500+ Database Related Questions...

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Bhatnagar Achindra

Oct 7, 2005, 10:46:37 AM10/7/05
to GAB Technologics Inc., Makhanlal University Group
1. What is Log Switch ?

The point at which ORACLE ends writing to one online
redo log file
and begins writing to another is called a log switch.

2. What is On-line Redo Log?

The On-line Redo Log is a set of tow or more on-line
redo files that
record all committed changes made to the database.
Whenever a
transaction is committed, the corresponding redo
entries temporarily
stores in redo log buffers of the SGA are written to
an on-line redo
log file by the background process LGWR. The on-line
redo log files
are used in cyclical fashion.

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3. Which parameter specified in the DEFAULT STORAGE
clause of CREATE
TABLESPACE cannot be altered after creating the

All the default storage parameters defined for the
tablespace can be
changed using the ALTER TABLESPACE command. When
objects are created
their INITIAL and MINEXTENS values cannot be changed.

4. What are the steps involved in Database Startup ?

Start an instance, Mount the Database and Open the

5. What are the steps involved in Instance Recovery ?

Rolling forward to recover data that has not been
recorded in data
files, yet has been recorded in the on-line redo log,
including the
contents of rollback segments. Rolling back
transactions that have
been explicitly rolled back or have not been committed
as indicated
by the rollback segments regenerated in step a.
Releasing any
resources (locks) held by transactions in process at
the time of the
failure. Resolving any pending distributed
transactions undergoing a
two-phase commit at the time of the instance failure.

6. Can Full Backup be performed when the database is
open ?


7. What are the different modes of mounting a Database
with the
Parallel Server ?

Exclusive Mode If the first instance that mounts a
database does so
in exclusive mode, only that Instance can mount the
Parallel Mode If the first instance that mounts a
database is
started in parallel mode, other instances that are
started in
parallel mode can also mount the database.

What are the advantages of operating a database in
over operating it in NO ARCHIVELOG mode ? Complete
database recovery
from disk failure is possible only in ARCHIVELOG mode.
database backup is possible only in ARCHIVELOG mode.
8. What are the steps involved in Database Shutdown ?

Close the Database, Dismount the Database and Shutdown
the Instance.

9. What is Archived Redo Log ?

Archived Redo Log consists of Redo Log files that have
before being reused.

10. What is Restricted Mode of Instance Startup ?

An instance can be started in (or later altered to be
in) restricted
mode so that when the database is open connections are
limited only
to those whose user accounts have been granted the
SESSION system privilege.

11. What is Partial Backup ?

A Partial Backup is any operating system backup short
of a full
backup, taken while the database is open or shut down.

12. What is Mirrored on-line Redo Log ?

A mirrored on-line redo log consists of copies of
on-line redo log
files physically located on separate disks, changes
made to one
member of the group are made to all members.

13. What is Full Backup ?

A full backup is an operating system backup of all
data files, on-
line redo log files and control file that constitute
ORACLE database
and the parameter.

14. Can a View based on another View ?


15. Can a Tablespace hold objects from different
Schemes ?


16. Can objects of the same Schema reside in different


17. What is the use of Control File ?

When an instance of an ORACLE database is started, its
control file
is used to identify the database and redo log files
that must be
opened for database operation to proceed. It is also
used in
database recovery.

18. Do View contain Data ?

Views do not contain or store data.

19. What are the Referential actions supported by
integrity constraint ?

UPDATE and DELETE Restrict - A referential integrity
rule that
disallows the update or deletion of referenced data.
DELETE Cascade -
When a referenced row is deleted all associated
dependent rows are

20. What are the type of Synonyms?

There are two types of Synonyms Private and Public

21. What is a Redo Log ?

The set of Redo Log files YSDATE,UID,USER or USERENV
SQL functions,
or the pseudo columns LEVEL or ROWNUM.

22. What is an Index Segment ?

Each Index has an Index segment that stores all of its

23. Explain the relationship among Database,
Tablespace and Data

Each databases logically divided into one or more
tablespaces one or
more data files are explicitly created for each

24. What are the different type of Segments ?

Data Segment, Index Segment, Rollback Segment and
Temporary Segment.

25. What are Clusters ?

Clusters are groups of one or more tables physically
stores together
to share common columns and are often used together.

26. What is an Integrity Constrains ?

An integrity constraint is a declarative way to define
a business
rule for a column of a table.

27. What is an Index ?

An Index is an optional structure associated with a
table to have
direct access to rows, which can be created to
increase the
performance of data retrieval. Index can be created on
one or more
columns of a table.

28. What is an Extent ?

An Extent is a specific number of contiguous data
blocks, obtained
in a single allocation, and used to store a specific
type of

29. What is a View ?

A view is a virtual table. Every view has a Query
attached to it.
(The Query is a SELECT statement that identifies the
columns and
rows of the table(s) the view uses.)

30. What is Table ?

A table is the basic unit of data storage in an ORACLE
database. The
tables of a database hold all of the user accessible
data. Table
data is stored in rows and columns.

31. What is a Synonym ?

A synonym is an alias for a table, view, sequence or
program unit.

32. What is a Sequence ?

A sequence generates a serial list of unique numbers
for numerical
columns of a database's tables.

33. What is a Segment ?

A segment is a set of extents allocated for a certain

34. What is schema?

A schema is collection of database objects of a User.

35. Describe Referential Integrity ?

A rule defined on a column (or set of columns) in one
table that
allows the insert or update of a row only if the value
for the
column or set of columns (the dependent value) matches
a value in a
column of a related table (the referenced value). It
also specifies
the type of data manipulation allowed on referenced
data and the
action to be performed on dependent data as a result
of any action
on referenced data.

36. What is Hash Cluster ?

A row is stored in a hash cluster based on the result
of applying a
hash function to the row's cluster key value. All rows
with the same
hash key value are stores together on disk.

37. What is a Private Synonyms ?

A Private Synonyms can be accessed only by the owner.

40. What is Database Link ?

A database link is a named object that describes a
"path" from one
database to another.

41. What is a Tablespace?

A database is divided into Logical Storage Unit called
A tablespace is used to grouped related logical
structures together

42. What is Rollback Segment ?

A Database contains one or more Rollback Segments to
store "undo" information.

43. What are the Characteristics of Data Files ?

A data file can be associated with only one database.
Once created a
data file can't change size. One or more data files
form a logical
unit of database storage called a tablespace.

44. How to define Data Block size ?

A data block size is specified for each ORACLE
database when the
database is created. A database users and allocated
free database
space in ORACLE datablocks. Block size is specified in
and can't be changed latter.

45. What does a Control file Contain ?

A Control file records the physical structure of the
database. It
contains the following information.
Database Name
Names and locations of a database's files and redolog
Time stamp of database creation.

46.What is difference between UNIQUE constraint and
constraint ?

A column defined as UNIQUE can contain Nulls while a
column defined
as PRIMARY KEY can't contain Nulls.

47.What is Index Cluster ?

A Cluster with an index on the Cluster Key

48.When does a Transaction end ?

When it is committed or Rollbacked.

49. What is the effect of setting the value "ALL_ROWS"
OPTIMIZER_GOAL parameter of the ALTER SESSION command
? What are the
factors that affect OPTIMIZER in choosing an
Optimization approach ?

Answer The OPTIMIZER_MODE initialization parameter
Statistics in the
Data Dictionary the OPTIMIZER_GOAL parameter of the
command hints in the statement.

50. What is the effect of setting the value "CHOOSE"
OPTIMIZER_GOAL, parameter of the ALTER SESSION Command

The Optimizer chooses Cost_based approach and
optimizes with the
goal of best throughput if statistics for atleast one
of the tables
accessed by the SQL statement exist in the data
Otherwise the OPTIMIZER chooses RULE_based approach.

51. What is the function of Optimizer ?

The goal of the optimizer is to choose the most
efficient way to
execute a SQL statement.

52. What is Execution Plan ?

The combinations of the steps the optimizer chooses to
execute a
statement is called an execution plan.

53. What are the different approaches used by
Optimizer in choosing
an execution plan ?

Rule-based and Cost-based.

54. What does ROLLBACK do ?

ROLLBACK retracts any of the changes resulting from
the SQL
statements in the transaction.

55. What is SAVE POINT ?

For long transactions that contain many SQL
statements, intermediate
markers or savepoints can be declared which can be
used to divide a
transaction into smaller parts. This allows the option
of later
rolling back all work performed from the current point
in the
transaction to a declared savepoint within the

56. What are the values that can be specified for
Parameter ?


57. What is COST-based approach to optimization ?

Considering available access paths and determining the
efficient execution plan based on statistics in the
data dictionary
for the tables accessed by the statement and their
clusters and indexes.

58. What does COMMIT do ?

COMMIT makes permanent the changes resulting from all
SQL statements
in the transaction. The changes made by the SQL
statements of a
transaction become visible to other user sessions
transactions that
start only after transaction is committed.

59. What is RULE-based approach to optimization ?

Choosing an executing planbased on the access paths
available and
the ranks of these access paths.

60. What are the values that can be specified for
parameter of the ALTER SESSION Command ?


61. Define Transaction ?

A Transaction is a logical unit of work that comprises
one or more
SQL statements executed by a single user.

62. What is Read-Only Transaction ?

A Read-Only transaction ensures that the results of
each query
executed in the transaction are consistant with
respect to the same
point in time.

63. What is a deadlock ? Explain .

Two processes wating to update the rows of a table
which are locked
by the other process then deadlock arises. In a
database environment
this will often happen because of not issuing proper
row lock
commands. Poor design of front-end application may
cause this
situation and the performance of server will reduce
These locks will be released automatically when a
operation performed or any one of this processes being

64. What is a Schema ?

The set of objects owned by user account is called the

65. What is a cluster Key ?

The related columns of the tables are called the
cluster key. The
cluster key is indexed using a cluster index and its
value is stored
only once for multiple tables in the cluster.

66. What is Parallel Server ?

Multiple instances accessing the same database (Only
In Multi-CPU

67. What are the basic element of Base configuration
of an oracle
Database ?

It consists of
one or more data files.
one or more control files.
two or more redo log files.
The Database contains
multiple users/schemas
one or more rollback segments
one or more tablespaces
Data dictionary tables
User objects (table,indexes,views etc.,)
The server that access the database consists of
SGA (Database buffer, Dictionary Cache Buffers, Redo
log buffers,
Shared SQL pool)
SMON (System MONito)
PMON (Process MONitor)
LGWR (LoG Write)
DBWR (Data Base Write)
CKPT (Check Point)
User Process with associated PGS

68. What is clusters ?

Group of tables physically stored together because
they share common
columns and are often used together is called Cluster.

69. What is an Index ? How it is implemented in Oracle
Database ?

An index is a database structure used by the server to
have direct
access of a row in a table. An index is automatically
created when a
unique of primary key constraint clause is specified
in create table
comman (Ver 7.0)

70. What is a Database instance ? Explain

A database instance (Server) is a set of memory
structure and
background processes that access a set of database
The process can be shared by all users. The memory
structure that
are used to store most queried data from database.
This helps up to
improve database performance by decreasing the amount
of I/O
performed against data file.

71. WWhat is the use of ANALYZE command ?

To perform one of these function on an index,table, or
- To collect statistics about object used by the
optimizer and store
them in the data dictionary.
- To delete statistics about the object ussed by
object from the
data dictionary.
- To validate the structure of the object..
- To identify migrated and chained rows off the table
or cluster.

72. What is default tablespace ?

The Tablespace to contain schema objects created
without specifying
a tablespace name.

73. What are the system resources that can be
controlled through
Profile ?

The number of concurrent sessions the user can
establish the CPU
processing time available to the user's session the
CPU processing
time available to a single call to ORACLE made by a
SQL statement
the amount of logical I/O available to the user's
session the amout
of logical I/O available to a single call to ORACLE
made by a SQL
statement the allowed amount of idle time for the
user's session the
allowed amount of connect time for the user's session.

74. What is Tablespace Quota ?

The collective amount of disk space available to the
objects in a
schema on a particular tablespace.

76. What are the different Levels of Auditing ?

Statement Auditing, Privilege Auditing and Object

77. What is Statement Auditing ?

Statement auditing is the auditing of the powerful
system privileges
without regard to specifically named objects

78. What are the database administrators utilities
avaliable ?

SQL * DBA - This allows DBA to monitor and control an
database. SQL * Loader - It loads data from standard
system files (Flat files) into ORACLE database tables.
Export (EXP)
and Import (imp) utilities allow you to move existing
data in ORACLE
format to and from ORACLE database.

79. How can you enable automatic archiving ?

Shut the database
Backup the database
Modify/Include LOG_ARCHIVE_START_TRUE in init.ora
Start up the database.

80. What are roles? How can we implement roles ?

Roles are the easiest way to grant and manage common
needed by different groups of database users. Creating
roles and
assigning provides to roles. Assign each role to group
of users.
This will simplify the job of assigning privileges to

81. What are Roles ?

Roles are named groups of related privileges that are
granted to
users or other roles.

82. What are the use of Roles ?

explicitly granting the
same set of privileges to many users a database
administrator can
grant the privileges for a group of related users
granted to a role
and then grant only the role to each member of the
a group must
change, only the privileges of the role need to be
modified. The
security domains of all users granted the group's role
reflect the changes made to the role.
granted to a user
can be selectively enable (available for use) or
disabled (not
available for use). This allows specific control of a
privileges in any given situation.
APPLICATION AWARENESS - A database application can be
designed to
automatically enable and disable selective roles when
a user
attempts to use the application.

83. What is Privilege Auditing ?

Privilege auditing is the auditing of the use of
powerful system
privileges without regard to specifically named

84. What is Object Auditing ?

Object auditing is the auditing of accesses to
specific schema
objects without regard to user.

85. What is Auditing ?

Monitoring of user access to aid in the investigation
of database

86. What are the responsibilities of a Database
Administrator ?

Installing and upgrading the Oracle Server and
application tools.
Allocating system storage and planning future storage
for the database system. Managing primary database
(tablespaces) Managing primary objects
Enrolling users and maintaining system security.
Ensuring compliance
with Oralce license agreement Controlling and
monitoring user access
to the database. Monitoring and optimizing the
performance of the
database. Planning for backup and recovery of database
Maintain archived data on tape Backing up and
restoring the
database. Contacting Oracle Corporation for technical

87. What is a trace file and how is it created ?

Each server and background process can write an
associated trace
file. When an internal error is detected by a process
or user
process, it dumps information about the error to its
trace. This can
be used for tuning the database.

88. What is a profile ?

Each database user is assigned a Profile that
specifies limitations
on various system resources available to the user.

89. How will you enforce security using stored

Don't grant user access directly to tables within the
Instead grant the ability to access the procedures
that access the
tables. When procedure executed it will execute the
privilege of
procedures owner. Users cannot access tables except
via the

90. What are the dictionary tables used to monitor a
spaces ?


91. What are the roles and user accounts created
automatically with
the database?

DBA - role Contains all database system privileges.
SYS user account - The DBA role will be assigned to
this account.
All of the base tables and views for the database's
dictionary are
store in this schema and are manipulated only by
account - It has all the system privileges for the
database and
additional tables and views that display
administrative information
and internal tables and views used by oracle tools are
created using
this username.

92. What are the minimum parameters should exist in
the parameter
file (init.ora) ?

DB NAME - Must set to a text string of no more than 8
characters and
it will be stored inside the datafiles, redo log files
and control
files and control file while database creation.
DB_DOMAIN - It is string that specifies the network
domain where the
database is created. The global database name is
identified by
setting these parameters
filenames of
the database. If name is not mentioned then default
name will be
DB_BLOCK_BUFFERS - To determine the no of buffers in
the buffer
cache in SGA.
PROCESSES - To determine number of operating system
processes that
can be connected to ORACLE concurrently. The value
should be 5
(background process) and additional 1 for each user.
ROLLBACK_SEGMENTS - List of rollback segments an
ORACLE instance
acquires at database startup. Also optionally

93. How can we specify the Archived log file name
format and

By setting the following values in init.ora file.
= arch %S/s/T/tarc (%S - Log sequence number and is
zero left paded,
%s - Log sequence number not padded. %T - Thread
number lef-zero-
paded and %t - Thread number not padded). The file
name created is
arch 0001 are if %S is used. LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST = path.

94. What is user Account in Oracle database?

An user account is not a physical structure in
Database but it is
having important relationship to the objects in the
database and
will be having certain privileges. 95. When will the
data in the
snapshot log be used?

We must be able to create a after row trigger on table
(i.e., it
should be not be already available) After giving table
We cannot specify snapshot log name because oracle
uses the name of
the master table in the name of the database objects
that support
its snapshot log. The master table name should be less
than or equal
to 23 characters. (The table name created will be
and trigger name will be TLOGS name).

96. What dynamic data replication?

Updating or Inserting records in remote database
through database
triggers. It may fail if remote database is having any

97. What is Two-Phase Commit ?

Two-phase commit is mechanism that guarantees a
transaction either commits on all involved nodes or
rolls back on
all involved nodes to maintain data consistency across
the global
distributed database. It has two phase, a Prepare
Phase and a Commit

98. How can you Enforce Referential Integrity in
snapshots ?

Time the references to occur when master tables are
not in use.
Peform the reference the manually immdiately locking
the master
tables. We can join tables in snopshots by creating a
snapshots that will based on the master tables.

99. What is a SQL * NET?

SQL *NET is ORACLE's mechanism for interfacing with
communication protocols used by the networks that
distributed processing and distributed databases. It
is used in
Clint-Server and Server-Server communications.

100. What is a SNAPSHOT ?

Snapshots are read-only copies of a master table
located on a remote
node which is periodically refreshed to reflect
changes made to the
master table.

101. What is the mechanism provided by ORACLE for
replication ?

Snapshots and SNAPSHOT LOGs

102. What is snapshots?

Snapshot is an object used to dynamically replicate
data between
distribute database at specified time intervals. In
ver 7.0 they are
read only.

103. What are the various type of snapshots?

Simple and Complex.

104. Describe two phases of Two-phase commit ?

Prepare phase - The global coordinator (initiating
node) ask a
participants to prepare (to promise to commit or
rollback the
transaction, even if there is a failure) Commit -
Phase - If all
participants respond to the coordinator that they are
prepared, the
coordinator asks all nodes to commit the transaction,
if all
participants cannot prepare, the coordinator asks all
nodes to roll
back the transaction.

105. What is snapshot log ?

It is a table that maintains a record of modifications
to the master
table in a snapshot. It is stored in the same database
as master
table and is only available for simple snapshots. It
should be
created before creating snapshots.

106. What are the benefits of distributed options in

Database on other servers can be updated and those
transactions can
be grouped together with others in a logical unit.
Database uses a two phase commit.

107. What are the options available to refresh
snapshots ?

COMPLETE - Tables are completely regenerated using the
query and the master tables every time the snapshot
FAST - If simple snapshot used then a snapshot log can
be used to
send the changes to the snapshot tables.
FORCE - Default value. If possible it performs a FAST
Otherwise it will perform a complete refresh.

108. What is a SNAPSHOT LOG ?

A snapshot log is a table in the master database that
is associated
with the master table. ORACLE uses a snapshot log to
track the rows
that have been updated in the master table. Snapshot
logs are used
in updating the snapshots based on the master table.

109. What is Distributed database ?

A distributed database is a network of databases
managed by multiple
database servers that appears to a user as single
logical database.
The data of all databases in the distributed database
can be
simultaneously accessed and modified.

110. How can we reduce the network traffic?

- Replication of data in distributed enviroonment.
- Using snapshots to replicate data.
- Using remote procedure calls.

111. Differentiate simple and complex, snapshots ?

- A simple snapshot is based on a query thaat does not
GROUP BY clauses, CONNECT BY clauses, JOINs, sub-query
or snashot of
- A complex snapshots contain atleast any oone of the

112. What are the Built-ins used for sending
Parameters to forms?

You can pass parameter values to a form when an
application executes
the call_form, New_form, Open_form or Run_product.

113. Can you have more than one content canvas view
attached with a

Yes. Each window you create must have atleast one
content canvas
view assigned to it. You can also create a window that
manipulated content canvas view. At run time only one
of the content
canvas views assign to a window is displayed at a

114. Is the After report trigger fired if the report


115. Does a Before form trigger fire when the
parameter form is

116. Is it possible to split the print reviewer into
more than one


117. Is it possible to center an object horizontally
in a repeating
frame that has a variable horizontal size?


118. For a field in a repeating frame, can the source
come from the
column which does not exist in the data group which
forms the base
for the frame?


119. Can a field be used in a report without it
appearing in any
data group?


120. The join defined by the default data link is an
outer join yes
or no?


121. Can a formula column referred to columns in
higher group?


122. Can a formula column be obtained through a select


123. Is it possible to insert comments into sql
statements return in
the data model editor?


124. Is it possible to disable the parameter from
while running the


126. When a form is invoked with call_form, Does
oracle forms issues
a save point?


127. Can a property clause itself be based on a
property clause?


128. If a parameter is used in a query without being
defined, what diff. exist betw. report 2.0 and 2.5
when the query is

While both reports 2.0 and 2.5 create the parameter,
report 2.5
gives a message that a bind parameter has been

129. What are the sql clauses supported in the link
property sheet?

Where start with having.

130. What is trigger associated with the timer?


131. What are the trigger associated with image items?

When-image-activated fires when the operators double
clicks on an
image itemwhen-image-pressed fires when an operator
clicks or double
clicks on an image item

132. What are the different windows events activated
at runtimes?

Within this triggers, you can examine the built in
system variable
system. event_window to determine the name of the
window for which
the trigger fired.

133. When do you use data parameter type?

When the value of a data parameter being passed to a
called product
is always the name of the record group defined in the
current form.
Data parameters are used to pass data to produts
invoked with the
run_product built-in subprogram.

134. What is difference between open_form and

when one form invokes another form by executing
open_form the first
form remains displayed, and operators can navigate
between the forms
as desired. when one form invokes another form by
call_form, the called form is modal with respect to
the calling
form. That is, any windows that belong to the calling
form are
disabled, and operators cannot navigate to them until
they first
exit the called form.

135. What is new_form built-in?

When one form invokes another form by executing
new_form oracle form
exits the first form and releases its memory before
loading the new
form calling new form completely replace the first
with the second.
If there are changes pending in the first form, the
operator will be
prompted to save them before the new form is loaded.

136. What is the "LOV of Validation" Property of an
item? What is
the use of it?

When LOV for Validation is set to True, Oracle Forms
compares the
current value of the text item to the values in the
first column
displayed in the LOV. Whenever the validation event
occurs. If the
value in the text item matches one of the values in
the first column
of the LOV, validation succeeds, the LOV is not
displayed, and
processing continues normally. If the value in the
text item does
not match one of the values in the first column of the
LOV, Oracle
Forms displays the LOV and uses the text item value as
the search
criteria to automatically reduce the list.

137. What is the diff. when Flex mode is mode on and
when it is off?

When flex mode is on, reports automatically resizes
the parent when
the child is resized.

138. What is the diff. when confine mode is on and
when it is off?

When confine mode is on, an object cannot be moved
outside its
parent in the layout.

139. What are visual attributes?

Visual attributes are the font, color, pattern
proprieties that you
set for form and menu objects that appear in your

140. Which of the two views should objects according
to possession?

view by structure.

141. What are the two types of views available in the
navigator(specific to report 2.5)?

View by structure and view by type .

142. What are the vbx controls?

Vbx control provide a simple method of building and
enhancing user
interfaces. The controls can use to obtain user inputs
and display
program outputs.vbx control where originally develop
as extensions
for the ms visual basic environments and include such
items as
sliders, rides and knobs.

143. What is the use of transactional triggers?

Using transactional triggers we can control or modify
the default
functionality of the oracle forms.

144. How do you create a new session while open a new

Using open_form built-in setting the session option
Ex. Open_form
('Stocks ',active,session). when invoke the mulitiple
forms with
open form and call_form in the same application, state
whether the
following are true/False

145. What are the ways to monitor the performance of
the report?

Use reports profile executable statement. Use SQL
trace facility.

146. If two groups are not linked in the data model
editor, What is
the hierarchy between them?

Two group that is above are the left most rank higher
than the group
that is to right or below it.

147. An open form can not be execute the call_form
procedure if you
chain of called forms has been initiated by another
open form?


148. Explain about horizontal, Vertical tool bar
canvas views?

Tool bar canvas views are used to create tool bars for
windows. Horizontal tool bars are display at the top
of a window,
just under its menu bar. Vertical Tool bars are
displayed along the
left side of a window

149. What is the purpose of the product order option
in the column
property sheet?

To specify the order of individual group evaluation in
a cross

150. What is the use of image_zoom built-in?

To manipulate images in image items.

151. How do you reference a parameter indirectly?

To indirectly reference a parameter use the NAME IN,
COPY 'built-ins
to indirectly set and reference the parameters value'
name_in ('capital parameter my param'), Copy

152. What is a timer?

Timer is an "internal time clock" that you can
create to perform an action each time the times.

153. What are the two phases of block coordination?

There are two phases of block coordination: the clear
phase and the
population phase. During, the clear phase, Oracle
Forms navigates
internally to the detail block and flushes the
obsolete detail
records. During the population phase, Oracle Forms
issues a SELECT
statement to repopulate the detail block with detail
associated with the new master record. These
operations are
accomplished through the execution of triggers.

154. What are Most Common types of Complex

There are three most common types of complex
master with dependent details
master with independent details
detail with two masters

155. What is a text list?

The text list style list item appears as a rectangular
box which
displays the fixed number of values. When the text
list contains
values that can not be displayed, a vertical scroll
bar appears,
allowing the operator to view and select undisplayed

156. What is term?

The term is terminal definition file that describes
the terminal
form which you are using r20run.

157. What is use of term?

The term file which key is correspond to which oracle

158. What is pop list?

The pop list style list item appears initially as a
single field
(similar to a text item field). When the operator
selects the list
icon, a list of available choices appears.

159. What is the maximum no of chars the parameter can

The maximum no of chars the parameter can store is
only valid for
char parameters, which can be upto 64K. No parameters
default to
23Bytes and Date parameter default to 7Bytes.

160. What are the default extensions of the files
created by library

The default file extensions indicate the library
module type and
storage format .pll - pl/sql library module binary

161. What are the Coordination Properties in a

The coordination properties are
These Properties determine when the population phase
of block
coordination should occur.

162. How do you display console on a window ?

The console includes the status line and message line,
and is
displayed at the bottom of the window to which it is
specify that the console should be displayed, set the
console window
form property to the name of any window in the form.
To include the
console, set console window to Null.

163. What are the different Parameter types?

Text ParametersData Parameters

164. State any three mouse events system variables?


165. What are the types of calculated columns

Summary, Formula, Placeholder column.

166. Explain about stacked canvas views?

Stacked canvas view is displayed in a window on top
of, or "stacked"
on the content canvas view assigned to that same
window. Stacked
canvas views obscure some part of the underlying
content canvas
view, and or often shown and hidden programmatically.

167. What are the built_ins used the display the LOV?


168. What is the difference between SHOW_EDITOR and

Show editor is the generic built-in which accepts any
editor name
and takes some input string and returns modified
output string.
Whereas the edit_textitem built-in needs the input
focus to be in
the text item before the built-in is executed.

169. What are the built-ins that are used to Attach an
programmatically to an item?

(by setting the LOV_NAME property)

170. How do you call other Oracle Products from Oracle

Run_product is a built-in, Used to invoke one of the
oracle tools products and specifies the name of the
document or
module to be run. If the called product is unavailable
at the time
of the call, Oracle Forms returns a message to the

171. What is the main diff. bet. Reports 2.0 & Reports

Report 2.5 is object oriented.

172. What are the different file extensions that are
created by
oracle reports?

Rep file and Rdf file.

173. What is strip sources generate options?

Removes the source code from the library file and
generates a
library files that contains only pcode. The resulting
file can be
used for final deployment, but can not be subsequently
edited in the
designer.ex. f45gen module=old_lib.pll
strip_source YES output_file

176. What is the basic data structure that is required
for creating
an LOV?

Record Group.

177. What is the Maximum allowed length of Record
group Column?

Record group column names cannot exceed 30 characters.

178. Which parameter can be used to set read level
across multiple queries?

Read only

179. What are the different types of Record Groups?

Query Record Groups
NonQuery Record Groups
State Record Groups

180. From which designation is it preferred to send
the output to
the printed?


181. what are difference between post database commit
and post-form

Post-form commit fires once during the post and commit
process, after the database commit occurs. The
trigger fires after inserts, updates and deletes have
been posted to
the database but before the transactions have been
finalized in the
issuing the command. The post-database-commit trigger
fires after
oracle forms issues the commit to finalized

182. What are the different display styles of list

Pop_listText_listCombo box

183. Which of the above methods is the faster method?

performing the calculation in the query is faster.

184. With which function of summary item is the
compute at options

percentage of total functions.

185. What are parameters?

Parameters provide a simple mechanism for defining and
setting the
valuesof inputs that are required by a form at
startup. Form
parameters are variables of type char,number,date that
you define at
design time.

186. What are the three types of user exits available

Oracle Precompiler exits, Oracle call interface,
NonOracle user

187. How many windows in a form can have console?

Only one window in a form can display the console, and
you cannot
change the console assignment at runtime

188.If the maximum record retrieved property of the
query is set to
10 then a summary value will be calculated?

Only for 10 records.

189.What are the two repeating frame always associated
with matrix

One down repeating frame below one across repeating

190. What are the master-detail triggers?\


191. What are the different objects that you cannot
copy or
reference in object groups?

Objects of different modules
Another object groups
Individual block dependent items
Program units.

192. What is an OLE?

Object Linking & Embedding provides you with the
capability to
integrate objects from many Ms-Windows applications
into a single
compound document creating integrated applications
enables you to
use the features form .

193. Is it possible to modify an external query in a
report which
contains it?


194. Does a grouping done for objects in the layout
editor affect
the grouping done in the data model editor?


195. Can a repeating frame be created without a data
group as a


196. If a break order is set on a column would it
affect columns
which are under the column?


197. Is it possible to set a filter condition in a
cross product
group in matrix reports?


198. Do user parameters appear in the data modal
editor in 2.5?


199. Can you pass data parameters to forms?


200. Is it possible to link two groups inside a cross
products after
the cross products group has been created?


201. What are the different modals of windows?

Modalless windows
Modal windows

202. What are modal windows?

Modal windows are usually used as dialogs, and have
functionality compared to modelless windows. On some
platforms for
example operators cannot resize, scroll or iconify a
modal window.

203. What are the different default triggers created
when Master
Deletes Property is set to Non-isolated?

Master Deletes Property Resulting Triggers
Non-Isolated(the default) On-Check-Delete-Master

204. What are the different default triggers created
when Master
Deletes Property is set to isolated?

Master Deletes Property Resulting Triggers
Isolated On-Clear-Details

205. What are the different default triggers created
when Master
Deletes Property is set to Cascade?

Master Deletes Property Resulting Triggers
Cascading On-Clear-Details

206. What is the diff. bet. setting up of parameters
in reports 2.0

LOVs can be attached to parameters in the reports 2.5

207. What are the difference between lov & list item?

Lov is a property where as list item is an item. A
list item can
have only one column, lov can have one or more

208. What is the advantage of the library?

Libraries provide a convenient means of storing
client-side program
units and sharing them among multiple applications.
Once you create
a library, you can attach it to any other form, menu,
or library
modules. When you can call library program units from
triggers menu
items commands and user named routine, you write in
the modules to
which you have attach the library. When a library
attaches another
library, program units in the first library can
reference program
units in the attached library. Library support dynamic
is library program units are loaded into an
application only when
needed. This can significantly reduce the run-time
requirements of applications.

209. What is lexical reference? How can it be created?

Lexical reference is place_holder for text that can be
embedded in a
sql statements. A lexical reference can be created
using & before
the column or parameter name.

210. What is system.coordination_operation?

It represents the coordination causing event that
occur on the
master block in master-detail relation.

211. What is synchronize?

It is a terminal screen with the internal state of the
form. It
updates the screen display to reflect the information
that oracle
forms has in its internal representation of the

212. What use of command line parameter cmd file?

It is a command line argument that allows you to
specify a file that
contain a set of arguments for r20run.

213. What is a Text_io Package?

It allows you to read and write information to a file
in the file

214. What is forms_DDL?

Issues dynamic Sql statements at run time, including
server side
pl/SQl and DDL

215. How is link tool operation different bet. reports
2 & 2.5?

In Reports 2.0 the link tool has to be selected and
then two fields
to be linked are selected and the link is
automatically created. In
2.5 the first field is selected and the link tool is
then used to
link the first field to the second field.

216. What are the different styles of activation of
ole Objects?

In place activationExternal activation

217. How do you reference a Parameter?

In Pl/Sql, You can reference and set the values of
form parameters
using bind variables syntax. Ex. PARAMETER name = ''
or :block.item
= PARAMETER Parameter name

218. What is the difference between object embedding &
linking in
Oracle forms?

In Oracle forms, Embedded objects become part of the
form module,
and linked objects are references from a form module
to a linked
source file.

219. Name of the functions used to get/set canvas

Get_view_property, Set_view_property

220. What are the built-ins that are used for setting
the LOV
properties at runtime?


221. What are the built-ins used for processing rows?


222. What are built-ins used for Processing rows?


223. What are the built-in used for getting cell


224. What are the built-ins used for Getting cell


225. Atleast how many set of data must a data model
have before a
data model can be base on it?


226. To execute row from being displayed that still
use column in
the row which property can be used?

Format trigger.

227. What are different types of modules available in
oracle form?

Form module - a collection of objects and code
routines Menu
modules - a collection of menus and menu item commands
that together
make up an application menu library module - a
collection of user
named procedures, functions and packages that can be
called from
other modules in the application

228. What is the remove on exit property?

For a modelless window, it determines whether oracle
forms hides the
window automatically when the operators navigates to
an item in the
another window.

229. What is WHEN-Database-record trigger?

Fires when oracle forms first marks a record as an
insert or an
update. The trigger fires as soon as oracle forms
determines through
validation that the record should be processed by the
next post or
commit as an insert or update. c generally occurs only
when the
operators modifies the first item in the record, and
after the
operator attempts to navigate out of the item.

230. What is a difference between pre-select and

Fires during the execute query and count query
processing after
oracle forms constructs the select statement to be
issued, but
before the statement is actually issued. The pre-query
trigger fires
just before oracle forms issues the select statement
to the database
after the operator as define the example records by
entering the
query criteria in enter query mode.Pre-query trigger
fires before
pre-select trigger.

231. What are built-ins associated with timers?


232. What are the built-ins used for finding object ID


233. What are the built-ins used for finding Object ID


234. Any attempt to navigate programmatically to
disabled form in a
call_form stack is allowed?


235. Use the Add_group_row procedure to add a row to a
static record
group 1. true or false?


236. Use the add_group_column function to add a column
to record
group that was created at a design time?


237. What are the various sub events a mouse double
click event
involves? What are the various sub events a mouse
double click event

Double clicking the mouse consists of the mouse down,
mouse up,
mouse click, mouse down & mouse up events.

238. How can a break order be created on a column in
an existing
group? What are the various sub events a mouse double
click event

By dragging the column outside the group.

239. What is the use of place holder column? What are
the various
sub events a mouse double click event involves?

A placeholder column is used to hold calculated values
at a
specified place rather than allowing is to appear in
the actual row
where it has to appear.

240. What is the use of hidden column? What are the
various sub
events a mouse double click event involves?

A hidden column is used to when a column has to embed
boilerplate text.

241. What is the use of break group? What are the
various sub events
a mouse double click event involves?

A break group is used to display one record for one
group ones.
While multiple related records in other group can be

242. What is an anchoring object & what is its use?
What are the
various sub events a mouse double click event

An anchoring object is a print condition object which
used to
explicitly or implicitly anchor other objects to

243. What are the various sub events a mouse double
click event
involves? What are the various sub events a mouse
double click event

Double clicking the mouse consists of the mouse down,
mouse up,
mouse click, mouse down & mouse up events.

245. What are the default parameter that appear at run
time in the
parameter screen? What are the various sub events a
mouse double
click event involves?

Destype and Desname.

246. What are the built-ins used for Creating and
deleting groups?

CREATE-GROUP (function)

247. What are different types of canvas views?

Content canvas views
Stacked canvas views
Horizontal toolbar
vertical toolbar.

248. What are the different types of Delete details we
can establish
in Master-Details?


249. What is relation between the window and canvas

Canvas views are the back ground objects on which you
place the
interface items (Text items), check boxes, radio
groups etc.,) and
boilerplate objects (boxes, lines, images etc.,) that
interact with us they run your form . Each canvas
views displayed in
a window.

250. What is a User_exit?

Calls the user exit named in the user_exit_string.
Invokes a 3Gl
program by name which has been properly linked into
your current
oracle forms executable.

251. How is it possible to select generate a select
set for the
query in the query property sheet?

By using the tables/columns button and then specifying
the table and
the column names.

252. How can values be passed bet. precompiler exits &
Oracle call

By using the statement EXECIAFGET & EXECIAFPUT.

253. How can a square be drawn in the layout editor of
the report

By using the rectangle tool while pressing the
(Constraint) key.

254. How can a text file be attached to a report while
creating in
the report writer?

By using the link file property in the layout boiler
plate property

255. How can I message to passed to the user from

By using SRW.MESSAGE function.

256. How is possible to restrict the user to a list of
values while
entering values for parameters?

By setting the Restrict To List property to true in
the parameter
property sheet.

257. How can a button be used in a report to give a
drill down

By setting the action associated with button to
Execute pl/sql
option and using the SRW.Run_report function.

258. How can a cross product be created?

By selecting the cross products tool and drawing a new
surrounding the base group of the cross products.

259. What are different types of images?

Boiler plate imagesImage Items

260. What is the difference between boiler plat images
and image

Boiler plate Images are static images (Either vector
or bit map)
that you import from the file system or database to
use a graphical
elements in your form, such as company logos and maps.
Image items
are special types of interface controls that store and
either vector or bitmap images. Like other items that
store values,
image items can be either base table items(items that
directly to database columns) or control items. The
definition of an
image item is stored as part of the form module FMB
and FMX files,
but no image file is actually associated with an image
item until
the item is populate at run time.

261. What is bind reference and how can it be created?

Bind reference are used to replace the single value in
sql, pl/sql
statements a bind reference can be created using a (:)
before a
column or a parameter name.

262. What are the triggers available in the reports?

Before report, Before form, After form , Between page,
After report.

263. Give the sequence of execution of the various
report triggers?

Before form , After form , Before report, Between
page, After

264. Why is a Where clause faster than a group filter
or a format

Because, in a where clause the condition is applied
during data
retrievalthan after retrieving the data.

265. Why is it preferable to create a fewer no. of
queries in the
data model?

Because for each query, report has to open a separate
cursor and has
to rebind, execute and fetch data.

266. Where is the external query executed at the
client or the

At the server.

267. Where is a procedure return in an external pl/sql
executed at the client or at the server?

At the client.

268. What is coordination Event?

Any event that makes a different record in the master
block the
current record is a coordination causing event.

269. What is the difference between OLE Server & Ole

An Ole server application creates ole Objects that are
embedded or
linked in ole Containers ex. Ole servers are ms_word &
ms_excel. OLE
containers provide a place to store, display and
manipulate objects
that are created by ole server applications. Ex.
oracle forms is an
example of an ole Container.

270. What is an object group?

An object group is a container for a group of objects;
you define an
object group when you want to package related objects,
so that you
copy or reference them in other modules.

271. What is an LOV?

An LOV is a scrollable popup window that provides the
operator with
either a single or multi column selection list.

272. At what point of report execution is the before
Report trigger

After the query is executed but before the report is
executed and
the records are displayed.

273. What are the built -ins used for Modifying a
groups structure?

ADD_GROUP_ROW (procedure)

274. What is an user exit used for?

A way in which to pass control (and possibly arguments
) form Oracle
report to another Oracle products of 3 GL and then
return control (
and ) back to Oracle reports.

275. What is the User-Named Editor?

A user named editor has the same text editing
functionality as the
default editor, but, because it is a named object, you
can specify
editor attributes such as windows display size,
position, and title.

276. What are the Built-ins to display the user-named

A user named editor can be displayed programmatically
with the built
in procedure SHOW-EDITOR, EDIT_TETITEM independent of
any particular
text item.

277. What is a Static Record Group?

A static record group is not associated with a query,
rather, you
define its structure and row values at design time,
and they remain
fixed at runtime.

278. What is a record group?

A record group is an internal Oracle Forms that
structure that has a
column/row framework similar to a database table.
However, unlike
database tables, record groups are separate objects
that belong to
the form module which they are defined.

279. How many number of columns a record group can

A record group can have an unlimited number of columns
of type CHAR,
LONG, NUMBER, or DATE provided that the total number
of column does
not exceed 64K.

280. What is a Query Record Group?

A query record group is a record group that has an
associated SELECT
statement. The columns in a query record group derive
their default
names, data types, had lengths from the database
columns referenced
in the SELECT statement. The records in query record
group are the
rows retrieved by the query associated with that
record group. What
is a Non Query Record Group?

281. What is a property clause?

A property clause is a named object that contains a
list of
properties and their settings. Once you create a
property clause you
can base other object on it. An object based on a
property can
inherit the setting of any property in the clause that
makes sense
for that object.

282. What is a physical page ? & What is a logical
page ?

A physical page is a size of a page. That is output by
the printer.
The logical page is the size of one page of the actual
report as
seen in the Previewer.

283. What does the term panel refer to with regard to

A panel is the no. of physical pages needed to print
one logical

284. What is a master detail relationship?

A master detail relationship is an association between
two base
table blocks- a master block and a detail block. The
between the blocks reflects a primary key to foreign
relationship between the tables on which the blocks
are based.

285.What is a library?

A library is a collection of subprograms including
user named
procedures, functions and packages.

286. How can a group in a cross products be visually
from a group that does not form a cross product?

A group that forms part of a cross product will have a

287. What is the frame & repeating frame?

A frame is a holder for a group of fields. A repeating
frame is used
to display a set of records when the no. of records
that are to
displayed is not known before.

288. What is a combo box?

A combo box style list item combines the features
found in list and
text item. Unlike the pop list or the text list style
list items,
the combo box style list item will both display fixed
values and
accept one operator entered value.

289. What are three panes that appear in the run time

1. Source pane.
2. interpreter pane.
3. Navigator pane.

290. What are the two panes that Appear in the design
time pl/sql

1. Source pane.
2. Interpreter pane

291. What are the two ways by which data can be
generated for a
parameters list of values?

1. Using static values.
2. Writing select statement.

292. What are the various methods of performing a
calculation in a
report ?

1. Perform the calculation in the SQL statements
2. Use a calculated / summary column in the data

293. What are the default extensions of the files
created by menu


294. What are the default extensions of the files
created by forms

.fmb - form module binary
.fmx - form module executable

295. To display the page no. for each page on a report
what would be
the source & logical page no. or & of physical page

& physical page no.

296. It is possible to use raw devices as data files
and what is the
advantages over file. system files ?

Yes. The advantages over file system files. I/O will
be improved
because Oracle is bye-passing the kernnel which
writing into disk.
Disk Corruption will be very less.

297. What are disadvantages of having raw devices ?

We should depend on export/import utility for
backup/recovery (fully
reliable) The tar command cannot be used for physical
file backup,
instead we can use dd command which is less flexible
and has limited

298. What is the significance of having storage clause

We can plan the storage for a table as how much
initial extents are
required, how much can be extended next, how much %
should leave
free for managing row updations etc.,

299. What is the use of INCTYPE option in EXP command

Type export should be performed
List the sequence of events when a large transaction
that exceeds
beyond its optimal value when an entry wraps and
causes the rollback
segment toexpand into anotion Completes. e. will be

300. What is the use of FILE option in IMP command ?

The name of the file from which import should be

301. What is a Shared SQL pool?

The data dictionary cache is stored in an area in SGA
called the
Shared SQL Pool. This will allow sharing of parsed SQL
among concurrent users.

302. What is hot backup and how it can be taken?

Taking backup of archive log files when database is
open. For this
the ARCHIVELOG mode should be enabled. The following
files need to
be backed up. All data files. All Archive log, redo
log files. All
control files.

303. List the Optional Flexible Architecture (OFA) of
database? or How can we organize the tablespaces in
Oracle database
to have maximum performance ?

SYSTEM - Data dictionary tables.
DATA - Standard operational tables.
DATA2- Static tables used for standard operations
INDEXES - Indexes for Standard operational tables.
INDEXES1 - Indexes of static tables used for standard
TOOLS - Tools table.
TOOLS1 - Indexes for tools table.
RBS - Standard Operations Rollback Segments,
RBS1,RBS2 - Additional/Special Rollback segments.
TEMP - Temporary purpose tablespace
TEMP_USER - Temporary tablespace for users.
USERS - User tablespace.

304. How to implement the multiple control files for
an existing
database ?

Shutdown the database Copy one of the existing control
file to new
location Edit Config ora file by adding new control
file. name
Restart the database.

305. What is advantage of having disk shadowing/
Mirroring ?

Shadow set of disks save as a backup in the event of
disk failure.
In most Operating System if any disk failure occurs it
switchover to place of failed disk. Improved
performance because
most OS support volume shadowing can direct file I/O
request to use
the shadow set of files instead of the main set of
files. This
reduces I/O load on the main set of disks.

306. How will you force database to use particular
segment ?


307. Why query fails sometimes ?

Rollback segment dynamically extent to handle larger
entry loads. A single transaction may wipeout all
available free
space in the Rollback Segment Tablespace. This
prevents other user
using Rollback segments.

308. What is the use of RECORD LENGTH option in EXP
command ?

Record length in bytes.

309. How will you monitor rollback segment status ?

Querying the DBA_ROLLBACK_SEGS view
IN USE - Rollback Segment is on-line.
AVAILABLE - Rollback Segment available but not
OFF-LINE - Rollback Segment off-line
INVALID - Rollback Segment Dropped.
NEEDS RECOVERY - Contains data but need recovery or
PARTLY AVAILABLE - Contains data from an unresolved
involving a distributed database.

310. What is meant by Redo Log file mirroring ? How it
can be

Process of having a copy of redo log files is called
mirroring. This
can be achieved by creating group of log files
together, so that
LGWR will automatically writes them to all the members
of the
current on-line redo log group. If any one group fails
then database
automatically switch over to next group. It degrades

311. Which parameter in Storage clause will reduce no.
of rows per

PCTFREE parameter
Row size also reduces no of rows per block.

312. What is meant by recursive hints ?

Number of times processes repeatedly query the
dictionary table is
called recursive hints. It is due to the data
dictionary cache is
too small. By increasing the SHARED_POOL_SIZE
parameter we can
optimize the size of Data Dictionary Cache.

313. What is the use of PARFILE option in EXP command

Name of the parameter file to be passed for export.

314. What is the use of PARFILE option in EXP command

Name of the parameter file to be passed for export.

315. What is a logical backup?

Logical backup involves reading a set of database
records and
writing them into a file. Export utility is used for
taking backup
and Import utility is used to recover from backup.

316. What is the use of TABLES option in EXP command ?

List of tables should be exported.ze)

317. What is the OPTIMAL parameter?

It is used to set the optimal length of a rollback

318. What is a Rollback segment entry ?

It is the set of before image data blocks that contain
rows that are
modified by a transaction. Each Rollback Segment entry
must be
completed within one rollback segment. A single
rollback segment can
have multiple rollback segment entries.

319. What is mean by Program Global Area (PGA) ?

It is area in memory that is used by a Single Oracle
User Process.

320. What is hit ratio ?

It is a measure of well the data cache buffer is
handling requests
for data. Hit Ratio = (Logical Reads - Physical Reads
- Hits
Misses)/ Logical Reads.

321. What are the different kind of export backups?

Full back - Complete database
Incremental - Only affected tables from last
incremental date/full
backup date.
Cumulative backup - Only affected table from the last
date/full backup date.

322. How free extents are managed in Ver 6.0 and Ver
7.0 ?

Free extents cannot be merged together in Ver 6.0.
Free extents are periodically coalesces with the
neighboring free
extent in Ver 7.0

323. What is the use of RECORD option in EXP command?

For Incremental exports, the flag indirects whether a
record will be
stores data dictionary tables recording the export.

324. What is the use of ROWS option in EXP command ?

Flag to indicate whether table rows should be
exported. If 'N' only
DDL statements for the database objects will be

325. What is the use of COMPRESS option in EXP command

Flag to indicate whether export should compress
fragmented segments
into single extents.

326. How will you swap objects into a different table
space for an
existing database ?

Export the user
Perform import using the command imp system/manager
This will create all definitions into newfile.sql.
Drop necessary
Run the script newfile.sql after altering the
Import from the backup for the necessary objects.

327. How does Space allocation table place within a
block ?

Each block contains entries as follows
Fixed block header
Variable block header
Row Header,row date (multiple rows may exists)
PCTEREE (% of free space for row updation in future)

328. What are the factors causing the reparsing of SQL
statements in

Due to insufficient Shared SQL pool size. Monitor the
ratio of the
reloads takes place while executing SQL statements. If
the ratio is
greater than 1 then increase the SHARED_POOL_SIZE.

329. What is dictionary cache ?

Dictionary cache is information about the databse
objects stored in
a data dictionary table.

330. What is a Control file ?

Database overall physical architecture is maintained
in a file
called control file. It will be used to maintain
consistency and guide recovery operations. Multiple
copies of
control files are advisable.

331. What is Database Buffers ?

Database buffers are cache in the SGA used to hold the
data blocks
that are read from the data segments in the database
such as tables,
indexes and clusters DB_BLOCK_BUFFERS parameter in
INIT.ORA decides
the size.

332. How will you create multiple rollback segments in
a database ?

Create a database which implicitly creates a SYSTEM
Rollback Segment
in a SYSTEM tablespace. Create a Second Rollback
Segment name R0 in
the SYSTEM tablespace. Make new rollback segment
available (After
shutdown, modify init.ora file and Start database)
Create other
tablespaces (RBS) for rollback segments. Deactivate
Rollback Segment
R0 and activate the newly created rollback segments.

333. What is cold backup? What are the elements of it?

Cold backup is taking backup of all physical files
after normal
shutdown of database. We need to take.
- All Data files.
- All Control files.
- All on-line redo log files.
- The init.ora file (Optional)

334. What is meant by redo log buffer ?

Changes made to entries are written to the on-line
redo log files.
So that they can be used in roll forward operations
during database
recoveries. Before writing them into the redo log
files, they will
first brought to redo log buffers in SGA and LGWR will
write into
files frequently. LOG_BUFFER parameter will decide the

335. How will you estimate the space required by a

Calculate the total header size
Calculate the available dataspace per data block
Calculate the combined column lengths of the average
Calculate the total average row size.
Calculate the average number rows that can fit in a
Calculate the number of blocks and bytes required for
the table.
After arriving the calculation, add 10 % additional
space to
calculate the initial extent size for a working table.

336. How will you monitor the space allocation ?

By querying DBA_SEGMENT table/view.

337. What is meant by free extent ?

A free extent is a collection of continuous free
blocks in
tablespace. When a segment is dropped its extents are
and are marked as free.

338. What is the use of IGNORE option in IMP command ?

A flag to indicate whether the import should ignore
errors encounter
when issuing CREATE commands.

339. What is the use of ANALYSE ( Ver 7) option in EXP
command ?

A flag to indicate whether statistical information
about the
exported objects should be written to export dump

340. What is the use of ROWS option in IMP command ?

A flag to indicate whether rows should be imported. If
this is set
to 'N' then only DDL for database objects will be

341. What is the use of INDEXES option in EXP command

A flag to indicate whether indexes on tables will be

342. What is the use of INDEXES option in IMP command

A flag to indicate whether import should import index
on tables or

343. What is the use of GRANT option in EXP command?

A flag to indicate whether grants on databse objects
will be
exported or not. Value is 'Y' or 'N'.

344. What is the use of GRANT option in IMP command ?

A flag to indicate whether grants on database objects
will be

345. What is the use of FULL option in EXP command ?

A flag to indicate whether full databse export should
be performed.

346. What is the use of SHOW option in IMP command ?

A flag to indicate whether file content should be
displayed or not.

347. What is the use of CONSTRAINTS option in EXP
command ?

A flag to indicate whether constraints on table need
to be exported.

348. What is the use of CONSISTENT (Ver 7) option in
EXP command ?

A flag to indicate whether a read consistent version
of all the
exported objects should be maintained.

349. What are the different methods of backing up
oracle database ?

- Logical Backups
- Cold Backups
- Hot Backups (Archive log)

350. What is the difference between ON-VALIDATE-FIELD
trigger and a
POST-CHANGE trigger ?

When you changes the Existing value to null, the
On-validate field
trigger will fire post change trigger will not fire.
At the time of
execute-query post-change trigger will fire,
on-validate field
trigger will not fire.

351. When is PRE-QUERY trigger executed ?

When Execute-query or count-query Package procedures
are invoked.

352. How do you trap the error in forms 3.0 ?

using On-Message or On-Error triggers.

353. How many pages you can in a single form ?


354. While specifying master/detail relationship
between two blocks
specifying the join condition is a must ? True or
False. ?


355. EXIT_FORM is a restricted package procedure ?a.
True b. False


356. What is the usage of an ON-INSERT,ON-DELETE and

These triggers are executes when inserting, deleting
and updating
operations are performed and can be used to change the
function of insert, delete or update respectively. For
Eg, instead
of inserting a row in a table an existing row can be
updated in the
same table.

357. What are the types of Pop-up window ?

the pop-up field editor
pop-up list of values
pop-up pages.
Alert :

358. What is an SQL *FORMS ?

SQL *forms is 4GL tool for developing and executing;
Oracle based
interactive application.

359. How do you control the constraints in forms ?

Select the use constraint property is ON Block
definition screen.

360. What is the difference between restricted and
package procedure ?

Restricted package procedure that affects the basic
functions of SQL
* Forms. It cannot used in all triggers except key
Unrestricted package procedure that does not interfere
with the
basic functions of SQL * Forms it can be used in any

361. A query fetched 10 records How many times does a
Trigger and POST-QUERY Trigger will get executed ?

PRE-QUERY fires once.
POST-QUERY fires 10 times.

362. Give the sequence in which triggers fired during
operations, when the following 3 triggers are defined
at the same
block level ?


363. State the order in which these triggers are
executed ?


364. What the PAUSE package procedure does ?

Pause suspends processing until the operator presses a
function key

365. What do you mean by a page ?

Pages are collection of display information, such as
constant text
and graphics

366. What are the type of User Exits ?

ORACLE Precompliers user exits
OCI (ORACLE Call Interface)
Non-ORACEL user exits.
Page :

367. What is the difference between an
a trigger ?

On-validate-field trigger fires, when the field
Validation status
New or changed. Post-field-trigger whenever the
control leaving form
the field, it will fire.

368. Can we use a restricted package procedure in
Trigger ?


369. Is a Key startup trigger fires as result of a
operator pressing
a key explicitly ?


370. Can we use GO-BLOCK package in a pre-field
trigger ?


371. Can we create two blocks with the same name in
form 3.0 ?


372. What is Post-Block is a. ???

a. Navigational Trigger.
b. Key trigger
c. Transaction Trigger.

373. What does an on-clear-block Trigger fire?

It fires just before SQL * forms the current block.

374. Name the two files that are created when you
generate the form
give the filex extension ?

INP (Source File)
FRM (Executable File)

375. What package procedure used for invoke sql *plus
from sql
*forms ?

Host (E.g. Host (sqlplus))

376. What is the significance of PAGE 0 in forms 3.0 ?

Hide the fields for internal calculation.

377. What are the different types of key triggers ?

Function Key

378. What is the difference between a Function Key
Trigger and Key
Function Trigger ?

Function key triggers are associated with individual
function keys You can attach Key function triggers to
10 keys or key
sequences that normally do not perform any SQL * FORMS
These keys referred as key F0 through key F9.

379. Committed block sometimes refer to a BASE TABLE ?


380. Error_Code is a package proecdure ?

a. True b. false

381. How can you execute the user defined triggers in
forms 3.0 ?

Execute Trigger (trigger-name)

382. What ERASE package procedure does ?

Erase removes an indicated global variable.

383. What Enter package procedure does ?

Enter Validate-data in the current validation unit.

384. What is the difference between NAME_IN and COPY ?

Copy is package procedure and writes values into a
Name in is a package function and returns the contents
of the
variable to which you apply.

385. What package procedure is used for calling
another form ?

Call (E.g. Call(formname)

386. When the form is running in DEBUG mode, If you
want to examine
the values of global variables and other form
variables, What
package procedure command you would use in your
trigger text ?


387. The value recorded in system.last_record variable
is of type
a. Number
b. Boolean
c. Character. ?

b. Boolean.

388. What are the unrestricted procedures used to
change the popup
screen position during run time ?

Resize -View

389. What is an Alert ?

An alert is window that appears in the middle of the
overlaying a portion of the current display.

390. Deleting a page removes information about all the
fields in
that page ? a. True. b. False?

a. True.

391. Two popup pages can appear on the screen at a
time ?Two popup
pages can appear on the screen at a time ? a. True. b.

a. True.

392. Classify the restricted and unrestricted
procedure from the
a. Call
b. User-Exit
c. Call-Query
d. Up
e. Execute-Query
f. Message
g. Exit-From
h. Post
i. Break?

a. Call - unrestricted
b. User Exit - Unrestricted
c. Call_query - Unrestricted
d. Up - Restricted
e. Execute Query - Restricted
f. Message - Restricted
g. Exit_form - Restricted
h. Post - Restricted
i. Break - Unrestricted.

393. What is an User Exits ?

A user exit is a subroutine which are written in
languages using pro*C pro *Cobol , etc., that link
into the SQL *
forms executable.

394. What is a Trigger ?

A piece of logic that is executed at or triggered by a
SQL *forms

395. What is a Package Procedure ?

A Package procedure is built in PL/SQL procedure.

398. What is the maximum size of a form ?

255 character width and 255 characters Length.

399. What is the difference between
system.current_field and
system.cursor_field ?

1. System.current_field gives name of the field.
2. System.cursor_field gives name of the field with
block name.

400. List the system variables related in Block and

1. System.block_status
2. System.current_block
3. System.current_field
4. System.current_value
5. System.cursor_block
6. System.cursor_field
7. System.field_status.

401. What are the different types of Package Procedure

1. Restricted package procedure.
2. Unrestricted package procedure.

402. What are the types of TRIGGERS ?

1. Navigational Triggers.
2. Transaction Triggers.

403. Identify package function from the following ? 1.
2. Break
3. Call
4. Error-text
5. Form-failure
6. Form-fatal
7. Execute-query
8. Anchor View
9. Message_code?

1. Error_Code
2. Error_Text
3. Form_Failure
4. Form_Fatal
5. Message_Code

403. Can you attach an lov to a field at run-time? if
yes, give the
build-in name.?

Yes. Set_item_proprety

404. Is it possible to attach same library to more
than one form?


405. Can you attach an lov to a field at design time?


406. List the windows event triggers available in
Forms 4.0?


407. What are the triggers associated with the image

When-Image-activated(Fires when the operator double
clicks on an
image Items)
When-image-pressed(fires when the operator selects or
deselects the
image item)

408. What is a visual attribute?

Visual Attributes are the font, color and pattern
characteristics of
objects that operators see and intract with in our

409. How many maximum number of radio buttons can you
assign to a
radio group?

Unlimited no of radio buttons can be assigned to a
radio group

410. How do you pass the parameters from one form to
another form?

To pass one or more parameters to a called form, the
calling form
must perform the following steps in a trigger or user
named routine
execute the create_parameter_list built-in function to
programmatically. Create a parameter list to execute
the add
parameter built-in procedure to add one or more
parameters list.
Execute the call_form, New_form or run_product
built_in procedure
and include the name or id of the parameter list to be
passed to the
called form.

411. What is a Layout Editor?

The Layout Editor is a graphical design facility for
creating and
arranging items and boilerplate text and graphics
objects in your
application's interface.

412. List the Types of Items?

Text item.
Chart item.
Check box.
Display item.
Image item.
List item.
Radio Group.
User Area item.

413. List system variables available in forms 4.0, and
not available
in forms 3.0?

System Date_threshold

414. What are the display styles of an alert?

Stop, Caution, note

415. What built-in is used for showing the alert
during run-time?


416. What built-in is used for changing the properties
of the window


417. What are the different types of windows?

Root window, secondary window.

418. What is a predefined exception available in forms

Raise form_trigger_failure

419. What is a radio Group?

Radio groups display a fixed no of options that are
Exclusive. User can select one out of n number of

419. What are the different type of a record group?

Query record group
Static record group
Non query record group

420. What are the menu items that oracle forms 4.0

Plain, Check,Radio, Separator, Magic

421. Give the equivalent term in forms 4.0 for the
following. Page,
Page 0?

Page - Canvas-View
Page 0 - Canvas-view null.

422. What triggers are associated with the radio

Only when-radio-changed trigger associated with radio
Visual Attributes.

423. What are the triggers associated with a check

Only When-checkbox-activated Trigger associated with a
Check box.

424.Can you attach an alert to a field?


425. Can a root window be made modal?


426. What is a list item?

It is a list of text elements.

427. List some built-in routines used to manipulate
images in


428. Can you change the alert messages at run-time?

If yes, give the name of the built-in to change the
alert messages
at run-time. Yes. Set_alert_property.

429. What is the built-in used to get and set lov
properties during

Record Group

430. What is the built-in routine used to count the no
of rows in a

Get_group _row_count
System Variables

431. Give the Types of modules in a form?


432. Write the Abbreviation for the following File
Extension 1. FMB
2. MMB 3. PLL?

FMB ----- Form Module Binary.
MMB ----- Menu Module Binary.
PLL ------ PL/SQL Library Module Binary.

433. List the built-in routine for controlling window
during run-


434. List the built-in routine for controlling window
during run-


435. What is the built-in function used for finding
the alert?


436. List the editors availables in forms 4.0?

Default editor
User_defined editors
system editors.

437. What buil-in routines are used to display editor

Edit_text item

438. What is an Lov?

A list of values is a single or multi column selection
displayed in a pop-up window

439. What is a record Group?

A record group is an internal oracle forms data
structure that has a
similar column/row frame work to a database table

440. Give built-in routine related to a record groups?

Create_group (Function)

441. List the built-in routines for the controlling
canvas views
during run-time?


442. System.effective_date system variable is read
only True/False?


443. What are the built_in used to trapping errors in
forms 4?

Error_type return character
Error_code return number
Error_text return char
Dbms_error_code return no.
Dbms_error_text return char

444. what is a display item?

Display items are similar to text items but store only
fetched or
assigned values. Operators cannot navigate to a
display item or edit
the value it contains.

445. What are the design facilities available in forms

Default Block facility.
Layout Editor.
Menu Editor.
Object Lists.
Property Sheets.
PL/SQL Editor.
Tables Columns Browser.
Built-ins Browser.

446. What are the types of visual attribute settings?

Custom Visual attributes Default visual attributes
Named Visual
attributes. Window

447. What are the types of canvas-views?

Content View, Stacked View.

448. What are the two ways to incorporate images into
a oracle forms

Boilerplate Images

449. What do you mean by a block in forms4.0?

Block is a single mechanism for grouping related items
into a
functional unit for storing, displaying and
manipulating records.

450. Explain types of Block in forms4.0?

Base table Blocks.
Control Blocks.
1. A base table block is one that is associated with a
database table or view.
2. A control block is a block that is not associated
with a database
table. ITEMS

451. What is an Alert?

An alert is a modal window that displays a message
notifies the
operator of some application condition

455. What are the built-in routines is available in
forms 4.0 to
create and manipulate a parameter list?


456 .What is a record Group?

A record group is an internal oracle forms data
structure that has a
similar column/row frame work to a database table

457 What is a Navigable item?

A navigable item is one that operators can navigate to
with the
keyboard during default navigation, or that Oracle
forms can
navigate to by executing a navigational built-in

458. What is a library in Forms 4.0?

A library is a collection of Pl/SQL program units,
including user
named procedures, functions & packages

460. How image_items can be populate to field in forms

A fetch from a long raw database column PL/Sql
assignment to
executing the read_image_file built_in procedure to
get an image
from the file system.

461. What is the content view and stacked view?

A content view is the "Base" view that occupies the
entire content
pane of the window in which it is displayed. A stacked
view differs
from a content canvas view in that it is not the base
view for the
window to which it is

462. What is a Check Box?

A Check Box is a two state control that indicates
whether a certain
condition or value is on or off, true or false. The
display state of
a check box is always either "checked" or "unchecked".

463. What is a canvas-view?

A canvas-view is the background object on which you
layout the
interface items (text-items, check boxes, radio
groups, and so on.)
and boilerplate objects that operators see and
interact with as they
run your form. At run-time, operators can see only
those items that
have been assigned to a specific canvas. Each canvas,
in term, must
be displayed in a specific window.

464. Explain the following file extension related to

The library pll files is a portable design file
comparable to an fmb
form file
The library lib file is a plat form specific,
generated library file
comparable to a fmx form file
The pld file is Txt format file and can be used for
controlling your library files Parameter

465. Explain the usage of WHERE CURRENT OF clause in
cursors ?

WHERE CURRENT OF clause in an UPDATE,DELETE statement
refers to the
latest row fetched from a cursor. Database Triggers

466. Name the tables where characteristics of Package,
procedure and
functions are stored ?

User_objects, User_Source and User_error.

467. Explain the two type of Cursors ?

There are two types of cursors, Implicit Cursor and
Explicit Cursor.
PL/SQL uses Implicit Cursors for queries. User defined
cursors are
called Explicit Cursors. They can be declared and

468. What are two parts of package ?

The two parts of package are PACKAGE SPECIFICATION &
Package Specification contains declarations that are
global to the
packages and local to the schema. Package Body
contains actual
procedures and local declaration of the procedures and

469. What are two virtual tables available during
database trigger
execution ?

The table columns are referred as OLD.column_name and
For triggers related to INSERT only NEW.column_name
values only
For triggers related to UPDATE only OLD.column_name
values only available.
For triggers related to DELETE only OLD.column_name
values only

470. What is Overloading of procedures ?

The Same procedure name is repeated with parameters of
datatypes and parameters in different positions,
varying number of
parameters is called overloading of procedures. e.g.

471. What is a package ? What are the advantages of
packages ? What
is Pragma EXECPTION_INIT ? Explain the usage ?

The PRAGMA EXECPTION_INIT tells the complier to
associate an
exception with an oracle error. To get an error
message of a
specific oracle error. e.g. PRAGMA EXCEPTION_INIT
(exception name,
oracle error number)

472. What are the return values of functions SQLCODE
What is Pragma EXECPTION_INIT ? Explain the usage ?

SQLCODE returns the latest code of the error that has
SQLERRM returns the relevant error message of the

473. What are the datatypes a available in PL/SQL ?

Some scalar data types such as NUMBER, VARCHAR2, DATE,
BOOLEAN. Some composite data types such as RECORD &

474. What is Raise_application_error ?

Raise_application_error is a procedure of package
which allows to issue an user_defined error messages
from stored sub-
program or database trigger.

475. What are the two parts of a procedure ?

Procedure Specification and Procedure Body.

476. Give the structure of the procedure ?

PROCEDURE name (parameter list.....)
local variable declarations
Executable statements.
exception handlers

477. What is the basic structure of PL/SQL ?

PL/SQL uses block structure as its basic structure.
Anonymous blocks
or nested blocks can be used in PL/SQL.

478. Question What is PL/SQL ?

PL/SQL is a procedural language that has both
interactive SQL and
procedural programming language constructs such as
conditional branching.

479. What is PL/SQL table ?

Objects of type TABLE are called "PL/SQL tables",
which are modeled
as (but not the same as) database tables, PL/SQL
tables use a
primary PL/SQL tables can have one column and a
primary key. Cursors

480. What happens if a procedure that updates a column
of table X is
called in a database trigger of the same table ?

Mutation of table occurs.

481. Is it possible to use Transaction control
Statements such a
ROLLBACK or COMMIT in Database Trigger ? Why ?

It is not possible. As triggers are defined for each
table, if you
use COMMIT of ROLLBACK in a trigger, it affects
logical transaction

482. How many types of database triggers can be
specified on a
table ? What are they ?

Insert Update Delete
Before Row o.k. o.k. o.k.
After Row o.k. o.k. o.k.
Before Statement o.k. o.k. o.k.
After Statement o.k. o.k. o.k.
If FOR EACH ROW clause is specified, then the trigger
for each Row
affected by the statement.
If WHEN clause is specified, the trigger fires
according to the
returned Boolean value.

483. What are the modes of parameters that can be
passed to a
procedure ?

IN,OUT,IN-OUT parameters.

484. Where the Pre_defined_exceptions are stored ?

In the standard package.
Procedures, Functions & Packages ;

485. Write the order of precedence for validation of a
column in a
table ?
I. done using Database triggers.
ii. done using Integarity Constraints.?

I & ii.

486. Give the structure of the function ?

FUNCTION name (argument list .....) Return datatype is
local variable declarations
executable statements
execution handlers

487. Explain how procedures and functions are called
in a PL/SQL
block ?

Function is called as part of an expression.
sal := calculate_sal ('a822');
procedure is called as a PL/SQL statement
calculate_bonus ('A822');

488. What are advantages fo Stored Procedures?

Extensibility,Modularity, Reusability, Maintainability
and one time

489. What is an Exception ? What are types of
Exception ?

Exception is the error handling part of PL/SQL block.
The types are
Predefined and user defined. Some of Predefined
exceptions are.

490. What are the PL/SQL Statements used in cursor
processing ?

DECLARE CURSOR cursor name, OPEN cursor name, FETCH
cursor name INTO
or Record types, CLOSE cursor name.

491. What are the components of a PL/SQL Block ?

Declarative part, Executable part and Exception part.
Datatypes PL/SQL

492. What is a database trigger ? Name some usages of
trigger ?

Database trigger is stored PL/SQL program unit
associated with a
specific database table. Usages are Audit data
modifications, Log
events transparently, Enforce complex business rules
Derive column
values automatically, Implement complex security
Maintain replicate tables.

493. What is a cursor ? Why Cursor is required ?

Cursor is a named private SQL area from where
information can be
accessed. Cursors are required to process rows
individually for
queries returning multiple rows.

494. What is a cursor for loop ?

Cursor for loop implicitly declares %ROWTYPE as loop
index,opens a
cursor, fetches rows of values from active set into
fields in the
record and closes when all the records have been
eg. FOR emp_rec IN C1 LOOP
salary_total := salary_total +emp_rec sal;

495. What will happen after commit statement ?

Cursor C1 is
Select empno,
ename from emp;
open C1; loop
Fetch C1 into
Exit When
C1 %notfound;-----
end loop;
The cursor having query as SELECT .... FOR UPDATE gets
closed after
The cursor having query as SELECT.... does not get
closed even after

496. How packaged procedures and functions are called
from the
a. Stored procedure or anonymous block
b. an application program such a PRC *C, PRO* COBOL
c. SQL *PLUS??

variable := PACKAGE NAME.FUNCTION NAME (arguments);
variable := PACKAGE NAME.FUNCTION NAME (arguments);
does not have
any out/in-out parameters. A function can not be

497. What is a stored procedure ?

A stored procedure is a sequence of statements that
perform specific

498. What are the components of a PL/SQL block ?

A set of related declarations and procedural
statements is called

499. What is difference between a PROCEDURE & FUNCTION

A FUNCTION is always returns a value using the return
A PROCEDURE may return one or more values through
parameters or may
not return at all.

500. What is difference between a Cursor declared in a
procedure and
Cursor declared in a package specification ?

A cursor declared in a package specification is global
and can be
accessed by other procedures or procedures in a
A cursor declared in a procedure is local to the
procedure that can
not be accessed by other procedures.

501. What are the cursor attributes used in PL/SQL ?

%ISOPEN - to check whether cursor is open or not
% ROWCOUNT - number of rows fetched/updated/deleted.
% FOUND - to check whether cursor has fetched any row.
True if rows
are fetched.
% NOT FOUND - to check whether cursor has fetched any
row. True if
no rows are featched.
These attributes are proceeded with SQL for Implicit
Cursors and
with Cursor name for Explicit Cursors.

502. What are % TYPE and % ROWTYPE ? What are the
advantages of
using these over datatypes?

% TYPE provides the data type of a variable or a
database column to
that variable.
% ROWTYPE provides the record type that represents a
entire row of a
table or view or columns selected in the cursor.
The advantages are :
I. Need not know about variable's data type
ii. If the database definition of a column in a table
changes, the
data type of a variable changes accordingly.

503. What is difference between % ROWTYPE and TYPE

% ROWTYPE is to be used whenever query returns a
entire row of a
table or view.
TYPE rec RECORD is to be used whenever query returns
columns of
different table or views and variables.
E.g. TYPE r_emp is RECORD (eno emp.empno% type,ename
emp ename %
type );
e_rec emp% ROWTYPE
cursor c1 is select empno,deptno from emp;
e_rec c1 %ROWTYPE.

504. What are the different types of PL/SQL program
units that can
be defined and stored in ORACLE database ?

Procedures and Functions,Packages and Database

505. What are the advantages of having a Package ?

Increased functionality (for example,global package
variables can be
declared and used by any proecdure in the package) and
(for example all objects of the package are parsed
compiled, and
loaded into memory once)

506. What are the uses of Database Trigger ?

Database triggers can be used to automatic data
generation, audit
data modifications, enforce complex Integrity
constraints, and
customize complex security authorizations.

507. What is a Procedure ?

A Procedure consist of a set of SQL and PL/SQL
statements that are
grouped together as a unit to solve a specific problem
or perform a
set of related tasks.

508. What is a Package ?

A Package is a collection of related procedures,
variables and other package constructs together as a
unit in the

509. What is difference between Procedures and
Functions ?

A Function returns a value to the caller where as a
Procedure does

510. What is Database Trigger ?

A Database Trigger is procedure (set of SQL and PL/SQL
that is automatically executed as a result of an
insert in,update
to, or delete from a table.

511. Can the default values be assigned to actual


512. Can a primary key contain more than one columns?


513. What is an UTL_FILE.What are different procedures
and functions
associated with it?

UTL_FILE is a package that adds the ability to read
and write to
operating system files. Procedures associated with it
FCLOSE_ALL and 5 procedures to output data to a file
Functions associated with it are FOPEN, ISOPEN.


blocks can be
contained inside 3GL programs written in
FORTRAN,PL/1 AND ADA. The Precompilers are known as
Pro*C,Pro*Cobol,... This form of PL/SQL is known as
pl/sql,the language in which pl/sql is embedded is
known as the host
language. The prcompiler translates the embedded SQL
and pl/sql
ststements into calls to the precompiler runtime
library.The output
must be compiled and linked with this library to
creater an

515. Differentiate between TRUNCATE and DELETE?

TRUNCATE deletes much faster than DELETE
It is a DDL statement
It is a DML statement
It is a one way trip,cannot ROLLBACK
One can Rollback
Doesn't have selective features (where clause)
Doesn't fire database triggers
It requires disabling of referential constraints.

516. What is difference between a formal and an actual

The variables declared in the procedure and which are
passed, as
arguments are called actual, the parameters in the
declaration. Actual parameters contain the values that
are passed to
a procedure and receive results. Formal parameters are
placeholders for the values of actual parameters

517. What should be the return type for a cursor
variable.Can we use
a scalar data type as return type?

The return type for a cursor must be a record type.It
can be
declared explicitly as a user-defined or %ROWTYPE can
be used. eg

518. What are different Oracle database objects?


519. What is difference between SUBSTR and INSTR?

SUBSTR returns a specified portion of a string eg
output BCDE INSTR provides character position in which
a pattern is
found in a string. eg INSTR('ABC-DC-F','-',2) output 7
occurence of '-')

520. Display the number value in Words?

SQL> select sal, (to_char(to_date(sal,'j'), 'jsp'))
from emp;
the output like,
--------- -----------------------------------------
800 eight hundred
1600 one thousand six hundred
1250 one thousand two hundred fifty
If you want to add some text like, Rs. Three Thousand
SQL> select sal "Salary ",
(' Rs. '|| (to_char(to_date(sal,'j'), 'Jsp'))|| '
"Sal in Words" from emp
Salary Sal in Words
800 Rs. Eight Hundred only.
1600 Rs. One Thousand Six Hundred only.
1250 Rs. One Thousand Two Hundred Fifty only.

521. What is difference between SQL and SQL*PLUS?

SQL*PLUS is a command line tool where as SQL and
PL/SQL language
interface and reporting tool. Its a command line tool
that allows
user to type SQL commands to be executed directly
against an Oracle
database. SQL is a language used to query the
relational database
(DML,DCL,DDL). SQL*PLUS commands are used to format
query result,
Set options, Edit SQL commands and PL/SQL.

522. What are various joins used while writing

Self join-Its a join foreign key of a table references
the same
table. Outer Join--Its a join condition used where One
can query all
the rows of one of the tables in the join condition
even though they
don't satisfy the join condition.
Equi-join--Its a join condition that retrieves rows
from one or more
tables in which one or more columns in one table are
equal to one or
more columns in the second table.

523. What a SELECT FOR UPDATE cursor represent.?

The processing done in a fetch loop modifies the rows
that have been
retrieved by the cursor. A convenient way of modifying
the rows is
done by a method with two parts: the FOR UPDATE clause
in the cursor
declaration, WHERE CURRENT OF CLAUSE in an UPDATE or

524. What are various privileges that a user can grant
to another


525. Display the records between two range?

select rownum, empno, ename from emp where rowid in
(select rowid
from emp where rownum <=&upto minus select rowid from
emp where

526. minvalue.sql Select the Nth lowest value from a

select level, min('col_name') from my_table where
level = '&n'
connect by prior ('col_name') < 'col_name')
group by level;
Given a table called emp with the following columns:
-- id number
-- name varchar2(20)
-- sal number
-- For the second lowest salary:
-- select level, min(sal) from emp
-- where level=2
-- connect by prior sal < sal
-- group by level

527. What is difference between Rename and Alias?

Rename is a permanent name given to a table or column
whereas Alias
is a temporary name given to a table or column which
do not exist
once the SQL statement is executed.

528. Difference between an implicit & an explicit

only one row. However,queries that return more than
one row you must
declare an explicit cursor or use a cursor FOR loop.
Explicit cursor
is a cursor in which the cursor name is explicitly
assigned to a
SELECT statement via the CURSOR...IS statement. An
implicit cursor
is used for all SQL statements Declare, Open, Fetch,
Close. An
explicit cursors are used to process multirow SELECT
statements An
implicit cursor is used to process INSERT, UPDATE,
DELETE and single
row SELECT. .INTO statements.

529. What is a OUTER JOIN?

Outer Join--Its a join condition used where you can
query all the
rows of one of the tables in the join condition even
though they
don't satisfy the join condition.

530. What is a cursor?

Oracle uses work area to execute SQL statements and
store processing
information PL/SQL construct called a cursor lets you
name a work
area and access its stored information A cursor is a
mechanism used
to fetch more than one row in a Pl/SQl block.

531. What is the purpose of a cluster?

Oracle does not allow a user to specifically locate
tables, since
that is a part of the function of the RDBMS. However,
for the
purpose of increasing performance, oracle allows a
developer to
create a CLUSTER. A CLUSTER provides a means for
storing data from
different tables together for faster retrieval than if
the table
placement were left to the RDBMS.

532. What is OCI. What are its uses?

Oracle Call Interface is a method of accesing database
from a 3GL
program. Uses--No precompiler is required,PL/SQL
blocks are executed
like other DML statements.
The OCI library provides
--functions to parse SQL statemets
--bind input variables
--bind output variables
--execute statements
--fetch the results

533. How you open and close a cursor variable.Why it
is required?

OPEN cursor variable FOR SELECT...Statement
CLOSE cursor variable In order to associate a cursor
variable with a
particular SELECT statement OPEN syntax is used. In
order to free
the resources used for the query CLOSE statement is

534. Display Odd/ Even number of records?

Odd number of records:
select * from emp where (rowid,1) in (select rowid,
from emp);
Even number of records:
select * from emp where (rowid,0) in (select rowid,
from emp)

535. What are various constraints used in SQL?


536. Can cursor variables be stored in PL/SQL
tables.If yes how. If
not why?

No, a cursor variable points a row which cannot be
stored in a two-
dimensional PL/SQL table.

537. Difference between NO DATA FOUND and %NOTFOUND?

NO DATA FOUND is an exception raised only for the
statements when the where clause of the querydoes not
match any
rows. When the where clause of the explicit cursor
does not match
any rows the %NOTFOUND attribute is set to TRUE

538. Can you use a commit statement within a database


539. What WHERE CURRENT OF clause does in a cursor?

SELECT num_credits INTO v_numcredits FROM classes
WHERE dept=123 and course=101;
UPDATE students

540. There is a string 120000 12 0 .125 , how you will
find the
position of the decimal place?

INSTR('120000 12 0 .125',1,'.')
output 13

541. What are different modes of parameters used in
functions and


542. How you were passing cursor variables in PL/SQL

In PL/SQL 2.2 cursor variables cannot be declared in a
is because the storage for a cursor variable has to be
using Pro*C or OCI with version 2.2, the only means of
passing a
cursor variable to a PL/SQL block is via bind variable
or a
procedure parameter.

543. When do you use WHERE clause and when do you use
HAVING clause?

HAVING clause is used when you want to specify a
condition for a
group function and it is written after GROUP BY
clause. The WHERE
clause is used when you want to specify a condition
for columns,
single row functions except group functions and it is
written before
GROUP BY clause if it is used.

544. Difference between procedure and function.?

Functions are named PL/SQL blocks that return a value
and can be
called with arguments procedure a named block that can
be called
with parameter. A procedure all is a PL/SQL statement
by itself,
while a Function call is called as part of an

545. Which is more faster - IN or EXISTS?

EXISTS is more faster than IN because EXISTS returns a
Boolean value
whereas IN returns a value.

546. What is syntax for dropping a procedure and a
function .Are
these operations possible?

Drop Procedure procedure_name
Drop Function function_name

547. How will you delete duplicating rows from a base

delete from table_name where rowid not in (select
max(rowid) from
table group by duplicate_values_field_name); or delete
duplicate_values_field_name dv from table_name ta
where rowid <
(select min(rowid) from table_name tb where

548. Difference between database triggers and form

-Data base trigger(DBT) fires when a DML opperation is
performed on
a data base table. Form trigger(FT) Fires when user
presses a key or
navigates between fields on the screen
-Can be row level or statement level No disstinction
between row
level and statement level.
-Can manipulate data stored in Oracle tablees via SQL
Can manipulate
data in Oracle tables as well as variables in forms.
-Can be fired from any session executing thhe
triggering DML
statements. Can be fired only from the form that
define the trigger.
-Can cause other database triggers to fire..Can cause
other database
triggers to fire, but not other form triggers.

549. What is a cursor for loop?

Cursor For Loop is a loop where oracle implicitly
declares a loop
variable, the loop index that of the same record type
as the
cursor's record.

550. How you will avoid duplicating records in a


551. What is a view ?

A view is stored procedure based on one or more
tables, it's a
virtual table.

552. What is difference between UNIQUE and PRIMARY KEY

A table can have only one PRIMARY KEY whereas there
can be any
number of UNIQUE keys. The columns that compose PK are
define NOT NULL, whereas a column that compose a
UNIQUE is not
automatically defined to be mandatory must also
specify the column

553. What is use of a cursor variable? How it is

A cursor variable is associated with different
statements at run
time, which can hold different values at run time.
Static cursors
can only be associated with one run time query. A
cursor variable is
reference type (like a pointer in C).
Declaring a cursor variable:
TYPE type_name IS REF CURSOR RETURN return_type
type_name is the
name of the reference type,return_type is a record
type indicating
the types of the select list that will eventually be
returned by the
cursor variable.

554. How do you find the numbert of rows in a Table ?

A bad answer is count them (SELECT COUNT(*) FROM
A good answer is :-
'By generating SQL to ANALYZE TABLE table_name COUNT
querying Oracle System Catalogues (e.g. USER_TABLES or
The best answer is to refer to the utility which
Oracle released
which makes it unnecessary to do ANALYZE TABLE for
each Table

555. What is the maximum buffer size that can be
specified using the


556. What are cursor attributes?


557. There is a % sign in one field of a column. What
will be the
query to find it?

'' Should be used before '%'.

558. What is ON DELETE CASCADE ?

When ON DELETE CASCADE is specified ORACLE maintains
integrity by automatically removing dependent foreign
key values if
a referenced primary or unique key value is removed.

559. What is the fastest way of accessing a row in a
table ?


560. What is difference between TRUNCATE & DELETE ?

TRUNCATE commits after deleting entire table i.e., can
not be rolled
back. Database triggers do not fire on TRUNCATEDELETE
allows the
filtered deletion. Deleted records can be rolled back
committed.Database triggers fire on DELETE.

561. What is a transaction ?

Transaction is logical unit between two commits and
commit and

562. What are the advantages of VIEW ?

To protect some of the columns of a table from other
users.To hide
complexity of a query.To hide complexity of

563. How will you a activate/deactivate integrity
constraints ?

The integrity constraints can be enabled or disabled
ENABLE constraint/DISABLE constraint.

564. Where the integrity constraints are stored in
Data Dictionary ?

The integrity constraints are stored in

565. What is the Subquery ?

Sub query is a query whose return values are used in
conditions of the main query.

566. How to access the current value and next value
from a
sequence ? Is it possible to access the current value
in a session
before accessing next value ?

Sequence name CURRVAL, Sequence name NEXTVAL.It is not
Only if you access next value in the session, current
value can be

567. What are the usage of SAVEPOINTS ?value in a
session before
accessing next value ?

SAVEPOINTS are used to subdivide a transaction into
smaller parts.
It enables rolling back part of a transaction. Maximum
of five save
points are allowed.

568. What is ROWID ?in a session before accessing next
value ?

ROWID is a pseudo column attached to each row of a
table. It is 18
character long, blockno, rownumber are the components

569. Explain Connect by Prior ?in a session before
accessing next
value ?

Retrieves rows in hierarchical order.e.g. select
empno, ename from
emp where.

570. How many LONG columns are allowed in a table ? Is
it possible
to use LONG columns in WHERE clause or ORDER BY ?

Only one LONG columns is allowed. It is not possible
to use LONG
column in WHERE or ORDER BY clause.

571. What is Referential Integrity ?

Maintaining data integrity through a set of rules that
restrict the
values of one or more columns of the tables based on
the values of
primary key or unique key of the referenced table.

572. What is a join ? Explain the different types of
joins ?

Join is a query which retrieves related columns or
rows from
multiple tables.Self Join - Joining the table with
itself.Equi Join -
Joining two tables by equating two common
columns.Non-Equi Join -
Joining two tables by equating two common
columns.Outer Join -
Joining two tables in such a way that query can also
retrieve rows
that do not have corresponding join value in the other

573. If an unique key constraint on DATE column is
created, will it
validate the rows that are inserted with SYSDATE ?

It won't, Because SYSDATE format contains time
attached with it.


INTERSECT returns all distinct rows selected by both
queries.MINUS -
returns all distinct rows selected by the first query
but not by the
second.UNION - returns all distinct rows selected by
queryUNION ALL - returns all rows selected by either
including all duplicates.

575. What is an Integrity Constraint ?

Integrity constraint is a rule that restricts values
to a column in
a table.

576. Difference between SUBSTR and INSTR ?

INSTR (String1,String2(n,(m)),INSTR returns the
position of the mth
occurrence of the string 2 instring1. The search
begins from nth
position of string1.SUBSTR (String1 n,m)SUBSTR returns
a character
string of size m in string1, starting from nth
position of string1.

577. If a View on a single base table is manipulated
will the
changes be reflected on the base table ?

If changes are made to the tables which are base
tables of a view
will the changes be reference on the view.

578. What are the pre requisites ?

I. to modify data type of a column ? ii. to add a
column with NOT
NULL constraint ? To Modify the datatype of a column
the column must
be empty. to add a column with NOT NULL constrain, the
table must be

579. What is a database link ?

Database Link is a named path through which a remote
database can be

580. What are the types of SQL Statement ?

Data Definition Language :

Data Manipulation Language:

TABLE,EXPLAIN PLAN & SELECT.Transactional Control:

ROLESystem Control :

581. What is CYCLE/NO CYCLE in a Sequence ?

CYCLE specifies that the sequence continues to
generate values after
reaching either maximum or minimum value. After pan
sequence reaches its maximum value, it generates its
minimum value.
After a descending sequence reaches its minimum, it
generates its
maximum.NO CYCLE specifies that the sequence cannot
generate more
values after reaching its maximum or minimum value.

582. What is correlated sub-query ?

Correlated sub query is a sub query which has
reference to the main

583. What are the data types allowed in a table ?


584. What is difference between CHAR and VARCHAR2 ?
What is the
maximum SIZE allowed for each type ?

CHAR pads blank spaces to the maximum length. VARCHAR2
does not pad
blank spaces. For CHAR it is 255 and 2000 for

585. Can a view be updated/inserted/deleted? If Yes
under what
conditions ?

A View can be updated/deleted/inserted if it has only
one base table
if the view is based on columns from one or more
tables then insert,
update and delete is not possible.

586. What are the different types of Coordinations of
the Master
with the Detail block?


587. Use the ADD_GROUP_COLUMN function to add a column
to a record
group that was created at design time? I) TRUE


588. Use the ADD_GROUP_ROW procedure to add a row to a
static record


589. maxvalue.sql Select the Nth Highest value from a

select level, max('col_name') from my_table where
level = '&n'
connect by prior ('col_name') > 'col_name')
group by level;
Given a table called emp with the following columns:
-- id number
-- name varchar2(20)
-- sal number
-- For the second highest salary:
-- select level, max(sal) from emp
-- where level=2
-- connect by prior sal > sal
-- group by level

590. Find out nth highest salary from emp table?

(DISTINCT (b.sal)) FROM EMP B WHERE a.sal<=b.sal);
For Eg:-
Enter value for n: 2

591. Suppose a customer table is having different
columns like
customer no, payments.What will be the query to select
top three max

SELECT customer_no, payments from customer C1
WHERE 3<=(SELECT COUNT(*) from customer C2
WHERE C1.payment <= C2.payment)

592. How you will avoid your query from using indexes?

Where emp_no+' '=12345;
i.e you have to concatenate the column name with space
within codes
in the where condition.
SELECT /*+ FULL(a) */ ename, emp_no from emp
where emp_no=1234;
i.e using HINTS

Oracel Interview Question Only (1)

What is meant by Scrollable cursor?
The use of HAVING , WHERE and GROUPBY in one SQL?
What is meant by SORTING and GROUPING?
What are the different types of OUTER JOINS?
Explain the UNION operation in SQL . What is meant by
What is a Non- corelated subquery?
What is a corelated subquery?
What do you know about subqueries?
What is the theory behind the JOIN statement in DB2?
What are the different types of SQL?
How to drop the column in a table?
How to drop the index?
What are the different tablespaces in database?
What is the maximum number of triggers, can apply to a
single table?
What is the output of SIGN function?
What are the more common pseudo-columns?
Other way to replace query result null value with a
What are PL/SQL Cursor Exceptions?
Any three PL/SQL Exceptions?
Any three PL/SQL Exceptions?
Which date function returns number value?
Display Odd/ Even number of records?
Display the number value in Words?
To view installed Oracle version information?
Find out nth highest salary from emp table?
Implicit Cursor attributes?
Explicit Cursor attributes?
Display the records between two range I know the nvl
function only
allows the same data type(ie. number or char or date
Nvl(comm, 0)),
if commission is null then the text Not Applicable
want to display,
instead of blank space. How do I write the query???
How do I display row number with records?
How do I eliminate the duplicate rows?
If a view on a single base table is manipulated will
the changes be
reflected on the base table?
If Yes - under what conditions?
Can a view be updated/inserted/deleted?
What are the advantages of VIEW?

What is CYCLE/NO CYCLE in a Sequence?
Is it possible to access the current value in a
session before
accessing next value?
How to access the current value and next value from a
What is a database link?
If unique key constraint on DATE column is created,
will it validate
the rows that are inserted with SYSDATE?
How will you activate/deactivate integrity
Where the integrity constraints are stored in data
What are the pre-requisites to modify datatype of a
column and to
add a column with NOT NULL constraint?
Is it possible to use LONG columns in WHERE clause or
How many LONG columns are allowed in a table?
What is the maximum SIZE allowed for each type?
What is difference between CHAR and VARCHAR2?
What are the data types allowed in a table?
What is the usage of SAVEPOINTS?
What is referential integrity constraint?
What is an integrity constraint?
What is the fastest way of accessing a row in a table?
What is ROWID?
Difference between SUBSTR and INSTR?
What is correlated sub-query?
What is the sub-query?
Explain the different types of joins?
What is a join?
What is difference between TRUNCATE & DELETE?
What is a transaction?
What are the types of SQL statement?
Which datatype is used for storing graphics and
LONG RAW data type is used for storing BLOB's (binary
What is a pseudo column. Give some examples?
It is a column that is not an actual column in the
What are the differences you have seen while
installing Oracle on NT
and Unix platform?

Oracel Interview Question Only (2)

What are the differences between database designing
and database
If the large table contains thousands of records and
the application
is accessing 35% of the table which method to use:
index searching
or full table scan?
In which situation whether peak time or off peak time
you will
execute the ANALYZE TABLE command. Why?
How to check to memory gap once the SGA is started in
All the users are complaining that their application
is hanging. How
you will resolve this situation in OLTP?
If the SQL * Plus hangs for a long time, what is the
Shall we create procedures to fetch more than one
How do you increase the performance of %LIKE operator?
You are regularly changing the package body part. How
will you
create or what will you do before creating that
How can you see the source code of the package?
Dual table explain. Is any data internally storing in
dual table.
Lot of users are accessing select sysdate from dual
and they getting
some millisecond differences. If we execute SELECT
what error will we get. Why?
In exception handling we have some NOT_FOUND and
OTHERS. In inner
layer we have some NOT_FOUND and OTHERS. While
executing which one
whether outer layer or inner layer will check first?
What is mutated trigger, is it the problem of locks.
In single user
mode we got mutated error, as a DBA how you will
resolve it?
Schema A has some objects and created one procedure
and granted to
Schema B. Schema B has the same objects like schema A.
Schema B
executed the procedure like inserting some records. In
this case
where the data will be stored whether in Schema A or
Schema B?
What is bulk SQL?
How to do the scheduled task/jobs in Unix platform?
If the entire disk is corrupted how will you and what
are the steps
to recover the database?
How will you monitor rollback segment status?
List the sequence of events when a large transaction
that exceeds
beyond its optimal value when an entry wraps and
causes the rollback
segment to expand into another extend?
What is redo log file mirroring?
How can we plan storage for very large tables
When will be a segment released ?
What are disadvantages of having raw devices?
List the factors that can affect the accuracy of the
What is the difference between $$DATE$$ &
retrieves the current database date$$date$$ retrieves
the current
operating system
How to prevent unauthorized use of privileges granted
to a Role ?
What is a deadlock and Explain?
What are the basic element of base configuration of an
What is an index and How it is implemented in Oracle
What is the use of redo log information?
What is a schema?
What is Parallel Server?
What is a database instance and Explain?
What is a datafile?
What is a temporary segment?
What are the uses of rollback segment

Bhatnagar Achindra

Mob: (+91) 98906 07223
Web: http://www.mcp-achindra.it.tt

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Only then can you be a Victor.
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