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kheteshwar borawat

Feb 4, 2009, 1:35:16 AM2/4/09


Why Protection against pests ?

In the past one and half decades, the periodical unabated explosions of aphids, whiteflies, bollworms, pod borers, defoliators, coccids, cutworms, plant hoppers etc., as direct crop damagers and disease transmitters in different regions of the country have made agriculture less remunerative and highly risk prone. The ability of some of these pests to develop resistance curbs the effectiveness of many commercial chemicals. Resistance has accelerated in many insect species and it was reported that more than 500 insect and mite species are immune to one or more insecticides at present. Similarly about 150 plant pathogens such as fungus and bacteria are now shielded against fungicides. Some of the weedicides also found effective earlier failed to control weeds now-a-days. Experts assessment reveal that around 22 per cent of yield losses in major crops like Rice, Cotton, Groundnut, Sugarcane, Sorghum, Tomato, Chillies, Mango, Grapes, etc., can be attributed to insect pests. Hence, there is need to reduce if not eliminate these losses by protecting the crops from different pests through appropriate techniques. At present day the role of crop protection in agriculture is of great importance and a challenging process than before, as the so called resistant species should be brought under check. 

What are Pests ?

A 'PEST' is an organism that causes damage resulting in economic loss to a plant or animal. It can also be said that pest is a living organism that thrives at the expense of other living organism. Insects, other invertebrates like nematodes, mites, snails and slugs, etc., and vertebrates like rats, birds, jackals, etc., that cause damage to crops, stored products and animals can all be classified as pests. Disease producing pathogens of plants and weeds are also referred to as crop pests. 

Losses caused due to pests.

It is a well known fact that insects being widely distributed became more problematic in tropical climate. Of 1.5 million species of insects so far described few are so conspicuous in their presence due to their ability to develop rapidly and becoming serious by attacking food crops directly and indirectly. · In developing country like ours insects are dominating over other pests by acquiring characters like resistance to toxic chemicals, and resurgence, particularly in intensive crop management regions of the country. The losses caused by insect pests like Spodoptera, Heliothis, Whitefly and Aphids are so enormous that these made the farmer to disturb the present ecosystems with continuous use of excessive insecticides. 

>> Integrated Pest Management

>> Statistics - Pesticides

Integrated Pest Management (Ipm)

What is Ipm?

IPM is a decision support system for the selection and use of pest control tactics, singly or harmoniously coordinated into a management strategy, based on cost/benefit analyses that takes into account the interests of and impacts on the producers, society and the environment. Therefore, IPM is a multitactical maneuver as it often intertwines different tactics in a compatible manner to limit pest population upto desired level and it is also multifaceted as it concerns economy, ecology and safety to environment. This is expected that this system of pest population management will be sustained one.

Preliminary steps in Developing Ipm Strategy

Pest identification 

  1. Proper taxonomic identification of pest provides knowledge on the biological attributes of pest worked out by the entomologists - life history patterns, seasonal history, population development patterns, habits and behavior and off-crop seasonal activities.

  2. Identification of pest nature of the insect in the production system determines the selection of strategy and tactic integration in the population management programme.

Insects that subsist on crop plants may be numerous but only one or a few are considered major. The one among these that dominates the crop environment is considered the 'key pest' which is targeted for management. Of the two sub-categories of key pests, in the 'perennial pests' the general equilibrium position of population (GEP) remain close to economic injury level (EIL) and frequently cross the EIL causing economic damage most of the years. In case of 'severe pests' the population remains above GEP and thus is the cause for constant concern to the agriculturists. But fortunately such pests are very few.

The other category, 'Occasional pest' is also a major pest and is very common in crop environment. It has a GEP much below the EIL but the highest fluctuations occasionally and sporadically exceeds this level. Taxonomic identity becomes essential not only for properly understanding the life strategies of the pest to integrate control tactics if required but more importantly to know the country of its origin for importation and release of natural enemies for biological suppression of pest population which may be used as a component in IPM.

Monitoring pests

  • A field crop is monitored to determine a pests economic status or to determine whether a natural enemy is at a level capable of suppressing a pest's population density. So identification of pests and beneficial insects is of prime importance before any control operation is executed.

  • Monitoring tools like pheromone, light and sticky traps can be advantageously used. Field scouting adopting fixed plot survey or roving survey should be taken from time to time to monitor the crop in determining whether the pest population attained EILs.

Objective Decision making

When to use Crop Protection Chemicals ?

Information on economic injury level (EIL) is the tool for making the decision. EIL is that level of injury necessary to justify management action against the pest.

EIL = Control cost / (Commodity value x Yield loss per pest)

EIL changes with time and space. With time and even with locality or region the cost factors often change and yield loss per pest is influenced by crop variety, crop stage infested, weather and natural enemy factors. The EIL is the basis for deciding management of pests. But if one waits for pest population to reach EIL to make decision it may cause unnecessary yield or quality losses. It would, therefore, be prudent to take action while the pest population tends to reach EIL, i.e., when it remains well below EIL.

IPM strategies and tactics

Take no action

This may appear paradoxical with the aim of pest suppression. But economic injury level will prove whether there is necessity of suppressing the population or not. This strategy therefore, depends on the results of surveillance data. A sub economic or a potential pest usually does not require a population suppression measure except in extraordinary situation i.e. when conditions do not favour realization of causing economic damage by such a pest.

Depress population strategy

Adoption of this strategy is a common strategy directed to depress population of occasional pests. Suppression of pest population may be achieved through different tactics. Methods like biological control by releasing natural enemies or modification of crop environment use of host plant (crop) resistance factors and even insect growth regulators are factors introduced in crop environment, that create hazard to insect pest life and therefore, these are considered prophylactic or preventive measures. Use of pesticides as is commonly adopted for dampening population in situations of abnormal fluctuation is a mortality factor and is purely therapeutic or curative. The other methods like use of mating disruptant chemicals and sterile male release are directed to reduce reproductive rate usually not adopted for this group of pest.

Strategy for reduction of crop susceptibility

This strategy does not deal directly with insect pest by inducing mortality or disrupting normal life process. It envisages reaction of such condition in crop or crop environment that those resident pests are not capable of causing economic losses. This is entirely prophylactic approach and eco-friendly. 'Resistant and tolerance factors' in a crop species is exploited through selection or directed research to locate resistant factor in crop plant and breeding to obtain desired objective. In this even pest population at general EIL will not cause crop loss. Crop tolerance to pest infestation can also be achieved by changing crop vigour and physiology so that crop itself can face the challenge of pest. This may be brought about by appropriate application of fertilizers. Manipulation of 'cultural practices' may bring about other changes in crop environment. Here use of neem cake as supplement of organic manure may take care of soil-inhabiting pests, crop density may be changed to bring about unfavourable situation (as skip-row planting of rice for brown plant hopper of rice), advancing time of sowing to bring about asynchrony between vulnerable crop stage and pest infestation (as for mustard aphid) to avoid loss, use of short duration or early maturing variety of crop (as for pod fly of pigeon pea) also to avoid severe crop loss etc. These strategies selectively are applicable to reduce crop susceptibility to pest of 'key' or 'perennial and severe' category and also applicable for not encouraging 'occasional' or sub-economic pests (as the changes in crop production technology and abuse of chemical insecticides led to so far known insect residing in rice-ecosystem to enigmatic pest status).

Combined strategy

It combines objectives of all the above three strategies and thus is a multitactical strategy to achieve pest population suppression to desired level, i.e., below EIL. This strategy is the most desirable, commonly followed and produced greater degree of constancy in pest control. A single tactic may fail to produce desired results but in multitactical approach if one tactic fails the others will help to take care of the pest.

Statistics - Pesticides

Consumption of pesticides (group-wise) during 1995-96 to 2000-01 in Metric Tonne (Tech. Grade)

Pesticide Group 1995-96 1996-97 1997-98 1998-99 1999-2000 2000-01
Insecticide 38,788 34,665 33,379 30,469 28,926 26,756
Fungicide 10,563 9,969 10,054 10,428 8,435 8,307
Weedicide 6,040 7,060 7,103 7,292 7,369 7,299
Others 5,869 4,420 1,703 968 1,465 1,222
Total 61,260 56,114 52,239 49,157 46,195 43,584

Source: Pawar, 2003 

Consumption of biopesticides during 1996-97 to 2000-01 in Metric Tonne (Tech. Grade)

Biopesticide 1996-97 1997-98 1998-99 1999-2000 2000-01
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) 33 41 71 135 132
Neem based insecticides 186 354 411 739 551
Total 219 395 482 874 683

Source: Pawar, 2003/NCIPM

Pesticides Registered for use in India

1 2,4- Dichlorophenoxy Acetic Acid
2 Acephate
3 Acetamaprid
4 Alachlor
5 Aldicarb
6 Allethrin
7 Alphacypermethrin
8 Alphanaphthyl Acetic Acid
9 Aluminium Phosphide
10 Anilofos
11 Atrazine
12 Aureofungin
13 Azadirachtin (Neem Products)
14 Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t.)
15 Barium Carbonate
16 Benomyl
17 Benthiocarb (Thiobencarb)
18 Beta Cyfluthrin
19 Bitertanol
20 Bromadiolone
21 Butachlor
22 Captafol
23 Captan
24 Carbaryl
25 Carbendazim
26 Carbofuran
27 Carbasulfan
28 Carboxin
29 Cartap Hydrochloride
30 Chlorfenvinphos
31 Chlorimuron ethyl
32 Chlormequat Chloride (CCC)
33 Chlorobenzilate
34 Chlorothalonil
35 Chlorpyriphos
36 Cinmethylene
37 Clomazone
38 Copper Hydroxide
39 Copper Oxychloride
40 Copper Sulphate
41 Coumachlor
42 Coumatetralyl
43 Cuprous Oxide
44 Cyfluthrin
45 Cyhalofop-butyl
46 Cymoxani
47 Cypermethrin
48 Cyphenothrin
49 D-trans allethrin
50 Dalapon
51 Dazomet
52 Decamehtrin (Deltamethrin)
53 Diazinon
54 Dichloro Diphenyl Trichloroethane (DDT)
55 Dichloropropene and Dichloropropanes mixture (DD Mixture)
56 Dichlorvos (DDVP)
57 Diclofop-methyl
58 Dicofol
59 Dieldrin
60 Difenocenazole
61 Diflubenzuron
62 Dimethoate
63 Dinocap
64 Dithianon
65 Diuron
66 Dodine
67 D-trans Allethrin
68 Edifenphos
69 Endosulfan
70 Ethephon
71 Ethion
72 Ehtofenprox (Etofenprox)
73 Ethylene Dibromide (EDB)
74 Ehthylene Dibromide and Carbon Tetrachloride mixture (EDCT Mixture 3:1)
75 Fenarimol
76 Fenazaquin
77 Fenitrothion
78 Fenobucarb (BPMC)
79 Fenoxaprop-p-Ethyl
80 Fenpropathrin
81 Fenthion
82 Fenvalerate
83 Ferbam
84 Fipronil
85 Fluchloralin
86 Flufenoxyuron
87 Fluvalinate
88 Formothion
89 Foxetyl - Al
90 Gibberellic Acid
91 Glufosinate Ammonium
92 Glyphosate
93 Hexaconazole
94 Hydrogen Cynamid
95 Imazethapyr
96 Imidacloprid
97 Imiprothrin
98 Iprodione
99 Isoprothiolane
100 Isoproturon
101 Kasugamycin
102 Kitazin (IPROBENFOS)
103 Lamdacyphalothrin
104 Lime Sulphur
105 Lindane
106 Linuron
107 Malathion
108 Maleic Hydrazide (MH)
109 Mancozeb
110 Metalaxyl
111 Metaldehyde
112 Metasulfuron Methyl
113 Methabenzthiazuron
114 Methomyl
115 Methoxy Ethyl Mercury Chloride (MEMC)
116 Methyl Bromide
117 Methyl Chlorophenoxy Acetic Acid (MCPA)
118 Methyl Parathion
119 Metolachlor
120 Metoxuron
121 Metribuzin
122 Monocrotophos
123 Myclobutanil
124 Neem Products
125 Nickel Chloride
126 Oxadiargyl
127 Oxadiazon
128 Oxycarboxin
129 Oxydemeton-methyl
130 Oxyfluorfen
131 Paclobutrazol
132 Paradichlorobenzene
133 Paraquat dichloride
134 Penconazole
135 Pendimethalin
136 Permethrin
137 Phenthoate
138 Phorate
139 Phosalone
140 Phosphamidon
141 Piroxofop-propanyl (Clodinafop-Propamyl)
142 Pirimiphos-methyl
143 Prallethrin
144 Pretilachlor
145 Primiphos-methyl
146 Profenophos
147 Propanil
148 Propetamphos
149 Propiconazole
150 Propoxur
151 Pyrethrins (Pyrethrum)
152 Quinalphos
153 Simazine
154 Sirmate
155 Sodium Cyanide
156 Spinosad
157 Streptomycin + Tetracycline
158 Sulfosulfuron
159 Sulphur
160 Tebuconazole
161 Temephos
162 Thiodicarb
163 Thiomethoxain
164 Thimeton
165 Thiophanate-Methyl
166 Thiram
167 Triadimefon
168 Triallate
169 Triazophos
170 Trichlorfon
171 Trichloro Acetic Acid (TCA)
172 Tricyclazole
173 Tridemorph
174 Trifulralin
175 Validamycin
176 Warfarin
177 Zinc Phosphide
178 Zineb


Source:DPPQ & S, Faridabad/NCIPM

Biopesticides Registered under Insecticides Act, 1968

S. No. Name of the Biopesticide
1. Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis
2. Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki
3. Bacillus thuringiensis var. galleriae
4. Bacillus sphaericus
5. Trichoderma viride
6. Trichoderma harzianum
7. Pseudomonas fluoresens
8. Beauveria bassiana
9. NPV of Helicoverpa armigera
10. NPV of Spodoptera litura
11. Neem based pesticides
12. Cymbopogan

Source: NCIPM

List of Pesticides registered or their uses extended during 1999-2000

S. No. Pesticides Crop Disease/Pest/Weed Dose/ha. (a.i.) Remarks
A. FUNGICIDES          
1. Carbendazim 12% + Mancozeb 63% WP Groundnut Paddy Leaf Spot & Rust Blast 500 gm/500 ltr. (Fml) 750 gm/750 ltr.(Fml) Regd. recently
1. Fipronil 5% SC Rice Stemborer BPH GLH Leaf folder Gall midge Whorl maggat WBPH 50 ? 75 gm - do - - do - - do - - do - - do - - do - New formulation
    Cabbage DBM 40 ? 50 gm Use extended
    Chilly Thrips Aphids Fruit borer - do - - do - - do -  
2. Lambdacyhalothrin 2.5 EC Cotton Bollworm Jassid Thrips 15 ? 25 gm - do - - do - New formulation
3. Bromadialone 0.005 RB 0.25 CB 0.005 RB cake Poultry Farm Indian house rat House mouse Large bandicata 0.005% Use extended
4. Triazophos 40 EC Soybean Stem borer, Girdle beetle, Leaf minor 250 gm Use extended
5. Lindane 20 EC Building Woods Termite Termite 50 gm/M 50 gm/M - do -
6. Deltamethrin 2.8 EC Brinjal Shoot & Fruit borer 10 ? 12.5 gm Use extended
7. Methomyl 40 SP Cotton Bollworm (Heliothis) 300 ? 500 New formulation
    Pigeonpea Pod borers (H. armigera) (E. atomosa) (M. obtusa) - do -  
    Tomato Heliothis armigera - do -  
8. Flufenoxuron 10 DC Rose Red Spider mite 50 gm New formulation
9. Lambdacyhalothrin 5 EC Chillies Thrips Mite Pod borer (Spodoptera) 15 gms Use extended
    Pigeonpea Pod borers Pod fly 20 ? 25 gm  
10. Chlorpyriphos 50 EC Building Termite 0.5% conc. New formulation
11. Deltamethrin 25 Tab Cotton Boll worm 12.5% gm. New formulation
12. Acetamiprid 20 SP Cotton Aphids Jassids Whitefly 10 gm 10 gm 20 gm Recently registered
C. HERBICIDES          
1. Chlorimuron ethyl 25% WP Soybean Rice Phyllanthus niruri Amaranthus viridis Portulaca oleracea Cyperus rotundus Trianthema manogyn Cynotis auxiliaris Echinochloa crusgalli Eclipta alba Echinochloa colonum 6.0 g Registered recently
2. Metsulfuron methyl 20% WP Wheat Rice Chenopodium album Melilotus indica Vicia sativa Lathyrus aphaca Anagallis arvensis Circium arense Ludwigia spp. Commelina bengalensis Caesulia axillaris Eclipta alba Fimbristylis spp. 4.0 g Registered recently
3. Oxadiargyl 80% WP Rice Echinochloa colonum E. crusgalli Cyperus iria Fimbristylis spp. 100 g Registered recently
4. Glufosinate ammonium 13.5 SL Tea Imperata cylindrica Panicum repens Borerraria hispida Digitaria sanguinalis Ageratum conyzoides Elusine indica Paspalum conjgatum 375 ? 500 g - do -
5. Oxadiargyl 6 EC Transplanted Rice Echinochloa colonum E. crusagalli Cyperus iria Fimbristylis spp. 100 gm  
6. Imazethapyr 100% SL Soybean ] Groundnut] Cyperus diflormis Echinochloa colonum E. crusgalli Euphorbia hirta Croton Sperrsifaorus Digera arvensis Commelina bengalensis Trianthema portulacastrum 100 gm 100 ? 150 gm - do -
7. Paclobutrazol 23 SC Mango For better fruit set to avoid mango malformation 3.75 g ? 10 g - do -
8. Metsulfuron Methyl 10 % + Chlorimuron Ethyl 10% WP Rice Cyperus iria c. difformis Fimbrystylis sp. Echinochloa crusgalli E. Colonum Ludwigia parviflora Panicum repens Marselia quadrifoliata Eclipta alba 4.0 gm - do -

Source: NCIPM

Pesticides Banned in India

S. No. Name of the Pesticide
1. Aldicarb
2. Aldrin
3. Benzene Hexachloride (BHC)
4. Calcium cyanide
5. Captafol 80% Powder* Use banned w.e.f. 17.7.2003
6. Chlordane
7. Chlorobenzilate Use banned w.e.f. 17.7.2003
8. Cibromochloropropane
9. Copper Acetoarsenite
10. Dieldrine Use banned w.e.f. 17.7.2003
11. Endrin
12. Ethylene Dibromide Use banned w.e.f. 17.7.2003
13. Ethyl Mercury Chloride
14. Ethyl Parathion
15. Heptachlor
16. Maleic Hydrazide Use banned w.e.f. 17.7.2003
17. Menazone
18. Mehtomyl 12:5% L
19. Mehtomyl 24% L
20. Nicotine Sulphate *
21. Nitrofen
22. Paraquate Dimethyl Sulphate
23. Pentachloro nitrobenzene (PCNB)
24. Pentachlorophenol (PCP)
25. Phenyl Mercury Acelate (PMA)*
26. Phosphamidon 85% SL
27. Sodium Methane Arsonate (MSMA)
28. Tetradifon
29. Toxafen
30. Trichloro acetic acid (TCA) Use banned w.e.f. 17.7.2003

Restricted Pesticides

S. No. Name of the Pesticide
1. Aluminium phosphide
2. DDT
3. Lindane
4. Methyl bromide
5. Methyl Parathion
6. Methoxy Ethyl Merciru Chloride
7. Sodium cyanide

Have a lot of fun and success.
yours kheteshwar
always with you...

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kheteshwar borawat

Feb 4, 2009, 5:57:29 AM2/4/09

kheteshwar borawat

Feb 4, 2009, 5:58:13 AM2/4/09
National Centre for Integrated Pest Management

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kheteshwar borawat

Feb 4, 2009, 5:59:59 AM2/4/09

IPM Package of Practices

With a   view  to  provide  technical knowledge  to the  extension  functionaries  and  farmers  in 
the States, Directorate of P.P.Q&S. has developed  77 IPM  package of  practices   for different 
crops with  the  latest research inputs from  State Agricultural  Universities (SAUs)  and   Indian 
Council of Agricultural research (ICAR) .

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