[PATCH] Add Documentation/kprobes.txt

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Jim Keniston

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Aug 2, 2005, 6:22:03 PM8/2/05
to LKML, Andrew Morton, SystemTAP, Prasanna Panchamukhi
The enclosed patch creates Documentation/kprobes.txt, a guide to using
the existing Kprobes facility for dynamic kernel instrumentation.
Please apply.

Jim Keniston

Acked-by: Prasanna S Panchamukhi <pras...@in.ibm.com>
Signed-off-by: Jim Keniston <jken...@us.ibm.com>


kprobes.txt.patch

Suparna Bhattacharya

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Aug 3, 2005, 6:35:53 AM8/3/05
to Jim Keniston, LKML, Andrew Morton, SystemTAP, Prasanna Panchamukhi

> --- linux.old/Documentation/kprobes.txt 1969-12-31 16:00:00.000000000 -0800
> +++ linux.new/Documentation/kprobes.txt 2005-08-02 14:02:43.000000000 -0700
> @@ -0,0 +1,588 @@
> +Title : Kernel Probes (Kprobes)
> +Authors : Jim Keniston <jken...@us.ibm.com>
> + : Prasanna S Panchamukhi <pras...@in.ibm.com>
> +
> +CONTENTS
> +
> +1. Concepts: Kprobes, Jprobes, Return Probes
> +2. Architectures Supported
> +3. Configuring Kprobes
> +4. API Reference
> +5. Kprobes Features and Limitations
> +6. Probe Overhead
> +7. TODO
> +8. Kprobes Example
> +9. Jprobes Example
> +10. Kretprobes Example
> +
> +1. Concepts: Kprobes, Jprobes, Return Probes
> +
> +Kprobes enables you to dynamically break into any kernel routine and
> +collect debugging and performance information non-disruptively. You
> +can trap at almost any kernel code address, specifying a handler
> +routine to be invoked when the breakpoint is hit.
> +
> +There are currently three types of probes: kprobes, jprobes, and
> +kretprobes (also called return probes). A kprobe can be inserted
> +on virtually any instruction in the kernel. A jprobe is inserted at
> +the entry to a kernel function, and provides convenient access to the
> +function's arguments. A return probe fires when a specified function
> +returns.
> +
> +In the typical case, Kprobes-based instrumentation is packaged as
> +a kernel module. The module's init function installs ("registers")
> +one or more probes, and the exit function unregisters them. A
> +registration function such as register_kprobe() specifies where
> +the probe is to be inserted and what handler is to be called when
> +the probe is hit.
> +
> +The next three subsections explain how the different types of
> +probes work. They explain certain things that you'll need to
> +know in order to make the best use of Kprobes -- e.g., the
> +difference between a pre_handler and a post_handler, and how
> +to use the maxactive and nmissed fields of a kretprobe. But
> +if you're in a hurry to start using Kprobes, you can skip ahead
> +to section 2.
> +
> +1.1 How Does a Kprobe Work?
> +
> +When a kprobe is registered, Kprobes makes a copy of the probed
> +instruction and replaces the first byte(s) of the probed instruction
> +with a breakpoint instruction (e.g., int3 on i386 and x86_64).
> +
> +When a CPU hits the breakpoint instruction, a trap occurs, the CPU's
> +registers are saved, and control passes to Kprobes via the
> +notifier_call_chain mechanism. Kprobes executes the "pre_handler"
> +associated with the kprobe, passing the handler the addresses of the
> +kprobe struct and the saved registers.
> +
> +Next, Kprobes single-steps its copy of the probed instruction.
> +(It would be simpler to single-step the actual instruction in place,
> +but then Kprobes would have to temporarily remove the breakpoint
> +instruction. This would open a small time window when another CPU
> +could sail right past the probepoint.)
> +
> +After the instruction is single-stepped, Kprobes executes the
> +"post_handler," if any, that is associated with the kprobe.
> +Execution then continues with the instruction following the probepoint.
> +
> +1.2 How Does a Jprobe Work?
> +
> +A jprobe is implemented using a kprobe that is placed on a function's
> +entry point. It employs a simple mirroring principle to allow
> +seamless access to the probed function's arguments. The jprobe
> +handler routine should have the same signature (arg list and return
> +type) as the function being probed, and must always end by calling
> +the Kprobes function jprobe_return().
> +
> +Here's how it works. When the probe is hit, Kprobes makes a copy of
> +the saved registers and a generous portion of the stack (see below).
> +Kprobes then points the saved stack pointer at the stack-copy, points
> +the saved instruction pointer at the jprobe's handler routine, and
> +returns from the trap. As a result, control passes to the handler,
> +which is presented with the same register and stack contents as the
> +probed function. When it is done, the handler calls jprobe_return(),
> +which traps again to restore processor state and switch back to the
> +probed function.
> +
> +gcc assumes that the callee owns its arguments. To prevent unexpected
> +modifications to the probed function's stack, Kprobes presents the
> +jprobe handler with a copy of the stack. Up to MAX_STACK_SIZE bytes
> +are copied -- e.g., 64 bytes on i386.

IIRC, we save and restore the stack, rather than pass a copy of the stack
to the handler. Thus, while jprobes does make a copy of MAX_STACK_SIZE
bytes, the handler still operates on the original stack (e.g. stack
addresses are unchanged) and the stack contents are restored
before returning control to the probed routine.

> +
> +Note that the probed function's args may be passed on the stack
> +or in registers (e.g., for x86_64 or for an i386 fastcall function).
> +The jprobe will work in either case, so long as the handler's
> +prototype matches that of the probed function.
> +
> +1.3 How Does a Return Probe Work?
> +
> +When you call register_kretprobe(), Kprobes establishes a kprobe at
> +the entry to the function. When the probed function is called and this
> +probe is hit, Kprobes saves a copy of the return address, and replaces
> +the return address with the address of a "trampoline." The trampoline
> +is an arbitrary piece of code -- typically just a nop instruction.
> +At boot time, Kprobes registers a kprobe at the trampoline.
> +
> +When the probed function executes its return instruction, control
> +passes to the trampoline and that probe is hit. Kprobes' trampoline
> +handler calls the user-specified handler associated with the kretprobe,
> +then sets the saved instruction pointer to the saved return address,
> +and that's where execution resumes upon return from the trap.
> +
> +While the probed function is executing, its return address is
> +stored in an object of type kretprobe_instance. Before calling
> +register_kretprobe(), the user sets the maxactive field of the
> +kretprobe struct to specify how many instances of the specified
> +function can be probed simultaneously. register_kretprobe()
> +pre-allocates the indicated number of kretprobe_instance objects.
> +
> +For example, if the function is non-recursive and is called with a
> +spinlock held, maxactive = 1 should be enough. If the function is
> +non-recursive and can never relinquish the CPU (e.g., via a semaphore
> +or preemption), NR_CPUS should be enough. If maxactive <= 0, it is
> +set to a default value. If CONFIG_PREEMPT is enabled, the default
> +is max(10, 2*NR_CPUS). Otherwise, the default is NR_CPUS.
> +
> +It's not a disaster if you set maxactive too low; you'll just miss
> +some probes. In the kretprobe struct, the nmissed field is set to
> +zero when the return probe is registered, and is incremented every
> +time the probed function is entered but there is no kretprobe_instance
> +object available for establishing the return probe.
> +
> +2. Architectures Supported
> +
> +Kprobes, jprobes, and return probes are implemented on the following
> +architectures:
> +
> +- i386
> +- x86_64 (AMD-64, E64MT)
> +- ppc64
> +- ia64 (Support for probes on certain instruction types is still in progress.)
> +- sparc64 (Return probes not yet implemented.)
> +
> +3. Configuring Kprobes
> +
> +When configuring the kernel using make menuconfig/xconfig/oldconfig,
> +ensure that CONFIG_KPROBES is set to "y". Under "Kernel hacking",
> +look for "Kprobes". You may have to enable "Kernel debugging"
> +(CONFIG_DEBUG_KERNEL) before you can enable Kprobes.
> +
> +You may also want to ensure that CONFIG_KALLSYMS and perhaps even
> +CONFIG_KALLSYMS_ALL are set to "y", since kallsyms_lookup_name()
> +is a handy, version-independent way to find a function's address.
> +
> +If you need to insert a probe in the middle of a function, you may find
> +it useful to "Compile the kernel with debug info" (CONFIG_DEBUG_INFO),
> +so you can use "objdump -d -l vmlinux" to see the source-to-object
> +code mapping.
> +
> +4. API Reference
> +
> +The Kprobes API includes a "register" function and an "unregister"
> +function for each type of probe. Here are terse, mini-man-page
> +specifications for these functions and the associated probe handlers
> +that you'll write. See the latter half of this document for examples.
> +
> +4.1 register_kprobe
> +
> +#include <linux/kprobes.h>
> +int register_kprobe(struct kprobe *kp);
> +
> +Sets a breakpoint at the address kp->addr. When the breakpoint is
> +hit, Kprobes calls kp->pre_handler. After the probed instruction
> +is single-stepped, Kprobe calls kp->post_handler. If a fault
> +occurs during execution of kp->pre_handler or kp->post_handler,
> +or during single-stepping of the probed instruction, Kprobes calls
> +kp->fault_handler. Any or all handlers can be NULL.
> +
> +register_kprobe() returns 0 on success, or a negative errno otherwise.
> +
> +User's pre-handler (kp->pre_handler):
> +#include <linux/kprobes.h>
> +#include <linux/ptrace.h>
> +int pre_handler(struct kprobe *p, struct pt_regs *regs);
> +
> +Called with p pointing to the kprobe associated with the breakpoint,
> +and regs pointing to the struct containing the registers saved when
> +the breakpoint was hit. Return 0 here unless you're a Kprobes geek.
> +
> +User's post-handler (kp->post_handler):
> +#include <linux/kprobes.h>
> +#include <linux/ptrace.h>
> +void post_handler(struct kprobe *p, struct pt_regs *regs,
> + unsigned long flags);
> +
> +p and regs are as described for the pre_handler. flags always seems
> +to be zero.
> +
> +User's fault-handler (kp->fault_handler):
> +#include <linux/kprobes.h>
> +#include <linux/ptrace.h>
> +int fault_handler(struct kprobe *p, struct pt_regs *regs, int trapnr);
> +
> +p and regs are as described for the pre_handler. trapnr is the
> +architecture-specific trap number associated with the fault (e.g.,
> +on i386, 13 for a general protection fault or 14 for a page fault).
> +Returns 1 if it successfully handled the exception.
> +
> +4.2 register_jprobe
> +
> +#include <linux/kprobes.h>
> +int register_jprobe(struct jprobe *jp)
> +
> +Sets a breakpoint at the address jp->kp.addr, which must be the address
> +of the first instruction of a function. When the breakpoint is hit,
> +Kprobes runs the handler whose address is jp->entry.
> +
> +The handler should have the same arg list and return type as the probed
> +function; and just before it returns, it must call jprobe_return().
> +(The handler never actually returns, since jprobe_return() returns
> +control to Kprobes.) If the probed function is declared asmlinkage,
> +fastcall, or anything else that affects how args are passed, the
> +handler's declaration must match.
> +
> +register_jprobe() returns 0 on success, or a negative errno otherwise.
> +
> +4.3 register_kretprobe
> +
> +#include <linux/kprobes.h>
> +int register_kretprobe(struct kretprobe *rp);
> +
> +Establishes a return probe for the function whose address is
> +rp->kp.addr. When that function returns, Kprobes calls rp->handler.
> +You must set rp->maxactive appropriately before you call
> +register_kretprobe(); see "How Does a Return Probe Work?" for details.
> +
> +register_kretprobe() returns 0 on success, or a negative errno
> +otherwise.
> +
> +User's return-probe handler (rp->handler):
> +#include <linux/kprobes.h>
> +#include <linux/ptrace.h>
> +int kretprobe_handler(struct kretprobe_instance *ri, struct pt_regs *regs);
> +
> +regs is as described for kprobe.pre_handler. ri points to the
> +kretprobe_instance object, of which the following fields may be
> +of interest:
> +- ret_addr: the return address
> +- rp: points to the corresponding kretprobe object
> +- task: points to the corresponding task struct
> +The handler's return value is currently ignored.
> +
> +4.4 unregister_*probe
> +
> +#include <linux/kprobes.h>
> +void unregister_kprobe(struct kprobe *kp);
> +void unregister_jprobe(struct jprobe *jp);
> +void unregister_kretprobe(struct kretprobe *rp);
> +
> +Removes the specified probe. The unregister function can be called
> +at any time after the probe has been registered.
> +
> +5. Kprobes Features and Limitations
> +
> +As of Linux v2.6.12, Kprobes allows multiple probes at the same
> +address. Currently, however, there cannot be multiple jprobes on
> +the same function at the same time.
> +
> +In general, you can install a probe anywhere in the kernel.
> +In particular, you can probe interrupt handlers. Known exceptions
> +are discussed in this section.
> +
> +For obvious reasons, it's a bad idea to install a probe in
> +the code that implements Kprobes (mostly kernel/kprobes.c and
> +arch/*/kernel/kprobes.c). A patch in the v2.6.13 timeframe instructs
> +Kprobes to reject such requests.
> +
> +If you install a probe in an inline-able function, Kprobes makes
> +no attempt to chase down all inline instances of the function and
> +install probes there. gcc may inline a function without being asked,
> +so keep this in mind if you're not seeing the probe hits you expect.
> +
> +A probe handler can modify the environment of the probed function
> +-- e.g., by modifying kernel data structures, or by modifying the
> +contents of the pt_regs struct (which are restored to the registers
> +upon return from the breakpoint). So Kprobes can be used, for example,
> +to install a bug fix or to inject faults for testing. Kprobes, of
> +course, has no way to distinguish the deliberately injected faults
> +from the accidental ones. Don't drink and probe.
> +
> +Kprobes makes no attempt to prevent probe handlers from stepping on
> +each other -- e.g., probing printk() and then calling printk() from a
> +probe handler. As of Linux v2.6.12, if a probe handler hits a probe,
> +that second probe's handlers won't be run in that instance.
> +
> +In Linux v2.6.12 and previous versions, Kprobes' data structures are
> +protected by a single lock that is held during probe registration and
> +unregistration and while handlers are run. Thus, no two handlers
> +can run simultaneously. To improve scalability on SMP systems,
> +this restriction will probably be removed soon, in which case
> +multiple handlers (or multiple instances of the same handler) may
> +run concurrently on different CPUs. Code your handlers accordingly.
> +
> +Kprobes does not use semaphores or allocate memory except during
> +registration and unregistration.
> +
> +Probe handlers are run with preemption disabled. Depending on the
> +architecture, handlers may also run with interrupts disabled. In any
> +case, your handler should not yield the CPU (e.g., by attempting to
> +acquire a semaphore).
> +
> +Since a return probe is implemented by replacing the return
> +address with the trampoline's address, stack backtraces and calls
> +to __builtin_return_address() will typically yield the trampoline's
> +address instead of the real return address for kretprobed functions.
> +(As far as we can tell, __builtin_return_address() is used only
> +for instrumentation and error reporting.)
> +
> +If the number of times a function is called does not match the
> +number of times it returns, registering a return probe on that
> +function may produce undesirable results. We have the do_exit()
> +and do_execve() cases covered. do_fork() is not an issue. We're
> +unaware of other specific cases where this could be a problem.
> +
> +6. Probe Overhead
> +
> +On a typical CPU in use in 2005, a kprobe hit takes 0.5 to 1.0
> +microseconds to process. Specifically, a benchmark that hits the same
> +probepoint repeatedly, firing a simple handler each time, reports 1-2
> +million hits per second, depending on the architecture. A jprobe or
> +return-probe hit typically takes 50-75% longer than a kprobe hit.
> +When you have a return probe set on a function, adding a kprobe at
> +the entry to that function adds essentially no overhead.
> +
> +Here are sample overhead figures (in usec) for different architectures.
> +k = kprobe; j = jprobe; r = return probe; kr = kprobe + return probe
> +on same function; jr = jprobe + return probe on same function
> +
> +i386: Intel Pentium M, 1495 MHz, 2957.31 bogomips
> +k = 0.57 usec; j = 1.00; r = 0.92; kr = 0.99; jr = 1.40
> +
> +x86_64: AMD Opteron 246, 1994 MHz, 3971.48 bogomips
> +k = 0.49 usec; j = 0.76; r = 0.80; kr = 0.82; jr = 1.07
> +
> +ppc64: POWER5 (gr), 1656 MHz (SMT disabled, 1 virtual CPU per physical CPU)
> +k = 0.77 usec; j = 1.31; r = 1.26; kr = 1.45; jr = 1.99
> +
> +7. TODO
> +
> +a. SystemTap (http://sourceware.org/systemtap): Work in progress
> +to provide a simplified programming interface for probe-based
> +instrumentation.
> +b. Improved SMP scalability: Currently, work is in progress to handle
> +multiple kprobes in parallel.
> +c. Kernel return probes for sparc64.
> +d. Support for other architectures.
> +e. User-space probes.
> +
> +8. Kprobes Example
> +
> +Here's a sample kernel module showing the use of kprobes to dump a
> +stack trace and selected i386 registers when do_fork() is called.
> +----- cut here -----
> +/*kprobe_example.c*/
> +#include <linux/kernel.h>
> +#include <linux/module.h>
> +#include <linux/kprobes.h>
> +#include <linux/kallsyms.h>
> +#include <linux/sched.h>
> +
> +/*For each probe you need to allocate a kprobe structure*/
> +static struct kprobe kp;
> +
> +/*kprobe pre_handler: called just before the probed instruction is executed*/
> +int handler_pre(struct kprobe *p, struct pt_regs *regs)
> +{
> + printk("pre_handler: p->addr=0x%p, eip=%lx, eflags=0x%lx\n",
> + p->addr, regs->eip, regs->eflags);
> + dump_stack();
> + return 0;
> +}
> +
> +/*kprobe post_handler: called after the probed instruction is executed*/
> +void handler_post(struct kprobe *p, struct pt_regs *regs, unsigned long flags)
> +{
> + printk("post_handler: p->addr=0x%p, eflags=0x%lx\n",
> + p->addr, regs->eflags);
> +}
> +
> +/* fault_handler: this is called if an exception is generated for any
> + * instruction within the pre- or post-handler, or when Kprobes
> + * single-steps the probed instruction.
> + */
> +int handler_fault(struct kprobe *p, struct pt_regs *regs, int trapnr)
> +{
> + printk("fault_handler: p->addr=0x%p, trap #%dn",
> + p->addr, trapnr);
> + /* Return 0 because we don't handle the fault. */
> + return 0;
> +}
> +
> +int init_module(void)
> +{
> + int ret;
> + kp.pre_handler = handler_pre;
> + kp.post_handler = handler_post;
> + kp.fault_handler = handler_fault;
> + kp.addr = (kprobe_opcode_t*) kallsyms_lookup_name("do_fork");
> + /* register the kprobe now */
> + if (!kp.addr) {
> + printk("Couldn't find %s to plant kprobe\n", "do_fork");
> + return -1;
> + }
> + if ((ret = register_kprobe(&kp) < 0)) {
> + printk("register_kprobe failed, returned %d\n", ret);
> + return -1;
> + }
> + printk("kprobe registered\n");
> + return 0;
> +}
> +
> +void cleanup_module(void)
> +{
> + unregister_kprobe(&kp);
> + printk("kprobe unregistered\n");
> +}
> +
> +MODULE_LICENSE("GPL");
> +----- cut here -----
> +
> +You can build the kernel module, kprobe-example.ko, using the following
> +Makefile:
> +----- cut here -----
> +obj-m := kprobe-example.o
> +KDIR := /lib/modules/$(shell uname -r)/build
> +PWD := $(shell pwd)
> +default:
> + $(MAKE) -C $(KDIR) SUBDIRS=$(PWD) modules
> +clean:
> + rm -f *.mod.c *.ko *.o
> +----- cut here -----
> +
> +$ make
> +$ su -
> +...
> +# insmod kprobe-example.ko
> +
> +You will see the trace data in /var/log/messages and on the console
> +whenever do_fork() is invoked to create a new process.
> +
> +9. Jprobes Example
> +
> +Here's a sample kernel module showing the use of jprobes to dump
> +the arguments of do_fork().
> +----- cut here -----
> +/*jprobe-example.c */
> +#include <linux/kernel.h>
> +#include <linux/module.h>
> +#include <linux/fs.h>
> +#include <linux/uio.h>
> +#include <linux/kprobes.h>
> +#include <linux/kallsyms.h>
> +
> +/*
> + * Jumper probe for do_fork.
> + * Mirror principle enables access to arguments of the probed routine
> + * from the probe handler.
> + */
> +
> +/* Proxy routine having the same arguments as actual do_fork() routine */
> +long jdo_fork(unsigned long clone_flags, unsigned long stack_start,
> + struct pt_regs *regs, unsigned long stack_size,
> + int __user * parent_tidptr, int __user * child_tidptr)
> +{
> + printk("jprobe: clone_flags=0x%lx, stack_size=0x%lx, regs=0x%p\n",
> + clone_flags, stack_size, regs);
> + /* Always end with a call to jprobe_return(). */
> + jprobe_return();
> + /*NOTREACHED*/
> + return 0;
> +}
> +
> +static struct jprobe my_jprobe = {
> + .entry = (kprobe_opcode_t *) jdo_fork
> +};
> +
> +int init_module(void)
> +{
> + int ret;
> + my_jprobe.kp.addr = (kprobe_opcode_t *) kallsyms_lookup_name("do_fork");
> + if (!my_jprobe.kp.addr) {
> + printk("Couldn't find %s to plant jprobe\n", "do_fork");
> + return -1;
> + }
> +
> + if ((ret = register_jprobe(&my_jprobe)) <0) {
> + printk("register_jprobe failed, returned %d\n", ret);
> + return -1;
> + }
> + printk("Planted jprobe at %p, handler addr %p\n",
> + my_jprobe.kp.addr, my_jprobe.entry);
> + return 0;
> +}
> +
> +void cleanup_module(void)
> +{
> + unregister_jprobe(&my_jprobe);
> + printk("jprobe unregistered\n");
> +}
> +
> +MODULE_LICENSE("GPL");
> +----- cut here -----
> +
> +Build and insert the kernel module as shown in the above kprobe
> +example. You will see the trace data in /var/log/messages and on
> +the console whenever do_fork() is invoked to create a new process.
> +(Some messages may be suppressed if syslogd is configured to
> +eliminate duplicate messages.)
> +
> +10. Kretprobes Example
> +
> +Here's a sample kernel module showing the use of return probes to
> +report failed calls to sys_open().
> +----- cut here -----
> +/*kretprobe-example.c*/
> +#include <linux/kernel.h>
> +#include <linux/module.h>
> +#include <linux/kprobes.h>
> +#include <linux/kallsyms.h>
> +
> +static const char *probed_func = "sys_open";
> +
> +/* Return-probe handler: If the probed function fails, log the return value. */
> +static int ret_handler(struct kretprobe_instance *ri, struct pt_regs *regs)
> +{
> + // Substitute the appropriate register name for your architecture --
> + // e.g., regs->rax for x86_64, regs->gpr[3] for ppc64.
> + int retval = (int) regs->eax;
> + if (retval < 0) {
> + printk("%s returns %d\n", probed_func, retval);
> + }
> + return 0;
> +}
> +
> +static struct kretprobe my_kretprobe = {
> + .handler = ret_handler,
> + /* Probe up to 20 instances concurrently. */
> + .maxactive = 20
> +};
> +
> +int init_module(void)
> +{
> + int ret;
> + my_kretprobe.kp.addr =
> + (kprobe_opcode_t *) kallsyms_lookup_name(probed_func);
> + if (!my_kretprobe.kp.addr) {
> + printk("Couldn't find %s to plant return probe\n", probed_func);
> + return -1;
> + }
> + if ((ret = register_kretprobe(&my_kretprobe)) < 0) {
> + printk("register_kretprobe failed, returned %d\n", ret);
> + return -1;
> + }
> + printk("Planted return probe at %p\n", my_kretprobe.kp.addr);
> + return 0;
> +}
> +
> +void cleanup_module(void)
> +{
> + unregister_kretprobe(&my_kretprobe);
> + printk("kretprobe unregistered\n");
> + /* nmissed > 0 suggests that maxactive was set too low. */
> + printk("Missed probing %d instances of %s\n",
> + my_kretprobe.nmissed, probed_func);
> +}
> +
> +MODULE_LICENSE("GPL");
> +----- cut here -----
> +
> +Build and insert the kernel module as shown in the above kprobe
> +example. You will see the trace data in /var/log/messages and on the
> +console whenever sys_open() returns a negative value. (Some messages
> +may be suppressed if syslogd is configured to eliminate duplicate
> +messages.)
> +
> +For additional information on Kprobes, refer to the following URLs:
> +http://www-106.ibm.com/developerworks/library/l-kprobes.html?ca=dgr-lnxw42Kprobe
> +http://www.redhat.com/magazine/005mar05/features/kprobes/


--
Suparna Bhattacharya (sup...@in.ibm.com)
Linux Technology Center
IBM Software Lab, India

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Jim Keniston

unread,
Aug 3, 2005, 6:06:58 PM8/3/05
to sup...@in.ibm.com, LKML, Andrew Morton, SystemTAP, Prasanna Panchamukhi
On Wed, 2005-08-03 at 03:41, Suparna Bhattacharya wrote:
> On Tue, Aug 02, 2005 at 03:20:06PM -0700, Jim Keniston wrote:
> > The enclosed patch creates Documentation/kprobes.txt, a guide to using
> > the existing Kprobes facility for dynamic kernel instrumentation.
> > Please apply.
..

> > +Here's how it works. When the probe is hit, Kprobes makes a copy of
> > +the saved registers and a generous portion of the stack (see below).
> > +Kprobes then points the saved stack pointer at the stack-copy, points
> > +the saved instruction pointer at the jprobe's handler routine, and
> > +returns from the trap. As a result, control passes to the handler,
> > +which is presented with the same register and stack contents as the
> > +probed function. When it is done, the handler calls jprobe_return(),
> > +which traps again to restore processor state and switch back to the
> > +probed function.
> > +
> > +gcc assumes that the callee owns its arguments. To prevent unexpected
> > +modifications to the probed function's stack, Kprobes presents the
> > +jprobe handler with a copy of the stack. Up to MAX_STACK_SIZE bytes
> > +are copied -- e.g., 64 bytes on i386.
>
> IIRC, we save and restore the stack, rather than pass a copy of the stack
> to the handler. Thus, while jprobes does make a copy of MAX_STACK_SIZE
> bytes, the handler still operates on the original stack (e.g. stack
> addresses are unchanged) and the stack contents are restored
> before returning control to the probed routine.
..

You're right. Thanks. I've modified those two paragraphs to read as
follows:
-----


Here's how it works. When the probe is hit, Kprobes makes a copy of

the saved registers and a generous portion of the stack (see below).

Kprobes then points the saved instruction pointer at the jprobe's
handler routine, and returns from the trap. As a result, control
passes to the handler, which is presented with the same register and
stack contents as the probed function. When it is done, the handler
calls jprobe_return(), which traps again to restore the original stack
contents and processor state and switch to the probed function.

By convention, the callee owns its arguments, so gcc may produce code
that unexpectedly modifies that portion of the stack. This is why
Kprobes saves a copy of the stack and restores it after the jprobe
handler has run. Up to MAX_STACK_SIZE bytes are copied -- e.g.,
64 bytes on i386.
-----
Enclosed is the updated patch. Please apply.

kprobes.txt.patch
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