. We hope eventually to
integrate it, as well as some ideas from a similar program called
`spiff', into future releases of GNU `diff'.

* Various Utilities: fileutils 3.4, shellutils 1.8, and textutils 1.3

The "fileutils" are file manipulation utilities: `chgrp', `chmod',
`chown', `cp', `dd', `df', `du', `install', `ln', `ls', `mkdir',
`mkfifo', `mknod', `mv', `mvdir', `rm', `rmdir', and `touch'.

The "shellutils" are small commands used on the command line or in shell
scripts: `basename', `date', `dirname', `echo', `env', `expr', `false',
`groups', `id', `logname', `nice', `nohup', `pathchk', `printenv',
`printf', `sleep', `stty', `su', `tee', `test', `true', `tty', `uname',
`who', `whoami', and `yes'.

The "textutils" programs manipulate textual data: `cat', `comm',
`csplit', `cut', `expand', `fold', `head', `join', `nl', `paste', `pr',
`sort', `split', `sum', `tac', `tail', `tr', `unexpand', `uniq', and

* Texinfo 2.16, `gzip' 0.6, and `make' 3.63

See "Contents of the Emacs Tape" for a full description of these

Contents of the Experimental Tape

This tape includes software which is currently in beta test and is available
for people who are feeling adventurous. Some of the software already has
released versions on the distribution tapes. The contents of this tape are
transient; as the programs become stable, they will replace older versions on
other tapes. Please send bug reports to the appropriate addresses (listed on
the tape in the notes for each program).

* GCC 2.3.3

Version 2 of GCC is in late beta test, getting close to being reliable.
In addition to the features in version 1, GCC 2 has instruction
scheduling, loop unrolling, filling of delay slots, leaf function
optimization, optimized multiplication by constants, a certain amount of
common subexpression elimination (CSE) between basic blocks (though not
all of the supported machine descriptions provide for scheduling or
delay slots), and a feature for assigning attributes to instructions.
Function-wide CSE has been written, but needs to be cleaned up before it
can be installed. Position-independent code is supported on the 88000
and SPARC.

GCC 2 can also open-code most arithmetic on 64-bit values (type `long
long int'). It can generate code for most of the same machines as
version 1, plus the following: AMD 29000, Acorn RISC, DEC Alpha, Elxsi,
HP-PA (700 or 800), IBM RS/6000, IBM RT/PC, Intel 80386, Intel 960,
Motorola 88000, and SPARC (running Solaris 2). Version 2 can generate
a.out, COFF, ELF and OSF-Rose files when used with a suitable assembler.
It can produce debugging information in several formats: BSD stabs,
COFF, ECOFF, ECOFF with stabs symbols, and DWARF.

Not all of the version 1 machine descriptions have been updated yet;
some do not work, and others need work to take full advantage of
instruction scheduling and delay slots. The old machine descriptions
for the Alliant, Tahoe, and Spur (as well as a new port for the Tron) do
not work, but are still included in the distribution in case someone
wants to work on them.

Using the new configuration scheme for GCC, building a cross-compiler is
as easy as building a compiler for the same target machine. Version 2
supports more general calling conventions: it can pass arguments "by
reference" and can preallocate the space for stack arguments. GCC 2 on
the SPARC uses the standard conventions for structure arguments and
return values.

Version 2 of the compiler supports three languages: C, C++ and Objective
C; the source file name extension or a compiler option selects the
language. The front end support for Objective C was donated by NeXT.
The runtime support needed to run Objective C programs is now
distributed with GCC (this does not include any Objective C classes
aside from `object').

GNU C has been extended to support nested functions, nonlocal gotos, and
taking the address of a label.

Source for the GCC manual, `Using and Porting GNU CC', is included with
the compiler.

Since the C compiler has been unbundled in Solaris, this tape
temporarily contains compiled binaries of GCC for Solaris systems in
addition to the sources. In the future, Solaris binaries will be
available on separate media.

* binutils 2.0

Version 2.0 of the binutils have been completely rewritten to use the
BFD library (see "Gnu Project Status Report"). This version has been
tested on only a few architectures including the Sun-3 and Sun-4 running
SunOS 4.1, and the Sony News running NewsOS 3.

This version has not been ported to as many machines as the old
binutils. Some features of the old versions are missing in the new
programs. We would appreciate patches to make things run on other
machines; especially welcome are fixes for what used to work in the old

* GNU C Library 1.05

The library is ANSI C-1989 and POSIX 1003.1-1990 compliant and has most
of the functions specified in POSIX 1003.2 draft 11.2. It is upward
compatible with the 4.4 BSD C library and includes many System V
functions, plus GNU extensions.

Version 1.05 uses a standard GNU `configure' script and runs on Sun-3 &
Sun-4 (SunOS 4.1), HP 9000/300 & Sony NEWS 800 (4.3 BSD), MIPS
DECstation (Ultrix 4.2), and i386/i486 (System V & BSD). The C library
comes with a newly finished manual in source form.

* libg++ 2.3

This is the GNU C++ library for GCC version 2 (see "Contents of
Languages Tape" for more info regarding libg++). The latest version
tries to configure itself automatically, thus working out of the box on
many hosts. Recent changes include portability enhancements, some use
of templates, and converting the iostream classes to use multiple

* Oleo 1.2.1

Oleo is a spreadsheet program. It supports X windows and
character-based terminals, and can generate Embedded Postscript
renditions of spreadsheets. Keybindings should be familiar to Emacs
users and are configurable. Under X and in Postscript output, Oleo
supports multiple, proportionally spaced fonts.

* GNU Graphics 0.17

GNU Graphics is a set of programs which produce plots from ASCII or
binary data. It supports output to Tektronix 4010, Postscript, and the
X Window System or compatible devices. Improvements in this version
include a revised manual; new features in `graph', `xplot' and
`plot2ps'; support for output in ln03 and TekniCAD TDA file formats; a
replacement for the `spline' program; examples of shell scripts using
`graph' and `plot'; the addition of a statistics toolkit; and the use of
`configure' for installation.

Existing ports need retesting. Contact Rich Murphey, `Ri...@rice.edu',
if you can help test/port it to anything other than a SPARCstation.

Contents of the X11 Tapes

The two X11 tapes contain Version 11, Release 5 of the MIT X Window System.
The first FSF tape contains all of the core software, documentation, and some
contributed clients. We call this the `required' X tape since it is
necessary for running X or running GNU Emacs under X. The second,
`optional,' FSF tape contains contributed libraries and other toolkits, the
Andrew Toolkit, games, and other programs.

Berkeley Networking 2 Tape

The Berkeley "Net2" release contains the second 4.3 BSD distribution and is
newer than both 4.3BSD-Tahoe and 4.3BSD-Reno. It includes most of the BSD
software system except for a few utilities, some parts of the kernel, and
some library routines which your own C library is likely to provide (we have
replacements on other tapes for many of the missing programs). This release
also contains third party software including Kerberos and some GNU software.

VMS Emacs and Compiler Tapes

We offer two VMS tapes. One has just the GNU Emacs editor. The second
contains the GNU C compiler, Bison (needed to compile GCC), `gas' (needed to
assemble GCC's output), and some library and include files. We are not aware
of a GDB port for VMS. Both VMS tapes have executables from which you can
bootstrap, since the DEC VMS C compiler cannot compile GCC. Please do not
ask us to devote effort to VMS support, because it is peripheral to the GNU

GNU Source Code CD-ROM

The Free Software Foundation has produced its first CD-ROM. This CD contains
sources to the distribution of the GNU Project including: Emacs, GCC, G++,
GDB, Bison, GAS, Make, GAWK, Texinfo, the GNU Utilities, RCS and CVS, `f2c',
`gnuplot', Ghostscript, `tar', `diff', and BASH, as well as the MIT X Window
System, and MIT Scheme. This CD included everything on our Emacs, Languages
(except T), Utilities, Experimental, X11 Required and X11 Optional tapes as
of October 1992. Note that the BSD-Net2 tape contents are not on this CD.
Some of the versions are earlier then listed in "GNU Software Available Now".
These programs are not on this CD: PCL, CLISP, Autoconf, Fax, `wdiff',
`screen', Termcap, and Oleo.

The CD-ROM also contains some packages ported to Intel 80386 and 80486-based
machines running MS-DOS: Demacs, DJGPP, and MIT Scheme 7.2. In addition, it
contains Mtools, which is a public domain collection of programs to allow
Unix systems to read, write, and manipulate files on an MS-DOS file system
(typically a diskette).

The CD is in ISO 9660 format and can be mounted as a read-only file system on
most operating systems. You can build most of this software without needing
to copy the sources off the CD. It requires only enough free disk space for
the object files and the intermediate build targets. Except for several of
the MS-DOS packages, there are no precompiled programs on this CD. You will
need a C compiler (programs which need some other interpreter or compiler
normally provide the C source for a bootstrapping program).

The CD costs $400 if you are buying it for a business or other organization,
or $100 if you are buying it for yourself.

* What do the individual and company prices mean?

The software on our disk is free; anyone can copy it and anyone can run
it. What we charge for is the physical disk.

We charge two different prices depending on who is buying. When a
company or other organization buys the disk, we charge $400. When an
individual buys the same disk, we charge just $100.

You, the reader, are certainly an individual, not a company. If you are
buying a disk "in person", then you are probably doing so as an
individual. But if you expect to be reimbursed by your employer, then
the disk is really for the company, so please pay the company price and
get reimbursed for the company price. We won't try to check up on
you--we use the honor system--so please cooperate.

Buying CDs at the company price is especially helpful for the GNU
project; just 80 CDs at the company price will support an FSF programmer
or tech writer for a year.

* Why is there an individual price?

In the past, our distribution tapes have been ordered mainly by
companies. The CD at the price of $400 provides them with all of our
software for a much lower price than they would previously have paid for
six different tapes. To lower the price further would cut into the
FSF's funds very badly.

However, for individuals, $400 is too high a price; hardly anyone could
afford that. So we decided to make CDs available to individuals at the
lower price of $100, but not do the same for companies.

MS-DOS Distribution

The FSF is now distributing some of the GNU software that has been ported to
MS-DOS on 3.5 inch, 1.44MB diskettes. The disks contain both source and

Contents of the Demacs diskettes

Demacs is a version of Emacs 18.55 ported to MS-DOS, with some changes from
Emacs 18.57. Two versions are actually included--one which handles 8-bit
character sets, and one, based on Nemacs, which handles 16-bit character
sets, including Kanji. We distribute it on five 3.5 inch diskettes,
containing both source and executables.

Demacs runs on Intel 80386 and 80486-based machines running MS-DOS. It is
compatible with XMS memory managers and VCPI, but not with Microsoft Windows
extended mode or other DPMI managers.

Contents of the DJGPP diskettes

DJGPP is a complete port of GCC, libraries, development utilities, and a
symbolic debugger, for Intel 80386 and 80486-based machines running MS-DOS.
We distribute it on four 3.5 inch diskettes, containing both source and

DJGPP requires at least 5MB of hard disk space to install, and 512K of RAM to
use. It is compatible with XMS memory managers and VCPI, but not with
Microsoft Windows extended mode or other DPMI managers. It cannot emulate
multitasking (e.g. `fork(2)') or signals.

Contents of the Selected Utilities diskettes

The GNUish MS-DOS Project releases versions of GNU software ported to PC
compatibles. In general, this software will run on 8086 and 80286-based
machines; it does not require an 80386. Some of these utilities are
necessarily missing features.

We are distributing these utilities, both source and executables: Bison, RCS,
`flex', GAWK, `cpio', `diff', MicroEmacs, `find', some file utilities,
`gdbm', `grep', `libc', `ptx', `indent', `less', `m4', `make', `sed', `shar',
`sort', and Texinfo.

Contents of the Windows diskette

We are distributing versions of GNU Chess and `gnuplot' ported to Microsoft
Windows, on a single diskette, containing both source and executables.

*If I have seen farther than others, it is because I was standing on the
shoulders of giants.*

--Isaac Newton

The Deluxe Distribution

The Free Software Foundation has been repeatedly asked to create a package
that provides executables for all of our software. Usually we offer only
sources. In addition to providing binaries with the source code, the Deluxe
Distribution includes copies of all our printed manuals.

The FSF Deluxe Distribution contains the binaries and sources to hundreds of
different programs including GNU Emacs, the GNU C Compiler, the GNU Debugger,
the complete MIT X Window System, and the GNU utilities.

You may choose one of the following machines and operating systems: HP 9000
series 200, 300, 700, or 800 (4.3 BSD or HP-UX); RS/6000 (AIX); Sony NEWS 68k
(4.3 BSD or NewsOS 4); Sun 3, 4, or SPARC (SunOS 4 or Solaris). If your
machine or system is not listed, or if a specific program has not been ported
to that machine, please call the FSF office.

We will supply the software on one of the following media in Unix tar format:
1600 or 6250 bpi, 1/2 inch, reel to reel tape; Sun DC300XLP 1/4 inch
cartridge, QIC-24; HP 16 track DC600HC 1/4 inch cartridge; IBM RS/6000 1/4
inch cartridge, QIC-150; and Exabyte 8mm tape. If your computer cannot read
any of these, please call us.

The manuals included are one each of the Bison, Calc, Gawk, GNU C Compiler,
GNU Debugger, Flex, GNU Emacs Lisp Reference, Make, Texinfo, and Termcap
manuals; six copies of the GNU Emacs manual; and a packet of reference cards
for GNU Emacs, Calc, the GNU Debugger, Bison, and Flex.

In addition to the printed and on-line documentation, every Deluxe
Distribution includes an ISO 9660 CD-ROM that contains sources of our

The Deluxe Distribution costs $5000. This package is for people who want to
get everything compiled for them or who want to make a purchase that helps
the FSF in a large way.

Tape Subscription Service

The FSF is starting a tape subscription service. If you do not have net
access, the subscription service enables you to stay current with the latest
FSF developments. For the one-time cost equivalent to three tapes, we will
mail you four new versions of the tape of your choice over the course of the
next year.

Every quarter, we will send you a new version of a Languages, Utilities,
Experimental, or MIT X Windows Required tape. The Emacs, BSD Net-2, and the
MIT X Windows Optional tapes are not changed often enough to warrant
quarterly updates.

See the section entitled "Subscriptions" in the "FSF Order Form".

Free Software for Microcomputers

We do not provide support for GNU software on microcomputers because it is
peripheral to the GNU Project. However, we are distributing a few such
programs on tape, CD-ROM, and diskette. We are also willing to publish
information about groups who do support and maintain them. If you are aware
of any such efforts, please send the details, including postal addresses,
archive sites, and mailing lists, to either address on the front cover.

See "MS-DOS Distribution" for more information about microcomputer software
available from the FSF. Please do not ask us about any other software. The
FSF does not maintain any of it and has no additional information.

* GNU Software not on Apple computers

In lawsuits, Apple claims the power to stop people from writing any
program that has a user interface that works even vaguely like the
Macintosh's. If Apple triumphs in the courts, it will create for itself
a new power over the public that will enable it to put an end to free
software. So long as Apple is committed to establishing this kind of
monopoly, we will not provide any support or software for Apple machines.

* Boston Computer Society

The BCS has thousands of shareware and free programs for microcomputers,
including some GNU programs. Contact them to see what is available for
your machine:

Boston Computer Society
1 Kendall Square, Bldg 1400,
Cambridge, MA 02139
Phone: (617) 252-0600

* GNU Software on the Amiga

Get Amiga ports of GNU programs from `ftp.funet.fi' in `/pub/amiga/gnu'
(Europe) using anonymous FTP.

For info on (or offers to help with) the GCC port and related projects,
ask Leonard Norrgard, `vin...@nic.funet.fi'. For info on the GNU Emacs
port, ask David Gay, `dg...@di.epfl.ch', or Mark D. Henning,
`hen...@stolaf.edu'. You can get more info via anonymous FTP in

* GNU Software for Atari TOS and Atari Minix

You can obtain Atari ports from `atari.archive.umich.edu' using
anonymous FTP. Howard Chu, `h...@hanauma.jpl.nasa.gov', maintains the
archive. Ports are discussed on USENET in `comp.sys.atari.st.tech' &

* GNU C/C++ 2.2.2 for OS/2 2.0

Michael Johnson has completed a new, completely stand-alone port of the
GNU C/C++ Version 2.2.2 compiler for OS/2 2.0. It has the C/C++
compilers, the GNU assembler, documentation, & both OS/2-specific and
the BSD C libraries. Find it in `/pub/os2/2.0/programming/gcc2-222' from
`hobbes.nmsu.edu' via anonymous FTP. To join the mailing list, send a
message to `os2gcc-...@charon.mit.edu'.

* Linux: a free Unix system for 386 machines

Linux (named after its author, Linus Torvalds) is a free Unix clone
which implements a subset of System V and POSIX functionality. Linux
has been written from scratch and does not contain any proprietary code
in the kernel. Many of the utilities and libraries are GNU software.
Linux runs only on 386/486 AT-bus (and some EISA-bus) machines. Porting
to non-Intel architectures is hard since the kernel makes extensive use
of 386 memory management and task primitives. Linux is freely
distributable and available via anonymous FTP:
`tsx-11.mit.edu:/pub/linux' (USA), `nic.funet.fi:/pub/OS/Linux'
(Europe). See newsgroup `comp.os.linux' for Linux discussions. Ask
`linux-activ...@niksula.hut.fi' about their mailing lists.

* Free 386BSD

William F. Jolitz et al. have written a 386 port of BSD Unix. This
kernel is said to be free of AT&T code and is freely redistributable.
You can obtain more information from `so...@reyes.stanford.edu'. This
is the result of the work described in the Dr. Dobb's Journal series on

* DJGPP, the GNU C/C++ compiler for MS-DOS

D. J. Delorie has ported GCC/G++ 2.2.2 to the 386 MS-DOS platform. The
compiler and programs it generates run in 32-bit mode with full virtual
memory support. DJGPP is available via FTP from `ftp.clarkson.edu' in
`/pub/msdos/djgpp'. You can subscribe to a mailing list on DJGPP by
sending your e-mail address to `djgpp-...@sun.soe.clarkson.edu'.

The FSF is distributing DJGPP both on floppies and the CD-ROM (see
"MS-DOS Distribution" and "GNU Source Code CD-ROM").

* Demacs, GNU Emacs for MS-DOS

Manabu Higashida and Hirano Satoshi have released Demacs, a GNU Emacs
port for 386/486 MS-DOS. Version 1.2.0 is the first post-beta release.
Demacs provides several DOS-specific features: support for binary or
text file translation, "8bit clean" display mode, 80x86 software
interrupt calls via a `int86' Lisp function, machine-specific features
such as function key support, file name completion with drive name,
child processes (`suspend-emacs' and `call-process'). Dired mode works
without `ls.exe'. Anonymous FTP it from: `wuarchive.wustl.edu' in
`/mirrors/msdos/demacs' (US), `utsun.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp' in `/GNU/demacs'
(Japan), and `ftp.funet.fi' in `/pub/gnu/emacs/demacs' (Europe).

The FSF is distributing Demacs both on floppies and the CD-ROM (see
"MS-DOS Distribution" and "GNU Source Code CD-ROM").

* Freemacs, an Extensible Editor for MS-DOS

Russ Nelson, `nel...@crynwr.com', has written a small programmable
editor that is compatible enough with GNU Emacs that Freemacs users can
use the `GNU Emacs' manual as a reference for it. It will run on most
MS-DOS systems, including 8088 machines.

Anonymous FTP it from `emacs16a.zip' (under `PD1:<MSDOS.FREEMACS>') from
`wsmr-simtel20.army.mil'; or send $15 (copying fee) to:

Russ Nelson
11 Grant St.
Potsdam, NY 13676
Phone: (315) 268-1925 (Fax: 9201)

Specify floppy format: `5.25"/360K'; or `3.50"/720K.'

* GNU Software on MS-DOS

Russ Nelson has MS-DOS ports of many GNU programs available on floppy
disk. Contact him at the above address for more information.

Also, `info-gnu-ms...@sun.soe.clarkson.edu' for info on MS-DOS
ports of GNU programs and related mailing lists. More information is in
files `/pub/gnu/MicrosPorts/MSDOS*', found on `prep.ai.mit.edu' via
anonymous FTP.

The FSF is distributing MS-DOS ports of many GNU programs on floppies
(see "MS-DOS Distribution").

Announcing FSF T-shirts

Free Software Foundation T-shirts are now available, designed by local artist
Jamal Hannah. The front of the t-shirt has an image of a GNU hacking at a
workstation with the text "GNU's Not Unix" above and the text "Free Software
Foundation below. They are available in two colors, Natural and Black.
Natural is an off-white, unbleached, undyed, environmentally friendly cotton,
printed with black ink. Great for tye-dyeing, or displaying as is. Black is
printed with white ink and is perfect for late night hacking. All shirts are
thick 100% cotton, and are available in sizes M, L, XL, and XXL.

Use the "FSF Order Form" to order your shirt, and consider getting one as a
present for your favorite hacker!

*Work for something because it is good, not just because it stands a
chance to succeed.*

--Vaclav Havel

Thank GNUs

Thanks to all those mentioned above in "GNUs Flashes", "Project GNU Status
Report", "GNU in Japan", and "GNU Software Available Now".

Our undying gratitude to Carl W. Hoffman for all of his help.

Thanks to the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory and the Laboratory for
Computer Science at MIT for their invaluable assistance of many kinds.

Thanks are due to the following people for their assistance in the recent
Japan activities: Nobuyuki & Mieko Hikichi, Dr. Ken'ichi Handa, Dr. Ikuo
Takeuchi, Bob Myers, David Littleboy, Mike Kandall, Prof. Masayuki Ida, JUS &
SEA, Michio Nagashima and Paul Abramson. Thanks to Village Center, Inc.,
ASCII Corporation, the Japan Unix Society, A.I. Soft, and many others in
Japan, for their continued donations and support.

Thanks to the USENIX Association for letting us have a table at their
conference. Thanks again to the Open Software Foundation for their continued
support. Thanks to Cygnus Support for assisting Project GNU in many ways.

Thanks to the University of Massachusetts at Boston (especially Rick Martin)
for letting Karl Berry and Kathryn Hargreaves use their computers.

Thanks to Jim Morris of Carnegie-Mellon University for supporting Tom Lord.
Brian Fox says "domo arigato gozaimashita" to Dr. Ed Gamble and ATR Japan for
hosting him for 6 weeks in Kyoto, Japan. Joseph Arceneaux thanks
Richard Karpinkski of UCSF and Paul Hilfinger of UCB, as well as Paul's
students Luigi, Ed, Alan, and Kinson, for their kind assistance.

Thanks to Lucid, Inc. for the loan of an X terminal and for their support of
Joe Arceneaux. Thanks to Chet Ramey for his continuing work on improving
BASH. Thanks to Carol Botteron for proofreading and other assistance.

Thanks go out to all those who have either lent or donated machines,
including Cygnus Support for a Sun SPARCstation; Hewlett-Packard for two
80486, six 68030, and four Spectrum computers; Brewster Kahle of Thinking
Machines Corp. for a Sun-4/110; Doug Blewett of AT&T Bell Labs for two
Convergent Miniframes; CMU's Mach Project for a Sun-3/60; Intel Corp. for
their 386 machine; NeXT for their workstation; the MIT Media Laboratory for a
Hewlett-Packard 68020; SONY Corp. and Software Research Associates, Inc.,
both of Tokyo, for three SONY News workstations; IBM Corp. for an RS/6000;
the MIT Laboratory of Computer Science for the DEC MicroVAX; the Open Software
Foundation for the Compaq 386; Delta Microsystems for an Exabyte tape drive;
an anonymous donor for 5 IBM RT/PCs; Liant Software Corp. for five VT100s;
Jerry Peek for a 386 machine; NCD Corporation for an X terminal; and
Interleaf, Inc., Veronika Caslavsky, Paul English, Cindy Woolworth, and
Lisa Bergen for the loan of a scanner.

Thanks to all those who have contributed ports and extensions, as well as
those who have contributed other source code, documentation, and good bug
reports. Thanks to those who sent money and offered help. Thanks also to
those who support us by ordering manuals and distribution tapes. The
creation of this bulletin is our way of thanking all who have expressed
interest in what we are doing.

Free Software Foundation Order Form

Price and contents may change without notice after June 30, 1993. All items
are distributed with permission to copy and to redistribute. Texinfo source
for each manual is on the appropriate tape, diskette, or CD-ROM; the prices
for these magnetic media do not include printed manuals. All items are
provided on an "as is" basis, with no warranty of any kind. Please allow six
weeks for delivery (though it won't usually take that long).

This order form expires June 30, 1993.

The following tapes in the formats indicated (see "GNU Software Available
Now" for contents of the tapes):
Please circle the dollar amount for each tape you order.

Reel to Sun (1) HP IBM (2) Exabyte
reel RS/6000
(c.t. = cartridge tape) Unix tar Unix tar Unix tar Unix tar Unix tar
(n/a = not available) 9-track QIC-24 16-track QIC-150
1600 bpi DC300XLP DC600HC DC600A
Tape contents above. 1/2" reel 1/4" c.t. 1/4" c.t. 1/4" c.t. 8mm c.t.

Emacs $200 $210 $230 $215 (3) $205
Languages $200 $210 $230 n/a $205
Experimental $200 $210 $230 $215 $205
Utilities $200 $210 $230 $215 $205
BSD-Net2 $200 $210 $230 $215 $205
X11r5-Required $200 $210 $230 $215 $205
X11r5-Optional $200 $210 $230 $215 $205

(1) Sun tapes can be read on some other Unix systems.
(2) IBM RS/6000 tapes can be read on some other Unix systems.
(3) The IBM Emacs tape also has binaries for GNU Emacs.

Subscriptions, 4 updates for one year (see "Tape Subscription Service"):

Languages $600 $630 $690 n/a $615
Experimental $600 $630 $690 $645 $615
Utilities $600 $630 $690 $645 $615
X11r5-Required $600 $630 $690 $645 $615

Subtotal $ ______ Please put total of the above circled amounts here.

The following, on 1600 bpi reel-to-reel 9 track 1/2" tapes, in VMS BACKUP
format (aka interchange format):

____ @ $195 = $ ______ VMS Emacs, GNU Emacs source & executables only.
None of the other software on the GNU Emacs Tape,
described above, is included
____ @ $195 = $ ______ VMS Languages, GCC, GAS, and Bison source and
executables only. None of the other software on the
GNU Languages Tape, described above, is included.

FSF Deluxe Distribution (see "Deluxe Distribution" and end of order form):

____ @ $5000 = $ ______ Deluxe Distribution, with manuals and executables.

The following source and executables for MS-DOS, on 3.5" 1.44MB diskettes
(see ``MS-DOS Distribution''):

____ @ $ 90 = $ ______ Demacs diskettes, GNU Emacs, for 80386 and up.

____ @ $ 80 = $ ______ DJGPP diskettes, GCC version 2, for 80386 and up.

____ @ $ 85 = $ ______ Selected Utilities diskettes, utilities for 8086 and
____ @ $ 40 = $ ______ Windows diskette, GNU Chess and gnuplot for
Microsoft Windows.

CD-ROM, in ISO 9660 format (see "GNU Source Code CD-ROM"):
____ @ $400 = $ ______ GNU Source Code CD-ROM for corporations and
other organizations.
____ @ $100 = $ ______ GNU Source Code CD-ROM for individuals.

The following manuals, 6 by 9.25 inches, soft cover with an illustration,
offset printed, "lay-flat" binding (see "GNU Documentation"):

____ @ $ 20 = $ ______ GNU Emacs manual, unit price for 1 to 5 copies,
352 pages, with a reference card.
____ @ $ 13 = $ ______ GNU Emacs manuals, unit price for 6 or more.

____ @ $ 50 = $ ______ GNU Emacs Lisp Reference manual, 614 pages in
2 volumes.
____ @ $200 = $ ______ A box of 5 GNU Emacs Lisp Reference manuals.

____ @ $ 20 = $ ______ Texinfo manual, 248 pages. Texinfo is GNU's
structured documentation system, included with GNU
Emacs. Texinfo is used to produce both on-line and
printed documents. This manual describes how to
write Texinfo documents.
____ @ $ 20 = $ ______ Gawk manual, 191 pages.

____ @ $ 20 = $ ______ Make manual, 164 pages.

____ @ $ 15 = $ ______ Debugging with GDB, 182 pages, with a reference
____ @ $ 15 = $ ______ Bison manual, 98 pages, with a reference card.

____ @ $ 15 = $ ______ Flex manual, 120 pages, with a reference card.

The following manuals, 6 by 9.25 inches, soft cover, photocopied, GBC binding:

____ @ $ 50 = $ ______ Using and Porting GNU CC version 2.3, 388
____ @ $ 20 = $ ______ Using and Porting GNU CC version 1.42, 206
____ @ $ 10 = $ ______ Termcap manual, 68 pages. Documents the termcap
library and GNU's extensions to it. The GNU termcap
library is included with GNU Emacs.

The following manual, 8.5 by 11 inches, soft cover, photocopied, GBC binding:

____ @ $ 50 = $ ______ GNU Emacs Calc manual, 596 pages, with a reference
card. Calc is an extensible, advanced mathematical
tool and desk calculator that runs under GNU Emacs.

The following reference cards, unit price, without the manuals:

____ @ $ 2 = $ ______ GNU Emacs reference card.

____ @ $ 2 = $ ______ GNU Emacs Calc reference card.

____ @ $ 2 = $ ______ GDB reference card.

____ @ $ 2 = $ ______ Bison reference card.

____ @ $ 2 = $ ______ Flex reference card.

The following reference cards, in packets of ten:

____ @ $ 10 = $ ______ GNU Emacs reference cards.

____ @ $ 10 = $ ______ GNU Emacs Calc reference cards.

____ @ $ 10 = $ ______ GDB reference cards.

____ @ $ 10 = $ ______ Bison reference cards.

____ @ $ 10 = $ ______ Flex reference cards.

GNU/FSF T-shirts, thick 100% cotton (see "Announcing FSF T-shirts"):

____ @ $ 12 = $ ______ Size M, ____ natural, ____ black.

____ @ $ 12 = $ ______ Size L, ____ natural, ____ black.

____ @ $ 12 = $ ______ Size XL, ____ natural, ____ black.

____ @ $ 13 = $ ______ Size XXL, ____ natural, ____ black.

Subtotal $ ______

+ $ ______ In Massachusetts: add 5% sales tax, or give tax
exempt number.
+ $ ______ In Alaska, Hawaii, or Puerto Rico for shipping:
for GNU Emacs Lisp Reference and GNU Emacs Calc
manuals, add $5 each, or $20 per box. For all other
items, add $5 base charge, then $1 per item except
reference cards.
+ $ ______ Outside of U.S., Canada, and Puerto Rico for
shipping: for each box of GNU Emacs Lisp Reference
manuals, add $70. For all other items, add $20 base
charge, and then add $15 more for each item (except
reference cards) in the order; i.e.,
total = $20 + $15 * n.
+ $ ______ Optional (tax-deductible in the U.S.) donation.

TOTAL $ ______ We pay for shipping via UPS ground transportation in
the contiguous 48 states and Canada.

Orders filled only upon receipt of check or money order in U.S. dollars.
We do not have the staff to handle the billing of unpaid orders.
Please help keep our lives simple by including your payment with your order.

Please make checks payable to the Free Software Foundation.

Name: ________________________________________________________________________

Mail Stop/Dept. Name: ________________________________________________________

Organization: ________________________________________________________________

Street Address: ______________________________________________________________

City/State/Providence: _______________________________________________________

Zip Code/Postal Code/Country: ________________________________________________

Voice telephone (NOT FAX) number (in case of a
problem with your order, or for overseas customs agents): ____________________

For orders from outside the U.S.: Orders must be paid in U.S. dollars. You
are responsible for paying all duties, tariffs, and taxes. If you refuse
to pay the charges, the shipper will return or abandon the order.

For Deluxe Distributions:

Machine: _____________________________________________________________________

Operating system: ____________________________________________________________

Media type: __________________________________________________________________

Please mail orders to: Free Software Foundation
675 Massachusetts Avenue
This order form expires Cambridge, MA 02139 USA
June 30, 1993. +1 617 876 3296


| |
Free Software Foundation, Inc. | stamp |
675 Massachusetts Avenue | |
Cambridge, MA 02139 | here |
USA | |


enjoy -len

Member of the League for Programming Freedom.
Ask <l...@uunet.uu.net> via e-mail for information.

Reply all
Reply to author
0 new messages