OpenBSD 4.4 released, Nov 1. Enjoy!

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Theo de Raadt

Oct 31, 2008, 12:59:19 PM10/31/08

- OpenBSD 4.4 RELEASED -------------------------------------------------

Nov 1, 2008.

We are pleased to announce the official release of OpenBSD 4.4.
This is our 24th release on CD-ROM (and 25th via FTP). We remain
proud of OpenBSD's record of more than ten years with only two remote
holes in the default install.

As in our previous releases, 4.4 provides significant improvements,
including new features, in nearly all areas of the system:

- New/extended platforms:
o OpenBSD/sparc64.
Fujitsu's SPARC64-V, SPARC64-VI and SPARC64-VII processors are supported
now, which means that many of the PRIMEPOWER machines and the SPARC
Enterprise M4000/M5000/M8000/M9000 work now.
Sun's UltraSPARC VI processors are supported now. Many of Sun's
mid-range and high-end servers with these processors or UltraSPARC III
and UltraSPARC III+ processors work now.
Sun's UltraSPARC T1 and UltraSPARC T2 processors are supported now,
which means the sun4v architecture is now supported and machines like
the SPARC Enterprise T1000 and SPARC Enterprise T5220 work now.
o OpenBSD/socppc.
For machines based on the Freescale MPC8349E
System-on-Chip (SoC) platform that use Das U-Boot as a boot loader.
o OpenBSD/landisk: added shared libraries support.

- Improved hardware support, including:
o Several new/improved drivers for sensors: fins(4), andl(4), it(4),
kate(4), sdtemp(4), lmtemp(4), adt(4), km(4).
o Support for Intel G33 and G35 chipsets in agp(4).
o New lii(4) driver for Attansic L2 10/100 Ethernet devices.
o Preliminary support for UVC USB webcams: uvideo(4) and video(4).
o WPA/WPA2-PSK support for several models of wireless cards.
o Openchrome(4) and geode(4) video card drivers for X.Org.
o New vmt(4) driver, implements VMware Tools.
o New auglx(4) driver for AMD Geode LX CS5536 integrated AC'97 audio.
o New ix(4) driver for Intel 82598 PCI Express 10Gb Ethernet.
o New acpithinkpad(4) driver provides additional ACPI support for
IBM/Lenovo ThinkPad laptops.
o New acpiasus(4) driver provides additional ACPI support for ASUS
laptops including the EeePC.
o New gecko(4) driver supporting the GeckoBOA BC GSC+ port found on
some hppa systems.
o New tsec(4) driver supporting the Freescale Triple Speed Ethernet
o The re(4) driver now supports RTL8102E and RTL8168 devices.
o The cas(4) driver now supports National Semiconductor Saturn devices.
o The pccom(4) driver has been removed; all platforms use com(4) now.
o cardbus(4) and pcmcia(4) now work on most sparc64 machines.
o The udcf(4) driver now supports mouseCLOCK USB II devices.
o The msk(4) driver now supports 88E8040T devices.
o The ath(4) now now supports many more Atheros wireless devices.
o The ciss(4) driver now supports HP Smart Array P212, P410, P411, P411i
and P812 devices.
o The uftdi(4) driver now supports ELV Elektronik and FTDI 2232L devices.
o The umsm(4) driver now supports Option GlobeTrotter 3G+, Huawei E220
and more HSDPA MSM devices.
o The ubsa(4) driver now supports ZTE CMDMA MSM devices.
o The axe(4) driver now supports Apple USB A1277 devices.
o The puc(4) driver now supports more Netmos devices.
o The mgx(4) driver now supports 2D acceleration on selected boards.
o The isp(4) driver firmware for some controllers has been updated.
o The isp(4) driver no longer hangs during probe on some machines.
o The bge(4) driver has better support for BCM5704 chipsets in fiber
mode which helps with some blade servers.
o The bge(4) driver has better support for the BCM5906 chipset on
some systems.
o The bge(4) driver has much better support for PCI Express chipsets
resulting in much faster transmit performance.
o The bge(4) driver has support for the BCM5714/5715/5780 chipsets
using fiber interfaces.
o The bnx(4) driver has support for the BCM5706/5708 chipsets using
fiber interfaces.
o The ral(4) driver now supports Ralink Technology RT2700 devices.
o Serial ports other than com0 can now be used for console on amd64.
o The serial console on i386 and amd64 has improved compatibility
with server management cards.

- New tools:
o rpc.statd(8), the host status monitoring daemon for use with the NFS
file locking daemon.
o Initial import of ypldap(8), a drop-in replacement for ypserv
to glue in an LDAP directory for get{pw,gr}ent family of functions.
o Deprecated slattach(8) and nmeaattach(8) in favor of ldattach(8).
o Import of tcpbench(1), a small TCP benchmarking tool.

- New functionality:
o aucat(1) is now able to play and record audio in fullduplex, it
can mix unlimited number of streams, handles up to 16 channels, can
resample streams on the fly, supports various 24-bit and 32-bit
encodings and does format conversions on the fly.
o httpd(8) now supports IPv6.
o dhcpd(8) now supports basic synchronization of the /etc/dhcpd.leases
file to allow for running multiple instances for redundancy.
o rpc.lockd(8) now supports NLMv4 and does actually do locking.
o ftp(1) now supports recursive mget transfers.
o ftp(1) now uses keep alive packets by default.
o Make ftp(1) accept empty passwords in URLs.
o locate(1) now supports -b flag to perform search only on the last
component of the path.
o Allow cdio(1) in TAO mode to set the write speed.
o cdio(1) no longer blanks media twice.
o Add ability in cdio(1) to determine media capabilities and make it figure
out if media supports TAO or blanking.
o Initial version of softraid(4) crypto support.
o dhcpd(8) now groks options tftp-config-file and auto-proxy-script in
o dhclient(8) option handling much more resistant to abuse.
o dhclient(8) now aware of interface link state and reacts to changes.
o DIOCRLDINFO, DIOCGPDINFO, and DIOCGPART support added to block devices
previously lacking it.
o disklabel(8) no longer supports the '-r' option, and obtains all disklabel
information via ioctl's.
o disklabel(8) no longer suggests offsets and sizes that would result in
partitions starting or ending outside the OpenBSD section of the disk.
o disklabel(8) now correctly reads back the 'vendor' field from text
o disklabel(8) editor mode '?' and 'p' commands are more compact and the 'l'
command has been added to produce previous verbose output.
o I/O's outside the bounds of the RAW_PART are now prevented, allowing
proper detection of invalid I/O's.
o USB floppies now have a valid cylinder count calculated, rather than 0.
o newfs(8) can now create filesystems on devices with sector sizes other
than 512, although such filesystems cannot yet be read.
o scsi(4) probing displays less useless verbiage and fewer spurious error
o st(4) devices can now be detached.
o ATAPI devices are now identified as such, rather than as SCSIn devices.
o SATA tape drives now work.
o scsi(4) probing now displays the ID of the initiator on the bus.
o scsi(4) debug capabilities improved to show commands and input or output
data as appropriate.
o scsi(4) probing makes better use of the TEST UNIT READY command to clear
errors and allow successfull attachments.
o scsi(4) probing can now find more fibre channel attached devices.
o Several mbuf pool cache corruption issues were fixed
o identd(8) now supports IPv6 in standalone mode.
o cal(1) now shows week numbers too.
o In pf(4), implement a sloppy tcpstate tracker which does not look at
sequence numbers at all.
o pf(4) rule accounting now has a counter to record how many states in
total have been created by a rule.
o The kill states feature in pfctl(8) now supports two additional match
targets: Kill by rule label or state ID.
o Make relayd(8) use sloppy pf(4) state keeping for routed sessions (Direct
Server Return).
o Added support in relayd(8) for transparent L7 forwarding in relays.
o Added support for dynamic IPv6-to-IPv4 or IPv4-to-IPv6 TCP relays
in relayd(8).
o Improved the DNS mode and use OpenBSD's Id shuffle code from named(8)
in relayd(8).
o Extend awk(1) with bitwise operations.
o Updated the display code for systat(1) which adds views for pf(4) states,
rules and queues.
o Imported initial support for IEEE 802.3ad/LACP in trunk(4).

- Assorted improvements and code cleanup:
o A greatly changed buffer cache subsystem which maps cache pages only
when in use, resulting in improved filesystem performance, and
allowing for the effective use of a much larger buffer cache
o A greatly improved implementation of malloc(3), the general purpose
memory allocator, which catches more mistakes, reduces address space
fragmentation, and is faster.
o The statfs(2) system call has been enhanced to support large filesystems.
o The strtof(3) function has been added to libc.
o A lot of work has been done on libm to add several functions towards more
C99 compliance.
o Lots of features have been implemented in OpenCVS, which can now be used
to do some real work.
o New APIs for arc4random, one to fill a buffer with random numbers
and the other to return a uniformly distributed random number
without bias.

- Install/Upgrade process changes:
o A new tool sysmerge(1), derived from the old mergemaster port, makes
it easier to merge configuration files changes during an upgrade.
o Fully support OpenBSD inside extended partitions on i386 and amd64.
o During installation 'dhcp' is now the initial default answer during
network configuration.
o Fetching sets via FTP more reliable due to automatic use of keep alive.
o Fetching sets via NFS no longer hangs retrying a non-functional mount.
o Installation ensures hostname.* files are installed with mode 600.
o Serial console configuration now automatically detects speed.
o Serial console support extended to all architectures.
o Partition size display no longer limited to 32 bit sizes.
o Partition sizes now scaled and formatted to use human readable units.
o NTPD configuration questions improved.
o Sparc miniroot root disk detection fixed.
o Invocations of disklabel(8) by the scripts are now less verbose.

- OpenSSH 5.1:
o New experimental fingerprint ASCII art visualisation system for easier
verification of remote keys.
o Added chroot(2) support for sshd(8).
o Added an extended test mode (-T) to sshd(8).
o Make ssh(1) support negation of groups in a "Match group" block.
o Increased the ephemeral key size in protocol1 from 768 to 1024 bits.
o Better tests of primes in /etc/moduli
o Refuse to read .shosts or authorized_keys files that are not regular
o Enable ~ escapes for multiplex slave sessions.
o Support CIDR address matching in Match blocks and authorized_keys
from="..." stanzas.
o Make port forwarding code try additional addresses when connecting to
a destination whose DNS name resolves to more than one address.
o Make the maximum number of ssh(1) sessions run-time controllable via
MaxSessions in sshd_config(5).
o ssh-scan(1) now defaults to RSA protocol 2 keys, instead of RSA1.
o Added an extension to sftp protocol to implement statvfs(2)-like operations
and add a df command to sftp(1).
o Disable execution of /.ssh/rc for sessions where a command has been
forced by the sshd_config ForceCommand directive.
o And several bug fixes and performance enhancements.

- Over 4,500 ports, minor robustness improvements in package tools.
o Many pre-built packages for each architecture:
i386: 5033 sparc64: 4862 alpha: 4852 sh: 1285
amd64: 4940 powerpc: 4466 sparc: 3381 mips64: 3099
arm: 4018 hppa: 1595 vax: 1954
o Highlights include:
o mozilla-firefox 3
o drupal 5
o Gnome 2.20.3.
o GNUstep 1.14.2.
o Inkscape 0.46.
o JDK 1.7.0.b24.
o KDE 3.5.8.
o Mozilla Firefox and 3.0.1.
o Mozilla Thunderbird
o MySQL 5.0.51a
o OpenMotif 2.3.0.
o 2.4.1.
o PostgreSQL 8.3.3.
o Xfce 4.4.2.

- As usual, steady improvements in manual pages and other documentation.

- The system includes the following major components from outside
o Xenocara (based on X.Org 7.3 + patches, freetype 2.3.5,
fontconfig 2.4.2, expat 2.0.1, Mesa 7.0.3, xterm 234 and more)
o Gcc 2.95.3 (+ patches) and 3.3.5 (+ patches)
o Perl 5.8.8 (+ patches)
o Our improved and secured version of Apache 1.3, with SSL/TLS and DSO
o OpenSSL 0.9.7j (+ patches)
o Groff 1.15
o Sendmail 8.14.3, with libmilter
o Bind 9.4.2-P2 (+ patches)
o Lynx 2.8.5rel.4 with HTTPS and IPv6 support (+ patches)
o Sudo 1.6.9p17
o Ncurses 5.2
o Latest KAME IPv6
o Heimdal 0.7.2 (+ patches)
o Arla 0.35.7
o Binutils 2.15 (+ patches)
o Gdb 6.3 (+ patches)

If you'd like to see a list of what has changed between OpenBSD 4.3
and 4.4, look at

Even though the list is a summary of the most important changes
made to OpenBSD, it still is a very very long list.

- SECURITY AND ERRATA --------------------------------------------------

We provide patches for known security threats and other important
issues discovered after each CD release. As usual, between the
creation of the OpenBSD 4.4 FTP/CD-ROM binaries and the actual 4.4
release date, our team found and fixed some new reliability problems
(note: most are minor and in subsystems that are not enabled by
default). Our continued research into security means we will find
new security problems -- and we always provide patches as soon as
possible. Therefore, we advise regular visits to

Security patch announcements are sent to the
mailing list. For information on OpenBSD mailing lists, please see:

- CD-ROM SALES ---------------------------------------------------------

OpenBSD 4.4 is also available on CD-ROM. The 3-CD set costs $50 CDN
(EUR 50 including VAT) and is available via mail order and from a number
of contacts around the world. The set includes a colourful booklet
which carefully explains the installation of OpenBSD. A new set
of cute little stickers is also included (sorry, but our FTP mirror
sites do not support STP, the Sticker Transfer Protocol). As an
added bonus, the second CD contains an audio track, a song entitled
"Trial of the BSD Knights". MP3 and OGG versions of the audio track can
be found on the first CD.

Lyrics (and an explanation) for the songs may be found at:

Profits from CD sales are the primary income source for the OpenBSD
project -- in essence selling these CD-ROM units ensures that OpenBSD
will continue to make another release six months from now.

The OpenBSD 4.4 CD-ROMs are bootable on the following four platforms:

o i386
o amd64
o macppc
o sparc64

(Other platforms must boot from floppy, network, or other method).

For more information on ordering CD-ROMs, see:

The above web page lists a number of places where OpenBSD CD-ROMs
can be purchased from. For our default mail order, go directly to:

or, for European orders:

All of our developers strongly urge you to buy a CD-ROM and support
our future efforts. Additionally, donations to the project are
highly appreciated, as described in more detail at:

- OPENBSD FOUNDATION ---------------------------------------------------

For those unable to make their contributions as straightforward gifts,
the OpenBSD Foundation ( is a Canadian
not-for-profit corporation that can accept larger contributions and
issue receipts. In some situations, their receipt may qualify as a
business expense writeoff, so this is certainly a consideration for
some organizations or businesses. There may also be exposure benefits
since the Foundation may be interested in participating in press releases.
In turn, the Foundation then uses these contributions to assist OpenBSD's
infrastructure needs. Contact the foundation directors at for more information.

- T-SHIRT SALES --------------------------------------------------------

The OpenBSD distribution companies also sell tshirts and polo shirts.
And our users like them too. We have a variety of shirts available,
with the new and old designs, from our web ordering system at:

and for Europe:

The OpenBSD 4.4 t-shirts are available now. We also sell our older
shirts, as well as a selection of OpenSSH t-shirts.

- FTP INSTALLS ---------------------------------------------------------

If you choose not to buy an OpenBSD CD-ROM, OpenBSD can be easily
installed via FTP. Typically you need a single small piece of boot
media (e.g., a boot floppy) and then the rest of the files can be
installed from a number of locations, including directly off the
Internet. Follow this simple set of instructions to ensure that
you find all of the documentation you will need while performing
an install via FTP. With the CD-ROMs, the necessary documentation
is easier to find.

1) Read either of the following two files for a list of ftp
mirrors which provide OpenBSD, then choose one near you:

As of November 1, 2008, the following ftp mirror sites have the 4.4 release: Austria Sweden NYC, USA CO, USA CA, USA IL, USA

The release is also available at the master site: Alberta, Canada

However it is strongly suggested you use a mirror.

Other mirror sites may take a day or two to update.

2) Connect to that ftp mirror site and go into the directory
pub/OpenBSD/4.4/ which contains these files and directories.
This is a list of what you will see:

ANNOUNCEMENT amd64/ macppc/ sys.tar.gz
Changelogs/ armish/ mvme68k/ tools/
HARDWARE ftplist packages/ vax/
PACKAGES hp300/ ports.tar.gz xenocara.tar.gz
PORTS hppa/ root.mail zaurus/
README i386/ sparc/
SIZES landisk/ sparc64/
alpha/ mac68k/ src.tar.gz

It is quite likely that you will want at LEAST the following
files which apply to all the architectures OpenBSD supports.

HARDWARE - list of hardware we support
PORTS - description of our "ports" tree
PACKAGES - description of pre-compiled packages
root.mail - a copy of root's mail at initial login.
(This is really worthwhile reading).

3) Read the README file. It is short, and a quick read will make
sure you understand what else you need to fetch.

4) Next, go into the directory that applies to your architecture,
for example, i386. This is a list of what you will see:

INSTALL.i386 cd44.iso floppyB44.fs pxeboot*
INSTALL.linux cdboot* floppyC44.fs xbase44.tgz
MD5 cdbr* game44.tgz xetc44.tgz
base44.tgz cdemu44.iso index.txt xfont44.tgz
bsd* comp44.tgz install44.iso xserv44.tgz* etc44.tgz man44.tgz xshare44.tgz
bsd.rd* floppy44.fs misc44.tgz

If you are new to OpenBSD, fetch _at least_ the file INSTALL.i386
and the appropriate floppy*.fs or install44.iso files. Consult the
INSTALL.i386 file if you don't know which of the floppy images
you need (or simply fetch all of them).

If you use the install44.iso file (roughly 200MB in size), then you
do not need the various *.tgz files since they are contained on that
one-step ISO-format install CD.

5) If you are an expert, follow the instructions in the file called
README; otherwise, use the more complete instructions in the
file called INSTALL.i386. INSTALL.i386 may tell you that you
need to fetch other files.

6) Just in case, take a peek at:

This is the page where we talk about the mistakes we made while
creating the 4.4 release, or the significant bugs we fixed
post-release which we think our users should have fixes for.
Patches and workarounds are clearly described there.

Note: If you end up needing to write a raw floppy using Windows,
you can use "fdimage.exe" located in the pub/OpenBSD/4.4/tools
directory to do so.

- X.ORG FOR MOST ARCHITECTURES -----------------------------------------

X.Org has been integrated more closely into the system. This release
contains X.Org 7.3.0. Most of our architectures ship with X.Org, including
amd64, sparc, sparc64 and macppc. During installation, you can install
X.Org quite easily. Be sure to try out xdm(1) and see how we have
customized it for OpenBSD.

- PORTS TREE -----------------------------------------------------------

The OpenBSD ports tree contains automated instructions for building
third party software. The software has been verified to build and
run on the various OpenBSD architectures. The 4.4 ports collection,
including many of the distribution files, is included on the 3-CD
set. Please see the PORTS file for more information.

Note: some of the most popular ports, e.g., the Apache web server
and several X applications, come standard with OpenBSD. Also, many
popular ports have been pre-compiled for those who do not desire
to build their own binaries (see BINARY PACKAGES, below).

- BINARY PACKAGES WE PROVIDE -------------------------------------------

A large number of binary packages are provided. Please see the PACKAGES
file ( for more details.

- SYSTEM SOURCE CODE ---------------------------------------------------

The CD-ROMs contain source code for all the subsystems explained
above, and the README (
file explains how to deal with these source files. For those who
are doing an FTP install, the source code for all four subsystems
can be found in the pub/OpenBSD/4.4/ directory:

xenocara.tar.gz ports.tar.gz src.tar.gz sys.tar.gz

- THANKS ---------------------------------------------------------------

OpenBSD 4.4 includes artwork and CD artistic layout by Ty Semaka,
who also arranged an audio track on the OpenBSD 4.4 CD set. Ports
tree and package building by Antoine Jacoutot, Nikolay Sturm,
Robert Nagy and Christian Weisgerber. System builds by Theo de Raadt,
and Miod Vallat. X11 builds by Todd Fries. ISO-9660 filesystem
layout by Theo de Raadt.

We would like to thank all of the people who sent in bug reports, bug
fixes, donation cheques, and hardware that we use. We would also like
to thank those who pre-ordered the 4.4 CD-ROM or bought our previous
CD-ROMs. Those who did not support us financially have still helped
us with our goal of improving the quality of the software.

Our developers are:

Alexander Bluhm, Alexander Schrijver, Alexander von Gernler,
Alexandre Anriot, Alexandre Ratchov, Alexey Vatchenko,
Anders Magnusson, Andreas Gunnarsson, Antoine Jacoutot,
Artur Grabowski, Austin Hook, Bernd Ahlers, Bob Beck, Brad Smith,
Bret Lambert, Can Erkin Acar, Chad Loder, Charles Longeau,
Chris Kuethe, Christian Weisgerber, Claudio Jeker,
Constantine A. Murenin, Dale Rahn, Damien Bergamini, Damien Miller,
Daniel Hartmeier, Darren Tucker, David Gwynne, David Hill,
David Krause, Deanna Phillips, Eric Faurot, Esben Norby,
Federico G. Schwindt, Felix Kronlage, Gilles Chehade,
Gordon Willem Klok, Hans-Joerg Hoexer, Henning Brauer,
Henric Jungheim, Hugh Graham, Ian Darwin, Igor Sobrado,
Jacob Meuser, Jakob Schlyter, Janne Johansson, Jared Yanovich,
Jason Dixon, Jason George, Jason McIntyre,
Jasper Lievisse Adriaanse, Joel Knight, Joel Sing,
Johan Mson Lindman, Jolan Luff, Jonathan Gray, Jordan Hargrave,
Joris Vink, Kenneth R Westerback, Kevin Lo, Kevin Steves,
Kjell Wooding, Kurt Miller, Landry Breuil, Laurent Fanis,
Marc Balmer, Marc Espie, Marco Peereboom, Marco Pfatschbacher,
Marco S Hyman, Marcus Glocker, Mark Kettenis, Mark Uemura,
Markus Friedl, Martin Reindl, Martynas Venckus,
Mathieu Sauve-Frankel, Mats O Jansson, Matthias Kilian,
Matthieu Herrb, Michael Erdely, Michael Knudsen, Mike Belopuhov,
Miod Vallat, Moritz Grimm, Moritz Jodeit, Nick Holland,
Nikolay Sturm, Okan Demirmen, Oleg Safiullin, Otto Moerbeek,
Owain Ainsworth, Pedro Martelletto, Peter Hessler, Peter Stromberg,
Peter Valchev, Philip Guenther, Pierre-Yves Ritschard,
Rainer Giedat, Ray Lai, Reyk Floeter, Robert Nagy, Rui Reis,
Ryan Thomas McBride, Saad Kadhi, Simon Bertrang, Stefan Kempf,
Steven Mestdagh, Stuart Henderson, Ted Unangst, Theo de Raadt,
Thordur I. Bjornsson, Tobias Stoeckmann, Tobias Weingartner,
Todd C. Miller, Todd Fries, Tomoyuki Sakurai, Uwe Stuehler,
Will Maier, Xavier Santolaria, Yojiro Uo, joshua stein

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