Hi. You really need to go and consult any of the many standard text books on multivariate statistical analysis. These questions are not related to FactoMineR.
The short answer is: PCA is mainly concerned with analysing continuous variables such as length, width, weight.
Multiple Correspondence Analysis is concerned with mulitiple categories: e.g.,
object 1 is green, oval and has a flower on it
object 2 is yellow, oval and has a cat on it
object 3 is yellow, square and has a flower on it
and so on.
You can have supplementary qualitative variables in a PCA. So, for example, if you have objects described by length, width and weight, you could have colour as a supplementary qualitative variable. The colour is not used in the analysis, but the results are compared to it.
For beginners in multivariate analysis I always suggest sticking to:
PCA: continuous data.
CA: cross-tabulated count data
MCA: multistate descriptive categorical data
Compositional data (i.e., data which sums to 100%) are a whole other can of worms.
Hope this helps.