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230 A. M. TUKING [Nov. 12,

ON COMPUTABLE NUMBERS, WITH AN APPLICATION TO

THE ENTSCHEIDUNGSPROBLEM

By A. M. TURING.

[Received 28 May, 1936.—Read 12 November, 1936.]

The "computable" numbers may be described briefly as the real

numbers whose expressions as a decimal are calculable by finite means.

Although the subject of this paper is ostensibly the computable numbers.

it is almost equally easy to define and investigate computable functions

of an integral variable or a real or computable variable, computable

predicates, and so forth. The fundamental problems involved are,

however, the same in each case, and I have chosen the computable numbers

for explicit treatment as involving the least cumbrous technique. I hope

shortly to give an account of the relations of the computable numbers,

functions, and so forth to one another. This will include a development

of the theory of functions of a real variable expressed in terms of computable numbers. According to my definition, a number is computable

if its decimal can be written down by a machine.

In §§ 9, 10 I give some arguments with the intention of showing that the

computable numbers include all numbers which could naturally be

regarded as computable. In particular, I show that certain large classes

of numbers are computable. They include, for instance, the real parts of

all algebraic numbers, the real parts of the zeros of the Bessel functions,

the numbers IT, e, etc. The computable numbers do not, however, include

all definable numbers, and an example is given of a definable number

which is not computable.

Although the class of computable numbers is so great, and in many

Avays similar to the class of real numbers, it is nevertheless enumerable.

In § 81 examine certain arguments which would seem to prove the contrary.

By the correct application of one of these arguments, conclusions are

reached which are superficially similar to those of Gbdelf. These results

f Godel, " Uber formal unentscheidbare Satze der Principia Mathematica und ver-

•vvandter Systeme, I" . Monatsheftc Math. Phys., 38 (1931), 173-198.

1936.] ON COMPUTABLE NUMBERS. 231

have valuable applications. In particular, it is shown (§11) that the

Hilbertian Entscheidungsproblem can have no solution.

In a recent paper Alonzo Church f has introduced an idea of "effective

calculability", which is equivalent to my "computability", but is very

differently defined. Church also reaches similar conclusions about the

EntscheidungsproblemJ. The proof of equivalence between "computability" and "effective calculability" is outlined in an appendix to the

present paper.

1. Computing machines.

We have said that the computable numbers are those whose decimals

are calculable by finite means. This requires rather more explicit

definition. No real attempt will be made to justify the definitions given

until we reach § 9. For the present I shall only say that the justification

lies in the fact that the human memory is necessarily limited.

We may compare a man in the process of computing a real number to ;i

machine which is only capable of a finite number of conditions q1: q2. .... qI;

which will be called " m-configurations ". The machine is supplied with a

"tape " (the analogue of paper) running through it, and divided into

sections (called "squares") each capable of bearing a "symbol". At

any moment there is just one square, say the r-th, bearing the symbol <2>(r)

which is "in the machine". We may call this square the "scanned

square ". The symbol on the scanned square may be called the " scanned

symbol". The "scanned symbol" is the only one of which the machine

is, so to speak, "directly aware". However, by altering its m-configuration the machine can effectively remember some of the symbols which

it has "seen" (scanned) previously. The possible behaviour of the

machine at any moment is determined by the ra-configuration qn and the

scanned symbol <S (r). This pair qn, © (r) will be called the '' configuration'':

thus the configuration determines the possible behaviour of the machine.

In some of the configurations in which the scanned square is blank (i.e.

bears no symbol) the machine writes down a new symbol on the scanned

square: in other configurations it erases the scanned symbol. The

machine may also change the square which is being scanned, but only by

shifting it one place to right or left. In addition to any of these operations

the m-configuration may be changed. Some of the symbols written down

f Alonzo Church, " An unsolvable problem, of elementary number theory ", American

J. of Math., 58 (1936), 345-363.

X Alonzo Church, "A note on the Entscheidungsproblem", J. of Symbolic Logic, 1

(1936), 40-41.

232 A. M. TURING [Nov. 12,

will form the sequence of figures which is the decimal of the real number

which is being computed. The others are just rough notes to "assist the

memory ". It will only be these rough notes which will be liable to erasure.

It is my contention that these operations include all those which are used

in the computation of a number. The defence of this contention will be

easier when the theory of the machines is familiar to the reader. In the

next section I therefore proceed with the development of the theory and

assume that it is understood what is meant by "machine", "tape",

"scanned", etc.

2. Definitions.

Automatic machines.

If at each stage the motion of a machine (in the sense of § 1) is completely

determined by the configuration, we shall call the machine an "automatic machine" (or a-machine).

.For some purposes we might use machines (choice machines or

c-manhines) whose motion is onty partially determined by the configuration

(hence the use of the word "possible" in §1). When such a machine

reaches one of these ambiguous configurations, it cannot go on until some

arbitrary choice has been made by an external operator. This would be the

case if we were using machines to deal with axiomatic systems. In this

paper I deal only with automatic machines, and will therefore often omit

the prefix a-.

Computing machines.

If an a-machine prints two kinds of symbols, of which the first kind

(called figures) consists entirely of 0 and 1 (the others being called symbols of

the second kind), then the machine will be called a computing machine.

If the machine is supplied with a blank tape and set in motion, starting

from the correct initial ra-configuration, the subsequence of the sjinbols

printed by it which are of the first kind will be called the sequence computed

by the machine. The real number whose expression as a binary decimal is

obtained by prefacing this sequence by a decimal point is called the

number computed by the machine.

At any stage of the motion of the machine, the number of the scanned

square, the complete sequence of all symbols on the tape, and the

ra-configuration will be said to describe the complete configuration at that

stage. The changes of the machine and tape between successive complete

configurations will be called the moves of the machine.

1936.] ON COMPUTABLE NUMBERS. 233

Circular and circle-free machines.

If a computing machine never writes down more than a finite number

of symbols of the first kind, it will be called circular. Otherwise it is said to

be circle-free.

A machine will be circular if it reaches a configuration from which there

is no possible move, or if it goes on moving, and possibly printing symbols

of the second kind, but cannot print any more symbols of the first kind.

The significance of the term "circular" will be explained in §8.

Computable sequences and numbers.

A sequence is said to be computable if it can be computed by a circle-free

machine. A number is computable if it differs by an integer from the

number computed by a circle-free machine.

We shall avoid confusion by speaking more often of computable

sequences than of computable numbers.

3. Examples of computing machines.

I. A machine can be constructed to compute the sequence 010101....

The machine is to have the four m-configurations "b" , "c" , "£" , "c:>

and is capable of printing " 0 " and " 1 ". The behaviour of the machine is

described in the following table in which " R " means "the machine moves

so that it scans the square immediately on the right of the one it was

scanning previously". Similarly for "L". "E" means "the scanned

symbol is erased" and "P " stands for "prints". This table (and all

succeeding tables of the same kind) is to be understood to mean that for

a configuration described in the first two columns the operations in the

third column are carried out successively, and the machine then goes over

into the m-configuration described in the last column. When the second

column is left blank, it is understood that the behaviour of the third and

fourth columns applies for any symbol and for no symbol. The machine

starts in the m-configuration b with a blank tape.

-config.

Configuration

m-config.

b

c

c

I

symbol

None

None

None

None

Behaviour

operations final

PO, R

R

PI, R

R

c

c

t

b

234 A. M. TURING [NOV. 12,

If (contrary to the description in § 1) we allow the letters L, R to appear

more than once in the operations column we can simplify the table

considerably.

m-config. symbol

None

0

1

operations

PO

R, R, PI

R, R, PO

final m-config.

6

b

b

II. As a slightly more difficult example we can construct a machine to

compute the sequence 001011011101111011111 The machine is to

be capable of five ra-configurations, viz. " o ", " q ", "p ", " f ", " b " and of

printing "o" , "x", "0" , "1" . The first three symbols on the tape will

be " aoO " ; the other figures follow on alternate squares. On the intermediate squares we never print anything but "x". These letters serve to

" keep the place " for us and are erased when we have finished with them.

We also arrange that in the sequence of figures on alternate squares there

shall be no blanks.

Configuration

m-config. symbol

b Pa,

• { ;

fAny (0 or 1) rt J

q i

[ None

1 g

^ 1I None

fAny

None

Behaviour

operations

R, Po, R, PO. R, R, PO, L, L

i?, Px, L, L, L

R, R

PI, L

E, R

R

L, L

R,R

PO, L, L

final

m-config.

0

0

q

q

p

q

f

p

f

0

To illustrate the working of this machine a table is given below of the

first few complete configurations. These complete configurations are

described by writing down the sequence of symbols which are on the tape,

1936.] ON COMPUTABLE NUMBERS. 235

with the m-configuration written below the scanned symbol. The

successive complete configurations are separated by colons.

: 99 0 Oroo O 0:99 0 0:99 0 0 :99 0 0 1 :

b o q q q p

9 9 0 0 1:99 0 0 1:99 0 0 1:99 0 0 1 :

P P f f

9 9 0 0 1:99 0 0 1 :oa 0 0 1 0 :

f f

9 9 0 0 H-0: ....

c

This table could also be written in the form

b :9 9 o 0 0 : 9 9 q 0 0 : ..., (C)

in which a space has been made on the left of the scanned symbol and the*

m-configuration written in this space. This form is less easy to follow, but

we shall make use of it later for theoretical purposes.

The convention of writing the figures only on alternate squares is very

useful: I shall always make use of it. I shall call the one sequence of alternate squares JF'-squares and the other sequence ^/-squares. The symbols oi •.

^-squares will be liable to erasure. The symbols on F-squares form a

continuous sequence. There are no blanks until the end is reached. There

is no need to have more than one jE'-square between each pair of .F-squarcs :

an apparent need of more ^/-squares can be satisfied by having a sufficiently

rich variety of symbols capable of being printed on ^-squares. If a

symbol /3 is on an F-square S and a symbol a is on the ^-square next on the

right of S, then S and /3 will be said to be marked with a. The

process of printing this a will be called marking jS (or S) with a.

4. Abbreviated tables.

There are certain types of process used by nearly all machines, and.

these, in some machines, are used in many connections. These processes

include copying down sequences of symbols, comparing sequences, erasing

all symbols of a given form, etc. Where such processes are concerned we

can abbreviate the tables for the m-configurations considerably by the use

of "skeleton tables". In skeleton tables there appear capital German

letters and small Greek letters. These are of the nature of "variables '".

By replacing each capital German letter throughout by an ^^-configuration

236 A. M. TURING [Nov. 12,

and each small Greek letter by a symbol, we obtain the table for an

m-configuration.

The skeleton tables are to be regarded as nothing but abbreviations:

they are not essential. So long as the reader understands how to obtain

the complete tables from the skeleton tables, there is no need to give any

exact definitions in this connection.

Let us consider an example:

m-config.

f(e,S5,a)

fi(6,93,a)

Symbol Behaviour Final

m-config.

L f^G, 95, a)

L f(<5,S3,a)

f a

not a

R

R

R

f2(G,

From the m-configuration

f(@, 93, a) the machine finds the

symbol of form a which is farthest to the left (the "first a")

and the ?w-confi,guration then

becomes (L If there is no a

then the m-configuration becomes 93.

None R

I, 93, a)

93

If we were to replace £ throughout by q (say), 93 by r, and a. by x, we

should have a complete table for the m-configuration f (q, x, x). f is called

an "?/i-configuration function" or "m-function".

The only expressions which are admissible for substitution in an

»i-function are the m-configurations and symbols of the machine. These

have to be enumerated more or less explicitly: they may include expressions

such as p(c, x); indeed they must if there are any m-functions used at all.

If we did not insist on this explicit eaumeration, but simply stated that

the machine had certain m-configurations (enumerated) and all m-configurations obtainable by substitution of m-configurations in certain m-function.-J, we .should usually get an infinity of m-configurations; e.g., we might

say that the machine was to have the m-configuration q and all m-configurations obtainable by substituting an m-configuration for £ in p(£). Then

it would have q, p(q), pfp(q)V p(p(p(q))), ... asm-configurations.

Our interpretation rule then is this. We are given the names of the

^-configurations of the machine, mostly expressed in terms of m-functions.

We are also given skeleton tables. All we want is the complete table for

the m-configurations of the machine. This is obtained by repeated

substitution in the skeleton tables.

1936.] ON COMPUTABLE NUMBERS. 237

Further examples.

(In the explanations the symbol "->" is used to signify "the machine

goes into the ra-configuration. . . . ")

e((5,23,a) f (e^S, S3, a), S3, a) From c(S, 23, a) the first a is

„ ^ erased and -> (L If there is no

c^G, S3, a) # G

c(S3, a) c(c(S3, a), 23, a) From c(S3, a) all letters a are

erased and -»53.

The last example seems somewhat more difficult to interpret than

most. Let us suppose that in the list of m-configurations of some machine

there appears c('b, x) (=q, saj'). The table is

c(6; a;) e(c(b, x). h, x)

or q c(q, 6, a;).

Or, in greater detail:

q c(q, 6, x)

c(q, 6, x) f (ci(q, 6, a.1

), t), a)

Cj.(q, I), re) £• q.

In this we could replace cJL(q, h, x) by q' and then give the table for f (with

the right substitutions) and eventually reach a table in which no

m-functions appeared.

, j8) f (pc^G, j8), €,Q) From pc (g, /3) the machine

[Any i?3JR pe^S.jS) P rint s

^ ^ ^

ue (<S j8) \ sequence of sj^mbols and -> C

[None P/S 6

I(S) ^ 2 From f'((5: 2J, a) it does the

r/gx j ^ G same as for f(6, S3, a) but

moves to the left before -^ <3.

f(6,»,o) f(t(6),a3,a)

f"(S,»,o) f(t(S),S8,a)

c(S,S3,o) f'(c-i(S), 55, a) c(<£, S3, a). The machine

c (<l) R pe(€ JS) writes at the end the first symbol marked a and -> £.

238 A. M. TURING [NOV. 12,

The last line stands for the totality of lines obtainable from it by

replacing fi by any symbol which may occur on the tape of the machine

concerned.

cc(£,S3,a) c(e(G,S3,a),83,a) ce(23, a). The machine

copies down in order at the

cc(23,a) ce(ce(83,a),23,a) end all symbols marked a

and erases the letters a; ->SS.

vc(G,93,a,j8) f(re1(g3$B3a,i8),^5a) rc(£, S3, a, 0). The machine replaces the first a by

re^^a.fl E,Pp <Z (8 and->g ^ 35 if there is no a.

re(S, a, P) re («(», a, j8), 93, a, j8) «<»'

a> #•

Th e machin e re "

places all letters a by ]S; ->S5.

cr(Ci,23;a) c(tt(G,9$,a,a), S3,a) Cr(83, a) differs from

ce(23, a) 011137" in that the

«(«(5S,a),rc(SS,a,a),a) letters a are not erased. The

m-configuration cv(5S, a) is

taken up when no letters

" a " are on the tape.

•r (C. 21, e. a. ,5) f (cpi ^ S(, )S), f(3t, g, j8), a)

cp,(C, 2l,i8) 7 f (cp2(e,2T, y), S(,

7 S

cp.,((S. 2(, y)

[noty SI.

The first symbol marked a and the first marked ]8 are compared. If

there is neither a nor ft, —> (I\ If there are both and the symbols are alike,

-> (5. Otherwise -> 21.

cpc(6, SI, G, a, jS) cp (c (e((5, S, yS), 6, a), SI, g, a, ^)

cpe(S, 21, S, a, j8) differs from cp(§, 21, £, a, j8) in that in the case when

there is similarity the first a and /? are erased.

cpe^, Q, a, P) cpe (cpe(Sl, Q, a, j8), 21, 6, a, )3).

cpe(2I, S, a, j8). The sequence of symbols marked a is compared with

the sequence marked /?. -> Q if they are similar. Otherwise -> 21. Some

of the symbols a and /? are erased.

1936.] ON COMPUTABLE NUMBERS. 239

JAny

[None

JAny

[None

R

R

R

not a

ce2(95, a,

ce3(S5,a,

a). The machine

finds the last symbol of

form a. -> @.

j8,y)

R

L

f

Any R, E, R

None

3)> a ) pc2(S, a, jS). The machine

prints a j8 at the end.

ce(ce(255j8), a) ce3(S5,a,j8,y). The machine copies down at the end

ce (ce2(S5,0, y), a) £ r s t the symbols marked a,

then those marked jS, and

finally those marked y; it

erases the symbols a, /?, y.

e1((5) From e(^) the marks are

,^> erased from all marked symbols. -> @.

5. Enumeration of computable sequences.

A computable sequence y is determined by a description of a machine

which computes y. Thus the sequence 001011011101111... is determined

by the table on p. 234, and, in fact, any computable sequence is capable of

being described in terms of such a table.

It will be useful to put these tables into a kind of standard form. In the

first place let us suppose that the table is given in the same form as the first

table, for example, I on p. 233. That is to say, that the entry in the operations

column is always of one of the forms E :E,R:E,L:Pa: Pa, R: Pa, L:R:L:

or no entry at all. The table can always be put into this form by introducing more m-configurations. Now let us give numbers to the w-configurations, calling them qx, ..., qR, as in §1. The initial m-configuration is

always to be called qv We also give numbers to the symbols #]_,....., Sm

240 A. M. TUBING [Nov. 12,

and, in particular, blank = 80, 0 = Slt 1 = S2. The hnes of the table are

now of form

Final

m-config. Symbol Operations m-config.

to

to

to

Lines such as

to

are to be written as

to

and lines such as

ft

to be written as

to

s,

Si

Si

Si

Si

Si

s.

PSk,L

PSkiR

PSk

E, R

PS0, R

R

PS,, R

In this way we reduce each line of the table to a line of one of the forms

(Nj, (N2), (i\y.

From each line of form (N^ let us form an expression q( Sj]Sb L qm;

from each line of form (N2) we form an expression qiSjSkRqm;

and from each line of form (N3) we form an expression #,•#, SkNqm.

Let us write down all expressions so formed from the table for the

machine and separate them by semi-colons. In this way we obtain a

complete description of the machine. In this description we shall replace

q{ by the letter "D" followed by the letter "A" repeated i times, and $,- by

" D " followed by "C" repeated j times. This new description of the

machine may be called the standard description (S.D). It is made up

entirely from the letters "A", " C", "D", "L", "R", "N", and from

If finally we replace "A" by "1" , "C" by "2" , "D" by "3" , " L"

by "4" , "R" by c '5" , "N" by "6" , and "*3>

by £< 7" we sh,all have a

description of the machine in the form of an arabic numeral. The integer

represented by this numeral may be called a description number (D.N) of

the machine. The D.N determine the S.D and the structure of the

1936.] ON COMPUTABLE NUMBERS. 241

machine uniquely. The machine whose D.N is n may be described as

To each computable sequence there corresponds at least one description

number, while to no description number does there correspond more than

one computable sequence. The computable sequences and numbers are

therefore enumerable.

Let us find a description number for the machine I of § 3. When we

rename the m-configurations its table becomes:

q-L ^ o *b1} K q2

q2 SQ P8O, R q3

q3 So PS2) R #4

ft SQ

PSo>R ft

Other tables could be obtained by adding irrelevant lines such as

qx Sx PSVR q2

Our first standard form would be

qxOQOJRq%j q%^o^o-"ft» 2*3®o^2-"ft' ft^o^oRQ\J•

The standard description is

DADDCRDAA ;DAADDRDAAA;

I^^DDCCtfi)^ ^ \DAAAADDRDA;

A description number is

31332531173113353111731113322531111731111335317

and so is

3133253117311335311173111332253111173111133531731323253117

A number which is a description number of a circle-free machine will be

called a satisfactory number. In § 8 it is shown that there can be no general

process for determining whether a given number is satisfactory or not.

6. The universal computing machine.

It is possible to invent a single machine which can be used to compute

any computable sequence. If this machine M is supplied with a tape on

the beginning of which is written the S.D of some computing machine .At,

8KR. 2. VOL. 42. NO. 2144. B

242 A. M. TURING [NOV. 12,

then 'It will compute the same sequence as it. In this section I explain

in outline the behaviour of the machine. The next section is devoted to

giving the complete table for U.

Let us first suppose that we have a machine it' which will write down on

the .F-squares the successive complete configurations of it. These might

be expressed in the same form as on p. 235, using the second description,

(C), with all symbols on one line. Or, better, we could transform this

description (as in §5) by replacing each ra-configuration by "D " followed

by "A" repeated the appropriate number of times, and by replacing each

symbol by "D " followed by "C" repeated the appropriate number of

times. The numbers of letters'' A " and'' C " are to agree with the numbers

chosen in §5, so that, in particular, "0 " is replaced by "DC", "1 " by

"DCC", and the blanks by "D" . These substitutions are to be made

after the complete configurations have been put together, as in (C). Difficulties arise if we do the substitution first. In each complete configuration the blanks would all have to be replaced by " D ", so that the complete

configuration would not be expressed as a finite sequence of symbols.

If in the description of the machine II of § 3 we replace " o " by " DA A ",

" a " by "DCCC", "q " by "DAAA", then the sequence (C) becomes:

DA .DCCCDCCCDAADCDDC.DCCCDCCCDAAADCDDC:... (CJ

(This is the sequence of symbols on ^-squares.)

It is not difficult to see that if i t can be constructed, then so can it'.

The manner of operation of it' could be made to depend on having the rules

of operation {i.e., the S.D) of il written somewhere within itself {i.e. within

il/); each step could be carried out by referring to these rules. We have

only to regard the rules as being capable of being taken out and exchanged for others and we have something very akin to the universal

machine.

One thing is lacking : at present the machine it' prints no figures. We

may correct this by printing between each successive pair of complete

configurations the figures which appear in the new configuration but not

in the old. Then (C^) becomes

DDA:O:O:DCCCDCCCDAADCDDC:DCCC... (C2)

It is not altogether obvious that the ^-squares leave enough room for

the necessary "rough work", but this is, in fact, the case.

The sequences of letters between the colons in expressions such as

(Cj) may be used as standard descriptions of the complete configurations.

When the letters are replaced by figures, as in § 5, we shall have a numerical

9

not 9

Any

None

R

L

R, E, R

e^onf)

c(anf)

ei(anf)

anf

1936.] ON COMPUTABLE NUMBERS. 243

•description of the complete configuration, which may be called its description number.

7. Detailed description of the universal machine.

A table is given below of the behaviour of this universal machine. The

•m-configurations of which the machine is capable are all those occurring in

the first and last columns of the table, together with all those which occur

when we write out the unabbreviated tables of those which appear in the

table in the form of m-functions. E.g., e(anf) appears in the table and is an

wi-fimction. Its unabbreviated table is (see p. 239)

e(anf)

e^anf)

Consequently e1(anf) is an m-configuration of U.

When \l is ready to start work the tape running through it bears on it

the symbol a on an .F-square and again Q on the next i£-square; after this,

on .F-squares only, comes the S.D of the machine followed by a double

colon ":: " (a single symbol, on an .F-square). The S.D consists of a

number of instructions, separated by semi-colons.

Each instruction consists of five consecutive parts

(i) "D " followed by a sequence of letters "A". This describes the

relevant m-configuration.

(ii) "JD" followed by a sequence of letters " C". This describes the

scanned symbol.

(iii) "D " followed by another sequence of letters "C". This

describes the symbol into which the scanned symbol is to be changed.

(iv) " L " , "i2" , or "JV", describing whether the machine is to move

to left, right, or not at all.

(v) "D " followed by a sequence of letters "A". This describes the

final m-configuration.

The machine U is to be capable of printing "A", "0" ,

ctD" , "0" ,

•"1" , "u", "v", "w", "z" , "y", "z" . The S.D is formed from ";" ,

•"A", "C", "D" , "L" ,

((R"} "N".

244 A. M. TURING

Subsidiary skeleton table.

(Not A R, R con(£, a)

[Nov. 12,

con(@, a)

con^CE, a)

con2(§, a)

con(@. a). Starting from

an J^-square, S say, the seA L, Pa, R con^S, a) quenc e Q o f symbol s describA R,Pa,R con^a ) ing a configuration closest on

the right of S is marked out

D R, Pa, R con2(§, a) with letters a. ->@.

G

Not C R.R

R, Pa, R con2(£,a) con(S, ). In the final configuration the machine is

scanning the square which is

four squares to the right of the

last square of C. C is left

unmarked.

The table for U.

hx R,R,P:,R,R,PD;R,R,PA anf

anf

6. The machine prints

on the .F-squares after

->anf.

font

not z nor

R, Pz: L

L,L

L

g(anf1} :) anf. The machine marks

the configuration in the last

COn (font, y) comp i e t e configuration with

y. -

!om

!om

con (limp, x) font. The machine finds

the last semi-colon not

marked with z. It marks

this semi-colon with z and

the configuration following

it with x.

Hnr,> cpe(c(fom, x, y), iim, x, y) fmp. The machine compares the sequences marked

x and y. It erases all letters

x and y. -> Sim if they are

alike. Otherwise ->• font.

anf. Taking the long view, the last instruction relevant to the last

configuration is found. It can be recognised afterwards as the instruction

following the last semi-colon marked z. -Mim.

1936.] ON COMPUTABLE NUMBERS. 245

Sim

•mt

m?3

m?4

mh

A

not

not

A

A .

A

R,Pu,

L,

L,Py,

R, R

Py

con

,R

,R

(stm2,

Sim

Sim

e(mB,

Sim

)

3

2

3

A

C

[Any

[ None

L, L, L, L

, Pa;, j^ , Z',

con

P:

L, L, L

?, R, R, R

•R, 22

mf2

D R, Px, L, L, L m?3

not : R, Pv, L, L, L m!3

: mL

mf6

inSt, 0, :

xnit

S im. The machine marks out

the instructions. That part of

the instructions which refers to

operations to be carried out is

marked with u, and the final mconfiguration with y. The letters z are erased.

mi. The last complete configuration is marked out into

four sections. The configiiraration is left unmarked. The

symbol directly preceding it is

marked with x. The remainder

of the complete configuration

is divided into two parts, of

which the first is marked with

v and the last with w. A colon is

printed after the whole. -> $f;.

, u) Sf;. The instructions (marked

u) are examined. If it is found

that they involve "Print 0" or

"Print 1", then 0: or 1: is

printed at the end.

246 A. M. TURING [NOV. 12,

in«t fl(t(in«1),tt) «**•

Th e nex t

complete

configuration is written down,.

a R, E in^t1(a) carrying out the marked instrucL) ce5(o»,.t>, y, x, u, w) tions -

Th e letter s u> v> w> x> V

are erased. -^anf.

i?) ce5(o», v, x, u, y, w)

\nitx{N) ec5(ot>, v, x, y, u, w)

co c(anf)

8. Application of the diagonal process.

It may be thought that arguments which prove that the real numbers

are not enumerable would also prove that the computable numbers and

sequences cannot be enumerable*. It might, for instance, be thought

that the limit of a sequence of computable numbers must be computable.

This is clearly only true if the sequence of computable numbers is defined

by some rule.

Or we might apply the diagonal process. "If the computable sequences

are enumerable, let a/( be the n-th computable sequence, and let </>;l(ra) be

the ?n-th figure in au. Let /? be the sequence with \—<j>n(n) as its n-th.

figure. Since /3 is computable, there exists a number K such that

l—cf)ll(n) = <f)K(n) all n. Putting n = K, we have 1 = 2(f>K(K), i.e. 1 is

even. This is impossible. The computable sequences are therefore not

enumerable".

The fallacy in this argument lies in the assumption that § is computable.

It would be true if we could enumerate the computable sequences by finite

means, but the problem of enumerating computable sequences is equivalent

to the problem of finding out whether a given number is the D.N of a

circle-free machine, and we have no general process for doing this in a finite

number of steps. In fact, by applying the diagonal process argument

correctly, we can show that there cannot be any such general process.

The simplest and most direct proof of this is by showing that, if this

general process exists, then there is a machine which computes /?. This

proof, although perfectly sound, has the disadvantage that it may leave

the reader with a feeling that "there must be something wrong". The

proof which I shall give has not this disadvantage, and gives a certain

insight into the significance of the idea "circle-free". It depends not on

constructing /3, but on constructing fi', whose n-th. figure is <j>n{n).

* Cf. Hobson, Theory of functions of a real variable (2nd ed., 1921), 87, 88.

1936.] ON COMPUTABLE NUMBERS. 247

Let us suppose that there is such a process; that is to say, that we can

invent a machine <D- which, when supplied with the S.D of any computing

machine i l will test this S.D and if i l is circular will mark the S.D with the

symbol "u" and if it is circle-free will mark it with " s ". By combining

the machines <& and U we could construct a machine :l I- to compute the

sequence j8'. The machine <O- may require a tape. We may suppose that

it uses the jE'-squares beyond all symbols on .F-squares, and that when it

has reached its verdict all the rough work done by

l0- is erased.

The machine Ji has its motion divided into sections. In the first N— 1

sections, among other things, the integers 1, 2,..., N— 1 have been written

down and tested by the machine

<Q>-. A certain number, say R(N— I), of

them have been found to be the D.N's of circle-free machines. In the N-th

section the machine

(& tests the number N. If N is satisfactory, i.e., if it

is the D.N of a circle-free machine, then R(N) = l-\-R(N—l) and the first

R{N) figures of the sequence of which a $£N is N are calculated. The

R(N)-th figure of this sequence is written down as one of the figures of the

sequence/3' computed by Ji. If N is not satisfactory, then R(N) = R(N— 1)

and the machine goes on to the (iV-(-l)-th section of its motion.

From the construction of J I- we can see that .11- is circle-free. Each

section of the motion of Ji comes to an end after a finite number of steps.

For, by our assumption about Q, the decision as to whether N is satisfactor}'

is reached in a finite number of steps. If N is not satisfactory, then the

JV-th section is finished. If N is satisfactory, this means that the machine

il(JV) whose D.N is N is circle-free, and therefore its J?(iV)-th figure can be

calculated in a finite number of steps. When this figure has been calculated

and written down as the R(N)-th figure of /3', the iV-th section is finished.

Hence il is circle-free.

Now let K be the D.N of Ji. What does Ji do in the K-th. section of

its motion 1 It must test whether K is satisfactory, giving a verdict " 5 "

or "u". Since K is the D.N of JI- and since JI is circle-free, the verdict

cannot be "u". On the other hand the verdict cannot be "s". For if it

were, then in the K-th. section of its motion J I- would be bound to compute

the first R(K—1) + 1 = R(K) figures of the sequence computed by the

machine with K as its D.N and to write down the R(K)-th as a figure of the

sequence computed by ill. The computation of the first R(K) — l figures

would be carried out all right, but the instructions for calculating the

R(K)-th. would amount to "calculate the first R(K) figures computed by

H and write down the R(K)-th". This R{K)-th figure would never be

found. I.e., 'i-l is circular, contrary both to what we have found in the last

paragraph and to the verdict "s" . Thus both verdicts are impossible

and we conclude that there can be no machine '0-.

248 A. M. TURING [NOV. 12,

We can show further that there can be no machine £• which, when

supplied iviih the S.D of an arbitrary machine AV, will determine vjhether AV

ever prints a given symbol (0 say).

We will first show that, if there is a machine £, then there is a general

process for determining whether a given machine . U< prints 0 infinitely

often. Let Jlx be a machine which prints the same sequence as A\, except

that in the position where the first 0 printed by .11- stands, A\x prints 0.

• U2 is to have the first two s\aribols 0 replaced by 0, and so on. Thus, if • Uwere to print

ABAQlAABOQIOAB...,

then A\± would print

ABA01AAB0010AB...

and .112 would print

ABAoiAAB~00l0AB....

Xow let H;

be a machine which, when supplied with the S.D of .U, will

write down successively the S.D of .11, of .lll5 of • U2, ... (there is such a

machine). We combine V' with I' and obtain a new machine, Xj. In the

motion of (, first > is used to write down the S.D of -U, and then t tests

it.: o: iy written if it is found that • 11 never prints 0; then ^ writes the S.D

of • II2, and this is tested.. : 0 : being printed if and only if • Ux never prints 0)

and so on. KOAV let us test .<, with ('. If it is found that X] never prints 0,

then .H prints 0 infinitely often; if Xj prints 0 sometimes, then .11 does not

print 0 infinitely often.

Similarly there is a general process for determining whether • U- prints 1

infinitely often. By a combination of these processes we have a process

for determining whether. U prints an infinity of figures, i.e. we have a process

for determining whether .11 is circle-free. There can therefore be no

machine i .

The expression "there is a general process for determining..." has

been used throughout this section as equivalent to "there is a machine

which will determine ... ". This usage can be justified if and only if we

can justify our definition of "computable". For each of these "general

process:

' problems can be expressed as a problem concerning a general

process for determining Avhether a given integer n has a property G(n) [e.g.

G{n) might mean "n is satisfactory" or "n is the Godel representation of

a provable formula"], and this is equivalent to computing a number

whose n-th. figure is 1 if G (n) is true and 0 if it is false.

1936.] Otf COMPUTABLE NUMBERS. 249

9. The extent of the computable numbers.

No attempt has yet been made to show that the " computable " numbers

include all numbers which would naturally be regarded as computable. Al I

arguments which can be given are bound to be, fundamentally, appeals

to intuition, and for this reason rather unsatisfactory mathematically.

The real question at issue is " What are the possible processes which can be

carried out in computing a number?"

The arguments which I shall use are of three kinds.

(a) A direct appeal to intuition.

(6) A proof of the equivalence of two definitions (in case the new

definition has a greater intuitive appeal).

(c) Giving examples of large classes of numbers which are

computable.

Once it is granted that computable numbers are all

c:

computable"".

several other propositions of the same character follow. In particular, it

follows that, if there is a general process for determining whether a formula

of the Hilbert function calculus is provable, then the determination can bo

carried out by a machine.

I. [Type (a)]. This argument is only an elaboration of the ideas of § 1.

Computing is normally done by writing certain symbols on paper. "We

may suppose this paper is divided into squares like a child's arithmetic book.

In elementary arithmetic the two-dimensional character of the paper is

sometimes used. But such a use is always avoidable, and I think that it

will be agreed that the two-dimensional character of paper is no essential

of computation. I assume then that the computation is carried out on

one-dimensional paper, i.e. on a tape divided into squares. I shall also

suppose that the number of symbols which may be printed is finite. If we

were to allow an infinity of symbols, then there would be symbols differing

to an arbitrarily small extent j . The effect of this restriction of the number

of symbols is not very serious. It is always possible to use sequences of

symbols in the place of single symbols. Thus an Arabic numeral such as

f If we regard a symbol as literally printed on a square we may suppose that the square

is 0 < x < 1, 0 < y < 1. The symbol is defined as a set of points in this square, viz. the

set occupied by printer's ink. If these sets are restricted to be measurable, we can define

the "distance" between two symbols as the cost of transforming one symbol into the

other if the cost of moving unit area of printer's ink unit distance is unity, and there is an

infinite supply of ink at x = 2. y = 0. With this topology the symbols form a conditionally compact space.

250 A. M. TUBING [NOV. 12,

17 or 999999999999999 is normally treated as a single symbol. Similarly

in any European language words are treated as single symbols (Chinese,

however, attempts to have an enumerable infinity of symbols). The

differences from our point of view between the single and compound symbols

is that the compound symbols, if they are too lengthy, cannot be observed

at one glance. This is in accordance with experience. We cannot tell at

a glance whether 9999999999999999 and 999999999999999 are the same.

The behaviour of the computer at any moment is determined by the

symbols which he is observing, and his " state of mind " at that moment.

We may suppose that there is a bound B to the number of symbols or

squares which the computer can observe at one moment. If he wishes to

observe more, he must use successive observations. We will also suppose

that the number of states of mind which need be taken into account is finite.

The reasons for this are of the same character as those which restrict the

number of symbols. If we admitted an infinity of states of mind, some of

them will be '' arbitrarily close " and will be confused. Again, the restriction

is not one which seriously affects computation, since the use of more complicated states of mind can be avoided by writing more symbols on the tape.

Let us imagine the operations performed by the computer to be split up

into "simple operations" which are so elementary that it is not easy to

imagine them further divided. Every such operation consists of some change

of the physical system consisting of the computer and his tape. We know

the state of the system if we know the sequence of symbols on the tape,

which of these are observed by the computer (possibly with a special

order), and the state of mind of the computer. We may suppose that in a

simple operation not more than one symbol is altered. Any other changes

can be split up into simple changes of this kind. The situation in regard to

the squares whose symbols may be altered in this way is the same as in

regard to the observed squares. We may, therefore, without loss of

generality, assume that the squares whose symbols are changed are always

"observed" squares.

Besides these changes of symbols, the simple operations must include

changes of distribution of observed squares. The new observed squares

must be immediately recognisable by the computer. I think it is reasonable

to suppose that they can only be squares whose distance from the closest

of the immediately previously observed squares does not exceed a certain

fixed amount. Let us say that each of the new observed squares is within

L squares of an immediately previously observed square.

In connection with "immediate recognisability ", it may be thought

that there are other kinds of square which are immediately recognisable.

In particular, squares marked by special symbols might be taken as imme-

1936.] ON COMPUTABLE NUMBERS. 251

diately recognisable. Now if these squares are marked only by single

symbols there can be only a finite number of them, and we should not upset

our theory by adjoining these marked squares to the observed squares. If.

on the other hand, they are marked by a sequence of symbols, we

cannot regard the process of recognition as a simple process. This is a

fundamental point and should be illustrated. In most mathematical

papers the equations and theorems are numbered. Normally the numbers

do not go beyond (say) 1000. It is, therefore, possible to recognise a

theorem at a glance by its number. But if the paper was very long, we

might reach Theorem 157767733443477 ; then, further on in the paper, we

might find "... hence (applying Theorem 157767733443477) we have ... ".

In order to make sure which was the relevant theorem we should have to

compare the two numbers figure by figure, possibly ticking the figures off

in pencil to make sure of their not being counted twice. If in spite of this

it is still thought that there are other "immediately recognisable" squares,

it does not upset my contention so long as these squares can be found by

some process of which my type of machine is capable. This idea is

developed in III below.

The simple operations must therefore include:

(a) Changes of the symbol on one of the observed squares.

(6) Changes of one of the squares observed to another square

within L squares of one of the previously observed squares.

It may be that some of these changes necessarily involve a change of

state of mind. The most general single operation must therefore be taken

to be one of the following:

(A) A possible change (a) of symbol together with a possible

change of state of mind.

(B) A possible change (6) of observed squares, together with a

possible change of state of mind.

The operation actually performed is determined, as has been suggested

on p. 250, by the state of mind of the computer and the observed symbols.

In particular, they determine the state of mind of the computer after the

operation is carried out.

We may now construct a machine to do the work of this computer. To

each state of mind of the computer corresponds an " m-configuration " of

the machine. The machine scans B squares corresponding to the B squares

observed by the computer. In any move the machine can change a symbol

on a scanned square or can change any one of the scanned squares to another

square distant not more than L squares from one of the other scanned

252 A. M. TURING [NOV. 12.

squares. The move which is done, and the succeeding configuration, are

determined by the scanned symbol and the m-configuration. The

machines just described do not differ very essentially from computing

machines as defined in § 2, and corresponding to any machine of this type

a computing machine can be constructed to compute the same sequence,

that is to say the sequence computed by the computer.

II. [Type (6)].

If the notation of the Hilbert functional calculus f is modified so as to

be systematic, and so as to involve onty a finite number of symbols3 it

becomes possible to construct an automatic J machine 3C, which will find

all the provable formulae of the calculus§.

Now let a be a sequence, and let us denote by Ga(x) the proposition

"The rc-th figure of a is 1 ", so that1

' —Ga(x) means "The z-th figure of a

is 0 ". Suppose further that we can find a set of properties which define

the sequence a and which can be expressed in terms of Ga(x) and of the

prepositional functions N(x) meaning "x is a non-negative integer" and

F(x, y) meaning "y = x-\-l ". When we join all these formulae together

conjunctively, we shall have a formula, % say, which defines a. The terms

of 21 must include the necessary parts of the Peano axioms, viz.,

N(x)-»(3y)F(x, y)) &(F(X,

which we will abbreviate to P.

When we say " 2( defines a", we mean that —21 is not a provable

formula, and also that, for each n, one of the following formulae (A,J or

(BJ is provable.

%&Ftn

^Ga(uW), (AB)«T

where F™ stands for F{u, u') & F(u', u") & ... F^-v, u™).

f The expression "the functional calculus" is used throughout to mean the restricted

Hilbert functional calculus.

+ It is most natural to construct first a choice machine (§ 2) to do this. But it is

then easy to construct the required automatic machine. We can suppose that the choice3

are always choices between two possibilities 0 and 1. Each proof will then be determined

by a sequence of choices ilt i2, ..., •?•„ (ix = 0 or 1, u = 0 or 1, ..., in = 0 or 1), and hence

the number 2" + i1 2"~^-\-i22"---\-...-\-in completely determines the proof. The automatic

machine carries out successively proof 1, proof 2, proof 3, ....

§ The author has found a description of such a machine.

II The negation sign is written before an expression and not over it.

*\ A sequence of r primes is denoted by '''-1

.

1936.] ON COMPUTABLE NUMBERS. 253

I say that a is then a computable sequence: a machine 'JCa to compute

a can be obtained by a fairly simple modification of JC

We divide the motion of Ka into sections. The n-th section is devoted

to finding the n-th figure of a. After the (n— l)-th section is finished a double

colon :: is printed after all the symbols, and the succeeding work is done

wholly on the squares to the right of this double colon. The first step is to

write the letter "A " followed by the formula (An) and then " B " followed

by (Bn). The machine Ka then starts to do the work of JC, but whenever

a provable formula is found, this formula is compared with (An) and with

(Bn). If it is the same formula as (An), then the figure " 1 " is printed, and

the n-th. section is finished. If it is (B,J, then " 0 " is printed and the section

is finished. If it is different from both, then the work of K is continued

from the point at which it had been abandoned. Sooner or later one of

the formulae (An) or (B?1) is reached; this follows from our hypotheses

about a and 21, and the known nature of JC. Hence the n-th section will

eventually be finished. 3CO is circle-free; a is computable.

It can also be shown that the numbers a definable in this way by the use

of axioms include all the computable numbers. This is done by describing

computing machines in terms of the function calculus.

It must be remembered that we have attached rather a special meaning

to the phrase " 21 defines a ". The computable numbers do not include all.

(in the ordinary sense) definable numbers. Let 8 be a sequence whose

n-th figure is 1 or 0 according as n is or is not satisfactory. It is an immediate consequence of the theorem of § 8 that 8 is not computable. It is (so

far as we know at present) possible that any assigned number of figures of 8

can be calculated, but not by a uniform process. When sufficiently many

figures of 8 have been calculated, an essentially new method is necessaiy in

order to obtain more figures.

III. This may be regarded as a modification of I or as a corollary of II.

We suppose, as in I, that the computation is carried out on a tape; but we

avoid introducing the "state of mind" by considering a more physical

and definite counterpart of it. It is always possible for the computer to

break off from his work, to go away and forget all about it, and later to come

back and go on with it. If he does this he must leave a note of instructions

(written in some standard form) explaining how the work is to be continued. This note is the counterpart of the "state of mind". We will

suppose that the computer works in such a desultory manner that he never

does more than one step at a sitting. The note of instructions must enable

him to carry out one step and write the next note. Thus the state of progress

of the computation at any stage is completely determined by the note of

254 A. M. TURING [NOV. 12,

instructions and the symbols on the tape. That is, the state of the system

may be described by a single expression (sequence of symbols), consisting

of the symbols on the tape followed by A (which we suppose not to appear

elsewhere) and then by the note of instructions. This expression may be

called the "state formula". We know that the state formula at any

given stage is determined by the state formula before the last step was

made, and we assume that the relation of these two formulae is expressible

in the functional calculus. In other words, we assume that there is an

axiom 2( which expresses the rules governing the behaviour of the

computer, in terms of the relation of the state formula at any stage to the

state formula at the preceding stage. If this is so, we can construct a

machine to write down the successive state formulae, and hence to

compute the required number.

10. Examples of large classes of numbers which are computable.

It will be useful to begin with definitions of a computable function of

an integral variable and of a computable variable, etc. There are many

equivalent ways of defining a computable function of an integral

variable. The simplest is, possibly, as follows. If y is a computable

sequence in which 0 appears infinitely! often, and n is an integer, then let

us define £(y, n) to be the number of figures 1 between the n-th and the

(?i-\- l)-th figure 0 in y. Then <f)(n) is computable if, for all n and some y,

.<f>(n) = £(y, n). An equivalent definition is this. Let H(x, y) mean

<f)(x) = y. Then, if we can find a contradiction-free axiom 21^, such that

2^-* P, and if for each integer n there exists an integer N, such that

% &

and such that, if m=£<f>(n), then, for some N',

% &

then <j> may be said to be a computable function.

We cannot define general computable functions of a real variable, since

there is no general method of describing a real number, but we can define

a computable function of a computable variable. If n is satisfactory,

let yn be the number computed by ./U {n), and let

| If *Al computes y, then the problem whether .11 prints 0 infinitely often is of the

same character as the problem whether A\, is circle-free.

1936.] ON COMPUTABLE NUMBERS. 255

unless yn = 0 or yn — 1, in either of which cases an = 0. Then, as n

runs through the satisfactory numbers, an runs through the computable

numbersf. Now let <f)(n) be a computable function which can be

shown to be such that for any satisfactory argument its value is satisfactory %. Then the function /, defined by f(an) — a^n), is a computable

function and all computable functions of a computable variable are

expressible in this form.

Similar definitions may be given of computable functions of several

variables, computable-valued functions of an integral variable, etc.

I shall enunciate a number of theorems about computability, but I

shall prove only (ii) and a theorem similar to (iii).

(i) A computable function of a computable function of an integral or

computable variable is computable.

(ii) Any function of an integral variable defined recursively in terms

of computable functions is computable. I.e. if 0(ra, n) is computable, and

r is some integer, then rj(n) is computable, where

(iii) If <f> (m, n) is a computable function of two integral variables, then

<j>{n, n) is a computable function of n.

(iv) If (j>(n) is a computable function whose value is always 0 or 1, then

the sequence whose fi-th figure is <f>(n) is computable.

Dedekind's theorem does not hold in the ordinary form if we replace

*' real'' throughout by '' computable''. But it holds in the following form :

(v) If G(a) is a propositional function of the computable numbers and

(a) (3a)(3jB){G(a)&(-G(j8))},

(6) Q(a)

and there is a general process for determining the truth value of G(a), then

f A function an may be defined in many other ways so as to run through the

computable numbers.

J Although it is not possible to find a general process for determining whether a given

number is satisfactory, it is often possible to show that certain classes of numbers are

satisfactory.

256 A. M. TURING [NOV. 12r

there is a computable number £ such that

In other words, the theorem holds for any section of the computables

such that there is a general process for determining to which class a given

number belongs.

Owing to this restriction of Dedekind's theorem, we cannot say that a

computable bounded increasing sequence of computable numbers has a

computable limit. This may possibly be understood by considering a

sequence such as

l ± 1 I I I J

-5 2 ' 5 ' 8 ' io j

2» ••• •

On the other hand, (v) enables us to prove

(vi) If a and /? are computable and a < /? and <£(a) < 0 < </>(/?), where

(f>(a) is a computable increasing continuous function, then there is a unique

computable number y, satisfying a < y < fi and <f>(y) = 0.

Computable convergence.

We shall say that a sequence fin of computable numbers converges

computably if there is a computable integral valued function N(e) of the

computable variable e, such that we can show that, if e > 0 and n > N(e)

and m > N(e), then \pn—j8m| < e.

We can then show that

(vii) A power series whose coefficients form a computable sequence of

computable numbers is computably convergent at all computable points

in the interior of its interval of convergence.

(viii) The limit of a computably convergent sequence is computable.

And with the obvious definition of " uniformly computably convergent":

(ix) The limit of a uniformly computably convergent computable

sequence of computable functions is a computable function. Hence

(x) The sum of a power series whose coefficients form a computable

sequence is a computable function in the interior of its interval of

convergence.

From (viii) and TT— 4(1—i-|--i—...) we deduce that TT is computable.

From e= l + l+n-j-+»-j+... we deduce that e is computable.

1936.] OlST COMPUTABLE NUMBERS. 257

From (vi) we deduce that all real algebraic numbers are computable.

From (vi) and (x) we deduce that the real zeros of the Bessel functions

are computable.

Proof of (ii).

Let H(x, y) mean "r](x) = y", and let K{x, y, z) mean "(f>(x, y) = z".

21^ is the axiom for <f>(x, y). We take 31, to be

% & P & (F{x, y)-*Q{x, y)) & [G{x, y) & G(y, z)->G(x, z))

& (FW-*H{U, VP>)) & (J(v, w) & #(v, x) & Z(w, x} z)->H(iv, z))

& [£f(w, 2) & ^(2 , <)v (?(<, z)

I shall not give the proof of consistency of %n. Such a proof may be

constructed by the methods used in Hilbert and Bernays, Grundlagen der

Mathematik (Berlin, 1934), p. 209 et seq. The consistency is also clear

from the meaning.

Suppose that, for some n, N, we have shown

% &

then, for some M,

% &

&

and

Hence 21,

Also ST, &

Hence for each w some formula of the form

is provable. Also, if M'^M and if'^ m and m^r)(u), then

SI, & FW^G^W), u^) v G(u^m\

8EB. 2. VOL. 42. NO. 2145.

258 A. M. TURING [NOV. 12,

and

2( & FW)-^ f {G(u^n

^, w(m)) v G(u^m\

&

Hence 21, & FW"> -> (-H{u^ n \ u™)).

The conditions of our second definition of a computable function are

therefore satisfied. Consequently rj is a computable function.

Proof of a modified form of (iii).

Suppose that we are given a machine Tl, which, starting with a tape

bearing on it 9 9 followed by a sequence of any number of letters "F" on

P-squares and in the m-configuration b, will compute a sequence yn

depending on the number n of letters " F ". If <f>n(m) is the m-th figure of

yv, then the sequence /3 whose n-th. figure is <f>n{n) is computable.

We suppose that the table for Tl has been written out in such a way

that in each line only one operation appears in the operations column. We

also suppose that S, 0, 0, and 1 do not occur in the table, and we replace

9 throughout by 0, 0 by 0, and 1 byl. Further substitutions are then

made. Any line of form

95

te(23, u, h, k)

93

re(93, t>, h, k)

and we add to the table the following lines:

u pe(ul5 0)

Uj. R, Pk, R, P0, R, P0 u2

u2 re(u3, u3, k, h)

u3 pe(u2, F)

and similar lines with x> for u and 1 for 0 together with the following line

c R, PE, R, Ph 6.

We then have the table for the machine

(H/ which computes jS. The

initial m-configuration is c, and the initial scanned symbol is the second a.

we

and

by

21

replace by

21

any line of

21

2(

the

aa

form

a

a

PO

PO

Pi

Pi

1936.] ON COMPUTABLE NUMBERS. 259

11. Application to the Entscheidungsproblem.

The results of § 8 have some important applications. In particular, they

can be used to show that the Hilbert Entscheidungsproblem can have no

solution. For the present I shall confine myself to proving this particular

theorem. For the formulation of this problem I must refer the reader to

Hilbert and Ackermann's Grundziige der Theoretischen Logik (Berlin,

1931), chapter 3.

I propose, therefore, to show that there can be no general process for

determining whether a given formula 2( of the functional calculus K is

provable, i.e. that there can be no machine which, supplied with any one

21 of these formulae, will eventually say whether 21 is provable.

It should perhaps be remarked that what I shall prove is quite different

from the well-known results of Godelf. G odel has shown that (in the formalism of Principia Mathematica) there are propositions 21 such that neither

'21 nor — 21 is provable. As a consequence of this, it is shown that no proof

•of consistency of Principia Mathematica (or of K) can be given within that

formalism. On the other hand, I shall show that there is no general method

which tells whether a given formula % is provable in K, or, what comes to

the same, whether the system consisting of K with —21 adjoined as an

cextra axiom is consistent.

If the negation of what Godel has shown had been proved, i.e. if, for each

21, either 21 or — 21 is provable, then we should have an immediate solution

of the Entscheidungsproblem. For we can invent a machine JC which will

prove consecutively all provable formulae. Sooner or later JC will reach

either 21 or —21. If it reaches 21, then we know that 2( is provable. If it

reaches — 21, then, since K is consistent (Hilbert and Ackermann, p. 65), we

know that 21 is not provable.

Owing to the absence of integers in K the proofs appear somewhat

lengthy. The underlying ideas are quite straightforward.

Corresponding to each computing machine i t we construct a formula

Un (it) and we show that, if there is a general method for determining

whether Un (.11) is provable, then there is a general method for determining whether i t ever prints 0.

The interpretations of the propositional functions involved are as

follows :

Rst(

x

> V) is

to be interpreted as "in the complete configuration x (of

J/l) the symbol on the square y is S".

t Loc. cit.

S2

260 A. M. TURING [NOV. 12,

I(x, y) is to be interpreted as "in the complete configuration x the

square y is scanned".

KQm(x) is to be interpreted as "in the complete configuration x the

m-configuration is qm.

F(x, y) is to be interpreted as

sty is the immediate successor of x ".

Inst {qt Sj 8k L 37} is to be an abbreviation for

(x, y, x', y') I (BSj(x, y) k I(x, y) k K8i(x) k F(x, x') k F(y', y))

f

I{x'iy')kBSk{x',y)kKqi{x')

k (z) \_F{y', z)v(RSj(x, z) + Rak(x', z)

Inst {q{ 8, Sk R qt} and Inst {qt 8j Sk N q{]

are to be abbreviations for other similarly constructed expressions.

Let us put the description of .11 into the first standard form of § 6. This

description consists of a number of expressions such as "q{ 8i Sk Lqt" (or

with ROT N substituted for L). Let us form all the corresponding expressions such as Inst {qt $3- Sk L qt} and take their logical sum. This we call

Des(.U).

The formula Un(.U) is to be

{3u)[N{u) &, (x)(N{x)->{3x')F(x, X'))

&. (y, z)(F(y, z)->N(y) k N(z)) & (y) R>%(% y),

& I(u, u) & Kqi{u) & Des(..U)l

->(35) (30 [N(s) & N(t) & RSl(s, t)).

[K{u)&... &Des(.U)] may be abbreviated to A(M).

When we substitute the meanings suggested on p. 259-60 we find that

Un(.U) has the interpretation "in some complete configuration of M, S-^

(i.e. 0) appears on the tape ". Corresponding to this I prove that

(a) If Sx appears on the tape in some complete configuration of • U, then

Un(U) is provable.

(b) If Un (• U) is provable, then 8X appears on the tape in some complete

configuration of • 11.

When this has been done, the remainder of the theorem is trivial.

1936.] ON COMPUTABLE NUMBERS. 261

LEMMA 1. / / S± appears on the tape in some complete configuration of

.At, then Un(.At) is provable.

We have to show how to prove Un (it). Let us suppose that in the

n-th complete configuration the sequence of symbols on the tape is

&r(n,o)> *^r(n,i)5 •••> $i<n,nh followed by nothing but blanks, and that the

scanned symbol is the i(n)-th, and that the m-configuration is q^n). Then

we may form the proposition

, u) & RSrluJvF>, u') & ... & RSr{H,Mn

\

which we may abbreviate to CCn.

As before, F{u, u') & F{u', u") & ... & F{u^\ w(r)) is abbreviated

to F<r).

I shall show that all formulae of the form A{-W) & F™^- CCn (abbreviated to CFn) are provable. The meaning of CFn is " The n-th. complete

configuration of i t is so and so ", where "so and so " stands for the actual

n-th. complete configuration of it. That CFn should be provable is

therefore to be expected.

CF0 is certainly provable, for in the complete configuration the symbols

are all blanks, the m-configuration is qx, and the scanned square is u, i.e.

CC0 is

(y) RSo{u, y) & I(u, u) & KQl(u).

A(o\i)->CC0 is then trivial.

We next show that CFn^-CFn+1 is provable for each n. There are

three cases to consider, according as in the move from the n-th to the

(n-j-l)-th configuration the machine moves to left or to right or remains

stationary. We suppose that the first case applies, i.e. the machine

moves to the left. A similar argument applies in the other cases. If

r[n,i(n)}=a, r(n-\-l, i(n-\-l)} = c, k(i(n)j =b, and k(i(n-\-l)) =d,

then Des (it) must include Inst {qa 8b Sd L q^ as one of its terms, i.e.

Hence A(.AV) & Fin

+n^1nat{qa8b8dLqc} &

But Inst{qa Sb 8dLqc} & ^ n +w^(CCn -

is provable, and so therefore is

A (• It) & F(n

+»-> (CCn -» C(L .,

262 A. M. TURING [NOV. 12,

and (AIM) & F™^CCn) -+ (.4(it) & F<n

+V^CCn+1),

i.e. CFm-»CF.n+V

CFn is provable for each n. Now it is the assumption of this lemma

that 8± appears somewhere, in some complete configuration, in the sequence

of symbols printed by M; that is, for some integers N, K, CGN has

RS[(u^N

\u^) as one of its terms, and therefore CCN^RSl{u{N\ u(K)) is

provable. We have then

and A(.M)&FW->CCN

.

We also have

(3u)A(M)-+(3u)(3uf

)...

where N' — max (N, K). And so

(3u) A (. U.) -> (3^7

)) (3uW) RS

(3u)A(M)->(3s)(3t)RSl(s,t),

i.e. Un(-U) is provable.

This completes the proof of Lemma 1.

LEMMA 2. / / Un(-U) is provable, then S1 appears on the tape in some

complete configuration of M.

If we substitute any propositional functions for function variables in

a provable formula, we obtain a true proposition. In particular, if we

substitute the meanings tabulated on pp. 259-260 in Un(^U), we obtain a

true proposition with the meaning " S1 appears somewhere on the tape in

some complete configuration of .M".

We are now in a position to show that the Entscheidungsproblem cannot

be solved. Let us suppose the contrary. Then there is a general

(mechanical) process for determining whether Un(.tl) is provable. By

Lemmas 1 and 2, this implies that there is a process for determining whether

.41 ever prints 0, and this is impossible, by §8. Hence the Entscheidungsproblem cannot be solved.

In view of the large number of particular cases of solutions of the

Entscheidungsproblem for formulae with restricted systems of quantors, it

1936.] ON COMPUTABLE NUMBERS. 263

is interesting to express Un(ii) in a form in which all quantors are at the

beginning. Un(At) is, in fact, expressible in the form

{u){3x){w){3u1)...{3un)%, (I)

where 95 contains no quantors, and n = 6. By unimportant modifications

we can obtain a formula, with all essential properties of Un(.it), which is of

form (I) with n = 5.

Added 28 August, 1936.

APPENDIX.

Computabiliiy and effective calculability

The theorem that all effectively calculable (A-definable) sequences are

computable and its converse are proved below in outline. It is assumed,

that the terms "well-formed formula " (W.F.F.) and "conversion " as used

by Church and Kleene are understood. In the second of these proofs the

existence of several formulae is assumed without proof; these formulae

may be constructed straightforwardly with the help of, e.g., the

results of Kleene in "A theory of positive integers in formal logic'",

American Journal of Math., 57 (1935), 153-173, 219-244.

The W.F.F. representing an integer n will be denoted by Nn. We shall

say that a sequence y whose n-th figure is (f>y(n) is A-definable or effectively

calculable if l-\-</>y(u) is a A-definable function of n, i.e. if there is a W.F.F.

My such that, for all integers n,

i.e. {My} (Nn) is convertible into Xxy.x(x(y)) or into Xxy.x(y) according as

the n-th figure of A is 1 or 0.

To show that every A-definable sequence y is computable, we have to

show how to construct a machine to compute y. For use with machines it

is convenient to make a trivial modification in the calculus of conversion.

This alteration consists in using x, x', x", ... as variables instead of

a, b, c, .... We now construct a machine JL which, when supplied with the

formula My, writes down the sequence y. The construction of X is somewhat similar to that of the machine K which proves all provable formulae

of the functional calculus. We first construct a choice machine £-v which,

if supplied with a W.F.F., M say, and suitably manipulated, obtains any

formula into which M is convertible. £± can then be modified so as to

yield an automatic machine £-2 which obtains successively all the formulae

264 A. M. TURING [NOV. 12,

into which M is convertible (cf. foot-note p. 252). The machine £>

includes ^2

a s a Par^. The motion of the machine X when supplied

with the formula My is divided into sections of which the n-th. is

devoted to finding the n-th figure of y. The first stage in this n-th. section

is the formation of {My} {Nn). This formula is then supplied to the

machine £2, which converts it successively into various other formulae.

Each formula into which it is convertible eventually appears, and each, as

it is found, is compared with

and with Aa:|Aa;'[{a;}(a;')] |, i.e. Nv

If it is identical with the first of these, then the machine prints the figure 1

and the n-th section is finished. If it is identical with the second, then 0

is printed and the section is finished. If it is different from both, then the

work of .!!2 is resumed. By hypothesis, {My}(Nn) is convertible into one of

the formulae N2 or Nx; consequently the n-th section will eventually be

finished, i.e. the n-th. figure of y will eventually be written down.

To prove that every computable sequence y is A-defUiable, we must

show how to find a formula My such that, for all integers n,

{My}(Nn)c(mvN1+<j)y{n).

Let .11 be a machine which computes y and let us take some description

of the complete configurations of -U by means of numbers, e.g. we may take

the D.N of the complete configuration as described in §6. Let £(n) be

the D.N of the w-th complete configuration of M. The table for the

machine ..U gives us a relation between £(n-\-l) and £(n) of the form

where py is a function of very restricted, although not usually very simple,

form : it is determined by the table for. U. py is A-defmable (I omit the proof

of this), i.e. there is a W.F.F. Ay such that, for all integers n,

Let U stand for

Xu[{{u}(Ay))(Nr)],

where r=£(0); then, for all integers n,

{Uy}(NJ conv N,{n).

1936.] ON COMPUTABLE NUMBERS.

It may be proved that there is a formula V such that

265

conv Nx if, in going from the n-th to the (n-\- l)-th

complete configuration, the figure 0 is

printed.

conv JV2 if the figure 1 is printed,

conv N3 otherwise.

Let Wy stand for

so that, for each integer n,

conv {Wy} (Nn),

and let Q be a formula such that

\{Q}(Wy)UNs) convNr(s),

where r(s) is the 5-th integer q for which {Wy} (NQ) is convertible into either

N-L or JVa. Then, if j|f7 stands for

it will have the required property f.

The Graduate College,

Princeton University,

New Jersey, U.S.A.

t In a complete proof of the A-definability of computable sequences it would be best to

modify this method by replacing the numerical description of the complete configurations

by a description which can be handled more easily with our apparatus. Let us choose

certain integers to represent the symbols and the m-configurations of the machine.

Suppose that in a certain complete configuration the numbers representing the successive

symbols on the tape are s1s2... sn, that the m-th symbol is scanned, and that the ?n.-configurationhas the number t; then we may represent this complete configuration by the formula

where

etc.

„ N» ..., #,„,_,], [Nt, NaJ, [NSM+V ..., NSlt]],

[a, 6] stands for \u f" -{ {u} (a) )(&)]»

[a, 6, c] stands for AM P I \ {u} (a)}(b) J (c)l,

ON COMPUTABLE NUMBERS, WITH AN APPLICATION TO

THE ENTSCHEIDUNGSPROBLEM

By A. M. TURING.

[Received 28 May, 1936.—Read 12 November, 1936.]

The "computable" numbers may be described briefly as the real

numbers whose expressions as a decimal are calculable by finite means.

Although the subject of this paper is ostensibly the computable numbers.

it is almost equally easy to define and investigate computable functions

of an integral variable or a real or computable variable, computable

predicates, and so forth. The fundamental problems involved are,

however, the same in each case, and I have chosen the computable numbers

for explicit treatment as involving the least cumbrous technique. I hope

shortly to give an account of the relations of the computable numbers,

functions, and so forth to one another. This will include a development

of the theory of functions of a real variable expressed in terms of computable numbers. According to my definition, a number is computable

if its decimal can be written down by a machine.

In §§ 9, 10 I give some arguments with the intention of showing that the

computable numbers include all numbers which could naturally be

regarded as computable. In particular, I show that certain large classes

of numbers are computable. They include, for instance, the real parts of

all algebraic numbers, the real parts of the zeros of the Bessel functions,

the numbers IT, e, etc. The computable numbers do not, however, include

all definable numbers, and an example is given of a definable number

which is not computable.

Although the class of computable numbers is so great, and in many

Avays similar to the class of real numbers, it is nevertheless enumerable.

In § 81 examine certain arguments which would seem to prove the contrary.

By the correct application of one of these arguments, conclusions are

reached which are superficially similar to those of Gbdelf. These results

f Godel, " Uber formal unentscheidbare Satze der Principia Mathematica und ver-

•vvandter Systeme, I" . Monatsheftc Math. Phys., 38 (1931), 173-198.

1936.] ON COMPUTABLE NUMBERS. 231

have valuable applications. In particular, it is shown (§11) that the

Hilbertian Entscheidungsproblem can have no solution.

In a recent paper Alonzo Church f has introduced an idea of "effective

calculability", which is equivalent to my "computability", but is very

differently defined. Church also reaches similar conclusions about the

EntscheidungsproblemJ. The proof of equivalence between "computability" and "effective calculability" is outlined in an appendix to the

present paper.

1. Computing machines.

We have said that the computable numbers are those whose decimals

are calculable by finite means. This requires rather more explicit

definition. No real attempt will be made to justify the definitions given

until we reach § 9. For the present I shall only say that the justification

lies in the fact that the human memory is necessarily limited.

We may compare a man in the process of computing a real number to ;i

machine which is only capable of a finite number of conditions q1: q2. .... qI;

which will be called " m-configurations ". The machine is supplied with a

"tape " (the analogue of paper) running through it, and divided into

sections (called "squares") each capable of bearing a "symbol". At

any moment there is just one square, say the r-th, bearing the symbol <2>(r)

which is "in the machine". We may call this square the "scanned

square ". The symbol on the scanned square may be called the " scanned

symbol". The "scanned symbol" is the only one of which the machine

is, so to speak, "directly aware". However, by altering its m-configuration the machine can effectively remember some of the symbols which

it has "seen" (scanned) previously. The possible behaviour of the

machine at any moment is determined by the ra-configuration qn and the

scanned symbol <S (r). This pair qn, © (r) will be called the '' configuration'':

thus the configuration determines the possible behaviour of the machine.

In some of the configurations in which the scanned square is blank (i.e.

bears no symbol) the machine writes down a new symbol on the scanned

square: in other configurations it erases the scanned symbol. The

machine may also change the square which is being scanned, but only by

shifting it one place to right or left. In addition to any of these operations

the m-configuration may be changed. Some of the symbols written down

f Alonzo Church, " An unsolvable problem, of elementary number theory ", American

J. of Math., 58 (1936), 345-363.

X Alonzo Church, "A note on the Entscheidungsproblem", J. of Symbolic Logic, 1

(1936), 40-41.

232 A. M. TURING [Nov. 12,

will form the sequence of figures which is the decimal of the real number

which is being computed. The others are just rough notes to "assist the

memory ". It will only be these rough notes which will be liable to erasure.

It is my contention that these operations include all those which are used

in the computation of a number. The defence of this contention will be

easier when the theory of the machines is familiar to the reader. In the

next section I therefore proceed with the development of the theory and

assume that it is understood what is meant by "machine", "tape",

"scanned", etc.

2. Definitions.

Automatic machines.

If at each stage the motion of a machine (in the sense of § 1) is completely

determined by the configuration, we shall call the machine an "automatic machine" (or a-machine).

.For some purposes we might use machines (choice machines or

c-manhines) whose motion is onty partially determined by the configuration

(hence the use of the word "possible" in §1). When such a machine

reaches one of these ambiguous configurations, it cannot go on until some

arbitrary choice has been made by an external operator. This would be the

case if we were using machines to deal with axiomatic systems. In this

paper I deal only with automatic machines, and will therefore often omit

the prefix a-.

Computing machines.

If an a-machine prints two kinds of symbols, of which the first kind

(called figures) consists entirely of 0 and 1 (the others being called symbols of

the second kind), then the machine will be called a computing machine.

If the machine is supplied with a blank tape and set in motion, starting

from the correct initial ra-configuration, the subsequence of the sjinbols

printed by it which are of the first kind will be called the sequence computed

by the machine. The real number whose expression as a binary decimal is

obtained by prefacing this sequence by a decimal point is called the

number computed by the machine.

At any stage of the motion of the machine, the number of the scanned

square, the complete sequence of all symbols on the tape, and the

ra-configuration will be said to describe the complete configuration at that

stage. The changes of the machine and tape between successive complete

configurations will be called the moves of the machine.

1936.] ON COMPUTABLE NUMBERS. 233

Circular and circle-free machines.

If a computing machine never writes down more than a finite number

of symbols of the first kind, it will be called circular. Otherwise it is said to

be circle-free.

A machine will be circular if it reaches a configuration from which there

is no possible move, or if it goes on moving, and possibly printing symbols

of the second kind, but cannot print any more symbols of the first kind.

The significance of the term "circular" will be explained in §8.

Computable sequences and numbers.

A sequence is said to be computable if it can be computed by a circle-free

machine. A number is computable if it differs by an integer from the

number computed by a circle-free machine.

We shall avoid confusion by speaking more often of computable

sequences than of computable numbers.

3. Examples of computing machines.

I. A machine can be constructed to compute the sequence 010101....

The machine is to have the four m-configurations "b" , "c" , "£" , "c:>

and is capable of printing " 0 " and " 1 ". The behaviour of the machine is

described in the following table in which " R " means "the machine moves

so that it scans the square immediately on the right of the one it was

scanning previously". Similarly for "L". "E" means "the scanned

symbol is erased" and "P " stands for "prints". This table (and all

succeeding tables of the same kind) is to be understood to mean that for

a configuration described in the first two columns the operations in the

third column are carried out successively, and the machine then goes over

into the m-configuration described in the last column. When the second

column is left blank, it is understood that the behaviour of the third and

fourth columns applies for any symbol and for no symbol. The machine

starts in the m-configuration b with a blank tape.

-config.

Configuration

m-config.

b

c

c

I

symbol

None

None

None

None

Behaviour

operations final

PO, R

R

PI, R

R

c

c

t

b

234 A. M. TURING [NOV. 12,

If (contrary to the description in § 1) we allow the letters L, R to appear

more than once in the operations column we can simplify the table

considerably.

m-config. symbol

None

0

1

operations

PO

R, R, PI

R, R, PO

final m-config.

6

b

b

II. As a slightly more difficult example we can construct a machine to

compute the sequence 001011011101111011111 The machine is to

be capable of five ra-configurations, viz. " o ", " q ", "p ", " f ", " b " and of

printing "o" , "x", "0" , "1" . The first three symbols on the tape will

be " aoO " ; the other figures follow on alternate squares. On the intermediate squares we never print anything but "x". These letters serve to

" keep the place " for us and are erased when we have finished with them.

We also arrange that in the sequence of figures on alternate squares there

shall be no blanks.

Configuration

m-config. symbol

b Pa,

• { ;

fAny (0 or 1) rt J

q i

[ None

1 g

^ 1I None

fAny

None

Behaviour

operations

R, Po, R, PO. R, R, PO, L, L

i?, Px, L, L, L

R, R

PI, L

E, R

R

L, L

R,R

PO, L, L

final

m-config.

0

0

q

q

p

q

f

p

f

0

To illustrate the working of this machine a table is given below of the

first few complete configurations. These complete configurations are

described by writing down the sequence of symbols which are on the tape,

1936.] ON COMPUTABLE NUMBERS. 235

with the m-configuration written below the scanned symbol. The

successive complete configurations are separated by colons.

: 99 0 Oroo O 0:99 0 0:99 0 0 :99 0 0 1 :

b o q q q p

9 9 0 0 1:99 0 0 1:99 0 0 1:99 0 0 1 :

P P f f

9 9 0 0 1:99 0 0 1 :oa 0 0 1 0 :

f f

9 9 0 0 H-0: ....

c

This table could also be written in the form

b :9 9 o 0 0 : 9 9 q 0 0 : ..., (C)

in which a space has been made on the left of the scanned symbol and the*

m-configuration written in this space. This form is less easy to follow, but

we shall make use of it later for theoretical purposes.

The convention of writing the figures only on alternate squares is very

useful: I shall always make use of it. I shall call the one sequence of alternate squares JF'-squares and the other sequence ^/-squares. The symbols oi •.

^-squares will be liable to erasure. The symbols on F-squares form a

continuous sequence. There are no blanks until the end is reached. There

is no need to have more than one jE'-square between each pair of .F-squarcs :

an apparent need of more ^/-squares can be satisfied by having a sufficiently

rich variety of symbols capable of being printed on ^-squares. If a

symbol /3 is on an F-square S and a symbol a is on the ^-square next on the

right of S, then S and /3 will be said to be marked with a. The

process of printing this a will be called marking jS (or S) with a.

4. Abbreviated tables.

There are certain types of process used by nearly all machines, and.

these, in some machines, are used in many connections. These processes

include copying down sequences of symbols, comparing sequences, erasing

all symbols of a given form, etc. Where such processes are concerned we

can abbreviate the tables for the m-configurations considerably by the use

of "skeleton tables". In skeleton tables there appear capital German

letters and small Greek letters. These are of the nature of "variables '".

By replacing each capital German letter throughout by an ^^-configuration

236 A. M. TURING [Nov. 12,

and each small Greek letter by a symbol, we obtain the table for an

m-configuration.

The skeleton tables are to be regarded as nothing but abbreviations:

they are not essential. So long as the reader understands how to obtain

the complete tables from the skeleton tables, there is no need to give any

exact definitions in this connection.

Let us consider an example:

m-config.

f(e,S5,a)

fi(6,93,a)

Symbol Behaviour Final

m-config.

L f^G, 95, a)

L f(<5,S3,a)

f a

not a

R

R

R

f2(G,

From the m-configuration

f(@, 93, a) the machine finds the

symbol of form a which is farthest to the left (the "first a")

and the ?w-confi,guration then

becomes (L If there is no a

then the m-configuration becomes 93.

None R

I, 93, a)

93

If we were to replace £ throughout by q (say), 93 by r, and a. by x, we

should have a complete table for the m-configuration f (q, x, x). f is called

an "?/i-configuration function" or "m-function".

The only expressions which are admissible for substitution in an

»i-function are the m-configurations and symbols of the machine. These

have to be enumerated more or less explicitly: they may include expressions

such as p(c, x); indeed they must if there are any m-functions used at all.

If we did not insist on this explicit eaumeration, but simply stated that

the machine had certain m-configurations (enumerated) and all m-configurations obtainable by substitution of m-configurations in certain m-function.-J, we .should usually get an infinity of m-configurations; e.g., we might

say that the machine was to have the m-configuration q and all m-configurations obtainable by substituting an m-configuration for £ in p(£). Then

it would have q, p(q), pfp(q)V p(p(p(q))), ... asm-configurations.

Our interpretation rule then is this. We are given the names of the

^-configurations of the machine, mostly expressed in terms of m-functions.

We are also given skeleton tables. All we want is the complete table for

the m-configurations of the machine. This is obtained by repeated

substitution in the skeleton tables.

1936.] ON COMPUTABLE NUMBERS. 237

Further examples.

(In the explanations the symbol "->" is used to signify "the machine

goes into the ra-configuration. . . . ")

e((5,23,a) f (e^S, S3, a), S3, a) From c(S, 23, a) the first a is

„ ^ erased and -> (L If there is no

c^G, S3, a) # G

c(S3, a) c(c(S3, a), 23, a) From c(S3, a) all letters a are

erased and -»53.

The last example seems somewhat more difficult to interpret than

most. Let us suppose that in the list of m-configurations of some machine

there appears c('b, x) (=q, saj'). The table is

c(6; a;) e(c(b, x). h, x)

or q c(q, 6, a;).

Or, in greater detail:

q c(q, 6, x)

c(q, 6, x) f (ci(q, 6, a.1

), t), a)

Cj.(q, I), re) £• q.

In this we could replace cJL(q, h, x) by q' and then give the table for f (with

the right substitutions) and eventually reach a table in which no

m-functions appeared.

, j8) f (pc^G, j8), €,Q) From pc (g, /3) the machine

[Any i?3JR pe^S.jS) P rint s

^ ^ ^

ue (<S j8) \ sequence of sj^mbols and -> C

[None P/S 6

I(S) ^ 2 From f'((5: 2J, a) it does the

r/gx j ^ G same as for f(6, S3, a) but

moves to the left before -^ <3.

f(6,»,o) f(t(6),a3,a)

f"(S,»,o) f(t(S),S8,a)

c(S,S3,o) f'(c-i(S), 55, a) c(<£, S3, a). The machine

c (<l) R pe(€ JS) writes at the end the first symbol marked a and -> £.

238 A. M. TURING [NOV. 12,

The last line stands for the totality of lines obtainable from it by

replacing fi by any symbol which may occur on the tape of the machine

concerned.

cc(£,S3,a) c(e(G,S3,a),83,a) ce(23, a). The machine

copies down in order at the

cc(23,a) ce(ce(83,a),23,a) end all symbols marked a

and erases the letters a; ->SS.

vc(G,93,a,j8) f(re1(g3$B3a,i8),^5a) rc(£, S3, a, 0). The machine replaces the first a by

re^^a.fl E,Pp <Z (8 and->g ^ 35 if there is no a.

re(S, a, P) re («(», a, j8), 93, a, j8) «<»'

a> #•

Th e machin e re "

places all letters a by ]S; ->S5.

cr(Ci,23;a) c(tt(G,9$,a,a), S3,a) Cr(83, a) differs from

ce(23, a) 011137" in that the

«(«(5S,a),rc(SS,a,a),a) letters a are not erased. The

m-configuration cv(5S, a) is

taken up when no letters

" a " are on the tape.

•r (C. 21, e. a. ,5) f (cpi ^ S(, )S), f(3t, g, j8), a)

cp,(C, 2l,i8) 7 f (cp2(e,2T, y), S(,

7 S

cp.,((S. 2(, y)

[noty SI.

The first symbol marked a and the first marked ]8 are compared. If

there is neither a nor ft, —> (I\ If there are both and the symbols are alike,

-> (5. Otherwise -> 21.

cpc(6, SI, G, a, jS) cp (c (e((5, S, yS), 6, a), SI, g, a, ^)

cpe(S, 21, S, a, j8) differs from cp(§, 21, £, a, j8) in that in the case when

there is similarity the first a and /? are erased.

cpe^, Q, a, P) cpe (cpe(Sl, Q, a, j8), 21, 6, a, )3).

cpe(2I, S, a, j8). The sequence of symbols marked a is compared with

the sequence marked /?. -> Q if they are similar. Otherwise -> 21. Some

of the symbols a and /? are erased.

1936.] ON COMPUTABLE NUMBERS. 239

JAny

[None

JAny

[None

R

R

R

not a

ce2(95, a,

ce3(S5,a,

a). The machine

finds the last symbol of

form a. -> @.

j8,y)

R

L

f

Any R, E, R

None

3)> a ) pc2(S, a, jS). The machine

prints a j8 at the end.

ce(ce(255j8), a) ce3(S5,a,j8,y). The machine copies down at the end

ce (ce2(S5,0, y), a) £ r s t the symbols marked a,

then those marked jS, and

finally those marked y; it

erases the symbols a, /?, y.

e1((5) From e(^) the marks are

,^> erased from all marked symbols. -> @.

5. Enumeration of computable sequences.

A computable sequence y is determined by a description of a machine

which computes y. Thus the sequence 001011011101111... is determined

by the table on p. 234, and, in fact, any computable sequence is capable of

being described in terms of such a table.

It will be useful to put these tables into a kind of standard form. In the

first place let us suppose that the table is given in the same form as the first

table, for example, I on p. 233. That is to say, that the entry in the operations

column is always of one of the forms E :E,R:E,L:Pa: Pa, R: Pa, L:R:L:

or no entry at all. The table can always be put into this form by introducing more m-configurations. Now let us give numbers to the w-configurations, calling them qx, ..., qR, as in §1. The initial m-configuration is

always to be called qv We also give numbers to the symbols #]_,....., Sm

240 A. M. TUBING [Nov. 12,

and, in particular, blank = 80, 0 = Slt 1 = S2. The hnes of the table are

now of form

Final

m-config. Symbol Operations m-config.

to

to

to

Lines such as

to

are to be written as

to

and lines such as

ft

to be written as

to

s,

Si

Si

Si

Si

Si

s.

PSk,L

PSkiR

PSk

E, R

PS0, R

R

PS,, R

In this way we reduce each line of the table to a line of one of the forms

(Nj, (N2), (i\y.

From each line of form (N^ let us form an expression q( Sj]Sb L qm;

from each line of form (N2) we form an expression qiSjSkRqm;

and from each line of form (N3) we form an expression #,•#, SkNqm.

Let us write down all expressions so formed from the table for the

machine and separate them by semi-colons. In this way we obtain a

complete description of the machine. In this description we shall replace

q{ by the letter "D" followed by the letter "A" repeated i times, and $,- by

" D " followed by "C" repeated j times. This new description of the

machine may be called the standard description (S.D). It is made up

entirely from the letters "A", " C", "D", "L", "R", "N", and from

If finally we replace "A" by "1" , "C" by "2" , "D" by "3" , " L"

by "4" , "R" by c '5" , "N" by "6" , and "*3>

by £< 7" we sh,all have a

description of the machine in the form of an arabic numeral. The integer

represented by this numeral may be called a description number (D.N) of

the machine. The D.N determine the S.D and the structure of the

1936.] ON COMPUTABLE NUMBERS. 241

machine uniquely. The machine whose D.N is n may be described as

To each computable sequence there corresponds at least one description

number, while to no description number does there correspond more than

one computable sequence. The computable sequences and numbers are

therefore enumerable.

Let us find a description number for the machine I of § 3. When we

rename the m-configurations its table becomes:

q-L ^ o *b1} K q2

q2 SQ P8O, R q3

q3 So PS2) R #4

ft SQ

PSo>R ft

Other tables could be obtained by adding irrelevant lines such as

qx Sx PSVR q2

Our first standard form would be

qxOQOJRq%j q%^o^o-"ft» 2*3®o^2-"ft' ft^o^oRQ\J•

The standard description is

DADDCRDAA ;DAADDRDAAA;

I^^DDCCtfi)^ ^ \DAAAADDRDA;

A description number is

31332531173113353111731113322531111731111335317

and so is

3133253117311335311173111332253111173111133531731323253117

A number which is a description number of a circle-free machine will be

called a satisfactory number. In § 8 it is shown that there can be no general

process for determining whether a given number is satisfactory or not.

6. The universal computing machine.

It is possible to invent a single machine which can be used to compute

any computable sequence. If this machine M is supplied with a tape on

the beginning of which is written the S.D of some computing machine .At,

8KR. 2. VOL. 42. NO. 2144. B

242 A. M. TURING [NOV. 12,

then 'It will compute the same sequence as it. In this section I explain

in outline the behaviour of the machine. The next section is devoted to

giving the complete table for U.

Let us first suppose that we have a machine it' which will write down on

the .F-squares the successive complete configurations of it. These might

be expressed in the same form as on p. 235, using the second description,

(C), with all symbols on one line. Or, better, we could transform this

description (as in §5) by replacing each ra-configuration by "D " followed

by "A" repeated the appropriate number of times, and by replacing each

symbol by "D " followed by "C" repeated the appropriate number of

times. The numbers of letters'' A " and'' C " are to agree with the numbers

chosen in §5, so that, in particular, "0 " is replaced by "DC", "1 " by

"DCC", and the blanks by "D" . These substitutions are to be made

after the complete configurations have been put together, as in (C). Difficulties arise if we do the substitution first. In each complete configuration the blanks would all have to be replaced by " D ", so that the complete

configuration would not be expressed as a finite sequence of symbols.

If in the description of the machine II of § 3 we replace " o " by " DA A ",

" a " by "DCCC", "q " by "DAAA", then the sequence (C) becomes:

DA .DCCCDCCCDAADCDDC.DCCCDCCCDAAADCDDC:... (CJ

(This is the sequence of symbols on ^-squares.)

It is not difficult to see that if i t can be constructed, then so can it'.

The manner of operation of it' could be made to depend on having the rules

of operation {i.e., the S.D) of il written somewhere within itself {i.e. within

il/); each step could be carried out by referring to these rules. We have

only to regard the rules as being capable of being taken out and exchanged for others and we have something very akin to the universal

machine.

One thing is lacking : at present the machine it' prints no figures. We

may correct this by printing between each successive pair of complete

configurations the figures which appear in the new configuration but not

in the old. Then (C^) becomes

DDA:O:O:DCCCDCCCDAADCDDC:DCCC... (C2)

It is not altogether obvious that the ^-squares leave enough room for

the necessary "rough work", but this is, in fact, the case.

The sequences of letters between the colons in expressions such as

(Cj) may be used as standard descriptions of the complete configurations.

When the letters are replaced by figures, as in § 5, we shall have a numerical

9

not 9

Any

None

R

L

R, E, R

e^onf)

c(anf)

ei(anf)

anf

1936.] ON COMPUTABLE NUMBERS. 243

•description of the complete configuration, which may be called its description number.

7. Detailed description of the universal machine.

A table is given below of the behaviour of this universal machine. The

•m-configurations of which the machine is capable are all those occurring in

the first and last columns of the table, together with all those which occur

when we write out the unabbreviated tables of those which appear in the

table in the form of m-functions. E.g., e(anf) appears in the table and is an

wi-fimction. Its unabbreviated table is (see p. 239)

e(anf)

e^anf)

Consequently e1(anf) is an m-configuration of U.

When \l is ready to start work the tape running through it bears on it

the symbol a on an .F-square and again Q on the next i£-square; after this,

on .F-squares only, comes the S.D of the machine followed by a double

colon ":: " (a single symbol, on an .F-square). The S.D consists of a

number of instructions, separated by semi-colons.

Each instruction consists of five consecutive parts

(i) "D " followed by a sequence of letters "A". This describes the

relevant m-configuration.

(ii) "JD" followed by a sequence of letters " C". This describes the

scanned symbol.

(iii) "D " followed by another sequence of letters "C". This

describes the symbol into which the scanned symbol is to be changed.

(iv) " L " , "i2" , or "JV", describing whether the machine is to move

to left, right, or not at all.

(v) "D " followed by a sequence of letters "A". This describes the

final m-configuration.

The machine U is to be capable of printing "A", "0" ,

ctD" , "0" ,

•"1" , "u", "v", "w", "z" , "y", "z" . The S.D is formed from ";" ,

•"A", "C", "D" , "L" ,

((R"} "N".

244 A. M. TURING

Subsidiary skeleton table.

(Not A R, R con(£, a)

[Nov. 12,

con(@, a)

con^CE, a)

con2(§, a)

con(@. a). Starting from

an J^-square, S say, the seA L, Pa, R con^S, a) quenc e Q o f symbol s describA R,Pa,R con^a ) ing a configuration closest on

the right of S is marked out

D R, Pa, R con2(§, a) with letters a. ->@.

G

Not C R.R

R, Pa, R con2(£,a) con(S, ). In the final configuration the machine is

scanning the square which is

four squares to the right of the

last square of C. C is left

unmarked.

The table for U.

hx R,R,P:,R,R,PD;R,R,PA anf

anf

6. The machine prints

on the .F-squares after

->anf.

font

not z nor

R, Pz: L

L,L

L

g(anf1} :) anf. The machine marks

the configuration in the last

COn (font, y) comp i e t e configuration with

y. -

!om

!om

con (limp, x) font. The machine finds

the last semi-colon not

marked with z. It marks

this semi-colon with z and

the configuration following

it with x.

Hnr,> cpe(c(fom, x, y), iim, x, y) fmp. The machine compares the sequences marked

x and y. It erases all letters

x and y. -> Sim if they are

alike. Otherwise ->• font.

anf. Taking the long view, the last instruction relevant to the last

configuration is found. It can be recognised afterwards as the instruction

following the last semi-colon marked z. -Mim.

1936.] ON COMPUTABLE NUMBERS. 245

Sim

•mt

m?3

m?4

mh

A

not

not

A

A .

A

R,Pu,

L,

L,Py,

R, R

Py

con

,R

,R

(stm2,

Sim

Sim

e(mB,

Sim

)

3

2

3

A

C

[Any

[ None

L, L, L, L

, Pa;, j^ , Z',

con

P:

L, L, L

?, R, R, R

•R, 22

mf2

D R, Px, L, L, L m?3

not : R, Pv, L, L, L m!3

: mL

mf6

inSt, 0, :

xnit

S im. The machine marks out

the instructions. That part of

the instructions which refers to

operations to be carried out is

marked with u, and the final mconfiguration with y. The letters z are erased.

mi. The last complete configuration is marked out into

four sections. The configiiraration is left unmarked. The

symbol directly preceding it is

marked with x. The remainder

of the complete configuration

is divided into two parts, of

which the first is marked with

v and the last with w. A colon is

printed after the whole. -> $f;.

, u) Sf;. The instructions (marked

u) are examined. If it is found

that they involve "Print 0" or

"Print 1", then 0: or 1: is

printed at the end.

246 A. M. TURING [NOV. 12,

in«t fl(t(in«1),tt) «**•

Th e nex t

complete

configuration is written down,.

a R, E in^t1(a) carrying out the marked instrucL) ce5(o»,.t>, y, x, u, w) tions -

Th e letter s u> v> w> x> V

are erased. -^anf.

i?) ce5(o», v, x, u, y, w)

\nitx{N) ec5(ot>, v, x, y, u, w)

co c(anf)

8. Application of the diagonal process.

It may be thought that arguments which prove that the real numbers

are not enumerable would also prove that the computable numbers and

sequences cannot be enumerable*. It might, for instance, be thought

that the limit of a sequence of computable numbers must be computable.

This is clearly only true if the sequence of computable numbers is defined

by some rule.

Or we might apply the diagonal process. "If the computable sequences

are enumerable, let a/( be the n-th computable sequence, and let </>;l(ra) be

the ?n-th figure in au. Let /? be the sequence with \—<j>n(n) as its n-th.

figure. Since /3 is computable, there exists a number K such that

l—cf)ll(n) = <f)K(n) all n. Putting n = K, we have 1 = 2(f>K(K), i.e. 1 is

even. This is impossible. The computable sequences are therefore not

enumerable".

The fallacy in this argument lies in the assumption that § is computable.

It would be true if we could enumerate the computable sequences by finite

means, but the problem of enumerating computable sequences is equivalent

to the problem of finding out whether a given number is the D.N of a

circle-free machine, and we have no general process for doing this in a finite

number of steps. In fact, by applying the diagonal process argument

correctly, we can show that there cannot be any such general process.

The simplest and most direct proof of this is by showing that, if this

general process exists, then there is a machine which computes /?. This

proof, although perfectly sound, has the disadvantage that it may leave

the reader with a feeling that "there must be something wrong". The

proof which I shall give has not this disadvantage, and gives a certain

insight into the significance of the idea "circle-free". It depends not on

constructing /3, but on constructing fi', whose n-th. figure is <j>n{n).

* Cf. Hobson, Theory of functions of a real variable (2nd ed., 1921), 87, 88.

1936.] ON COMPUTABLE NUMBERS. 247

Let us suppose that there is such a process; that is to say, that we can

invent a machine <D- which, when supplied with the S.D of any computing

machine i l will test this S.D and if i l is circular will mark the S.D with the

symbol "u" and if it is circle-free will mark it with " s ". By combining

the machines <& and U we could construct a machine :l I- to compute the

sequence j8'. The machine <O- may require a tape. We may suppose that

it uses the jE'-squares beyond all symbols on .F-squares, and that when it

has reached its verdict all the rough work done by

l0- is erased.

The machine Ji has its motion divided into sections. In the first N— 1

sections, among other things, the integers 1, 2,..., N— 1 have been written

down and tested by the machine

<Q>-. A certain number, say R(N— I), of

them have been found to be the D.N's of circle-free machines. In the N-th

section the machine

(& tests the number N. If N is satisfactory, i.e., if it

is the D.N of a circle-free machine, then R(N) = l-\-R(N—l) and the first

R{N) figures of the sequence of which a $£N is N are calculated. The

R(N)-th figure of this sequence is written down as one of the figures of the

sequence/3' computed by Ji. If N is not satisfactory, then R(N) = R(N— 1)

and the machine goes on to the (iV-(-l)-th section of its motion.

From the construction of J I- we can see that .11- is circle-free. Each

section of the motion of Ji comes to an end after a finite number of steps.

For, by our assumption about Q, the decision as to whether N is satisfactor}'

is reached in a finite number of steps. If N is not satisfactory, then the

JV-th section is finished. If N is satisfactory, this means that the machine

il(JV) whose D.N is N is circle-free, and therefore its J?(iV)-th figure can be

calculated in a finite number of steps. When this figure has been calculated

and written down as the R(N)-th figure of /3', the iV-th section is finished.

Hence il is circle-free.

Now let K be the D.N of Ji. What does Ji do in the K-th. section of

its motion 1 It must test whether K is satisfactory, giving a verdict " 5 "

or "u". Since K is the D.N of JI- and since JI is circle-free, the verdict

cannot be "u". On the other hand the verdict cannot be "s". For if it

were, then in the K-th. section of its motion J I- would be bound to compute

the first R(K—1) + 1 = R(K) figures of the sequence computed by the

machine with K as its D.N and to write down the R(K)-th as a figure of the

sequence computed by ill. The computation of the first R(K) — l figures

would be carried out all right, but the instructions for calculating the

R(K)-th. would amount to "calculate the first R(K) figures computed by

H and write down the R(K)-th". This R{K)-th figure would never be

found. I.e., 'i-l is circular, contrary both to what we have found in the last

paragraph and to the verdict "s" . Thus both verdicts are impossible

and we conclude that there can be no machine '0-.

248 A. M. TURING [NOV. 12,

We can show further that there can be no machine £• which, when

supplied iviih the S.D of an arbitrary machine AV, will determine vjhether AV

ever prints a given symbol (0 say).

We will first show that, if there is a machine £, then there is a general

process for determining whether a given machine . U< prints 0 infinitely

often. Let Jlx be a machine which prints the same sequence as A\, except

that in the position where the first 0 printed by .11- stands, A\x prints 0.

• U2 is to have the first two s\aribols 0 replaced by 0, and so on. Thus, if • Uwere to print

ABAQlAABOQIOAB...,

then A\± would print

ABA01AAB0010AB...

and .112 would print

ABAoiAAB~00l0AB....

Xow let H;

be a machine which, when supplied with the S.D of .U, will

write down successively the S.D of .11, of .lll5 of • U2, ... (there is such a

machine). We combine V' with I' and obtain a new machine, Xj. In the

motion of (, first > is used to write down the S.D of -U, and then t tests

it.: o: iy written if it is found that • 11 never prints 0; then ^ writes the S.D

of • II2, and this is tested.. : 0 : being printed if and only if • Ux never prints 0)

and so on. KOAV let us test .<, with ('. If it is found that X] never prints 0,

then .H prints 0 infinitely often; if Xj prints 0 sometimes, then .11 does not

print 0 infinitely often.

Similarly there is a general process for determining whether • U- prints 1

infinitely often. By a combination of these processes we have a process

for determining whether. U prints an infinity of figures, i.e. we have a process

for determining whether .11 is circle-free. There can therefore be no

machine i .

The expression "there is a general process for determining..." has

been used throughout this section as equivalent to "there is a machine

which will determine ... ". This usage can be justified if and only if we

can justify our definition of "computable". For each of these "general

process:

' problems can be expressed as a problem concerning a general

process for determining Avhether a given integer n has a property G(n) [e.g.

G{n) might mean "n is satisfactory" or "n is the Godel representation of

a provable formula"], and this is equivalent to computing a number

whose n-th. figure is 1 if G (n) is true and 0 if it is false.

1936.] Otf COMPUTABLE NUMBERS. 249

9. The extent of the computable numbers.

No attempt has yet been made to show that the " computable " numbers

include all numbers which would naturally be regarded as computable. Al I

arguments which can be given are bound to be, fundamentally, appeals

to intuition, and for this reason rather unsatisfactory mathematically.

The real question at issue is " What are the possible processes which can be

carried out in computing a number?"

The arguments which I shall use are of three kinds.

(a) A direct appeal to intuition.

(6) A proof of the equivalence of two definitions (in case the new

definition has a greater intuitive appeal).

(c) Giving examples of large classes of numbers which are

computable.

Once it is granted that computable numbers are all

c:

computable"".

several other propositions of the same character follow. In particular, it

follows that, if there is a general process for determining whether a formula

of the Hilbert function calculus is provable, then the determination can bo

carried out by a machine.

I. [Type (a)]. This argument is only an elaboration of the ideas of § 1.

Computing is normally done by writing certain symbols on paper. "We

may suppose this paper is divided into squares like a child's arithmetic book.

In elementary arithmetic the two-dimensional character of the paper is

sometimes used. But such a use is always avoidable, and I think that it

will be agreed that the two-dimensional character of paper is no essential

of computation. I assume then that the computation is carried out on

one-dimensional paper, i.e. on a tape divided into squares. I shall also

suppose that the number of symbols which may be printed is finite. If we

were to allow an infinity of symbols, then there would be symbols differing

to an arbitrarily small extent j . The effect of this restriction of the number

of symbols is not very serious. It is always possible to use sequences of

symbols in the place of single symbols. Thus an Arabic numeral such as

f If we regard a symbol as literally printed on a square we may suppose that the square

is 0 < x < 1, 0 < y < 1. The symbol is defined as a set of points in this square, viz. the

set occupied by printer's ink. If these sets are restricted to be measurable, we can define

the "distance" between two symbols as the cost of transforming one symbol into the

other if the cost of moving unit area of printer's ink unit distance is unity, and there is an

infinite supply of ink at x = 2. y = 0. With this topology the symbols form a conditionally compact space.

250 A. M. TUBING [NOV. 12,

17 or 999999999999999 is normally treated as a single symbol. Similarly

in any European language words are treated as single symbols (Chinese,

however, attempts to have an enumerable infinity of symbols). The

differences from our point of view between the single and compound symbols

is that the compound symbols, if they are too lengthy, cannot be observed

at one glance. This is in accordance with experience. We cannot tell at

a glance whether 9999999999999999 and 999999999999999 are the same.

The behaviour of the computer at any moment is determined by the

symbols which he is observing, and his " state of mind " at that moment.

We may suppose that there is a bound B to the number of symbols or

squares which the computer can observe at one moment. If he wishes to

observe more, he must use successive observations. We will also suppose

that the number of states of mind which need be taken into account is finite.

The reasons for this are of the same character as those which restrict the

number of symbols. If we admitted an infinity of states of mind, some of

them will be '' arbitrarily close " and will be confused. Again, the restriction

is not one which seriously affects computation, since the use of more complicated states of mind can be avoided by writing more symbols on the tape.

Let us imagine the operations performed by the computer to be split up

into "simple operations" which are so elementary that it is not easy to

imagine them further divided. Every such operation consists of some change

of the physical system consisting of the computer and his tape. We know

the state of the system if we know the sequence of symbols on the tape,

which of these are observed by the computer (possibly with a special

order), and the state of mind of the computer. We may suppose that in a

simple operation not more than one symbol is altered. Any other changes

can be split up into simple changes of this kind. The situation in regard to

the squares whose symbols may be altered in this way is the same as in

regard to the observed squares. We may, therefore, without loss of

generality, assume that the squares whose symbols are changed are always

"observed" squares.

Besides these changes of symbols, the simple operations must include

changes of distribution of observed squares. The new observed squares

must be immediately recognisable by the computer. I think it is reasonable

to suppose that they can only be squares whose distance from the closest

of the immediately previously observed squares does not exceed a certain

fixed amount. Let us say that each of the new observed squares is within

L squares of an immediately previously observed square.

In connection with "immediate recognisability ", it may be thought

that there are other kinds of square which are immediately recognisable.

In particular, squares marked by special symbols might be taken as imme-

1936.] ON COMPUTABLE NUMBERS. 251

diately recognisable. Now if these squares are marked only by single

symbols there can be only a finite number of them, and we should not upset

our theory by adjoining these marked squares to the observed squares. If.

on the other hand, they are marked by a sequence of symbols, we

cannot regard the process of recognition as a simple process. This is a

fundamental point and should be illustrated. In most mathematical

papers the equations and theorems are numbered. Normally the numbers

do not go beyond (say) 1000. It is, therefore, possible to recognise a

theorem at a glance by its number. But if the paper was very long, we

might reach Theorem 157767733443477 ; then, further on in the paper, we

might find "... hence (applying Theorem 157767733443477) we have ... ".

In order to make sure which was the relevant theorem we should have to

compare the two numbers figure by figure, possibly ticking the figures off

in pencil to make sure of their not being counted twice. If in spite of this

it is still thought that there are other "immediately recognisable" squares,

it does not upset my contention so long as these squares can be found by

some process of which my type of machine is capable. This idea is

developed in III below.

The simple operations must therefore include:

(a) Changes of the symbol on one of the observed squares.

(6) Changes of one of the squares observed to another square

within L squares of one of the previously observed squares.

It may be that some of these changes necessarily involve a change of

state of mind. The most general single operation must therefore be taken

to be one of the following:

(A) A possible change (a) of symbol together with a possible

change of state of mind.

(B) A possible change (6) of observed squares, together with a

possible change of state of mind.

The operation actually performed is determined, as has been suggested

on p. 250, by the state of mind of the computer and the observed symbols.

In particular, they determine the state of mind of the computer after the

operation is carried out.

We may now construct a machine to do the work of this computer. To

each state of mind of the computer corresponds an " m-configuration " of

the machine. The machine scans B squares corresponding to the B squares

observed by the computer. In any move the machine can change a symbol

on a scanned square or can change any one of the scanned squares to another

square distant not more than L squares from one of the other scanned

252 A. M. TURING [NOV. 12.

squares. The move which is done, and the succeeding configuration, are

determined by the scanned symbol and the m-configuration. The

machines just described do not differ very essentially from computing

machines as defined in § 2, and corresponding to any machine of this type

a computing machine can be constructed to compute the same sequence,

that is to say the sequence computed by the computer.

II. [Type (6)].

If the notation of the Hilbert functional calculus f is modified so as to

be systematic, and so as to involve onty a finite number of symbols3 it

becomes possible to construct an automatic J machine 3C, which will find

all the provable formulae of the calculus§.

Now let a be a sequence, and let us denote by Ga(x) the proposition

"The rc-th figure of a is 1 ", so that1

' —Ga(x) means "The z-th figure of a

is 0 ". Suppose further that we can find a set of properties which define

the sequence a and which can be expressed in terms of Ga(x) and of the

prepositional functions N(x) meaning "x is a non-negative integer" and

F(x, y) meaning "y = x-\-l ". When we join all these formulae together

conjunctively, we shall have a formula, % say, which defines a. The terms

of 21 must include the necessary parts of the Peano axioms, viz.,

N(x)-»(3y)F(x, y)) &(F(X,

which we will abbreviate to P.

When we say " 2( defines a", we mean that —21 is not a provable

formula, and also that, for each n, one of the following formulae (A,J or

(BJ is provable.

%&Ftn

^Ga(uW), (AB)«T

where F™ stands for F{u, u') & F(u', u") & ... F^-v, u™).

f The expression "the functional calculus" is used throughout to mean the restricted

Hilbert functional calculus.

+ It is most natural to construct first a choice machine (§ 2) to do this. But it is

then easy to construct the required automatic machine. We can suppose that the choice3

are always choices between two possibilities 0 and 1. Each proof will then be determined

by a sequence of choices ilt i2, ..., •?•„ (ix = 0 or 1, u = 0 or 1, ..., in = 0 or 1), and hence

the number 2" + i1 2"~^-\-i22"---\-...-\-in completely determines the proof. The automatic

machine carries out successively proof 1, proof 2, proof 3, ....

§ The author has found a description of such a machine.

II The negation sign is written before an expression and not over it.

*\ A sequence of r primes is denoted by '''-1

.

1936.] ON COMPUTABLE NUMBERS. 253

I say that a is then a computable sequence: a machine 'JCa to compute

a can be obtained by a fairly simple modification of JC

We divide the motion of Ka into sections. The n-th section is devoted

to finding the n-th figure of a. After the (n— l)-th section is finished a double

colon :: is printed after all the symbols, and the succeeding work is done

wholly on the squares to the right of this double colon. The first step is to

write the letter "A " followed by the formula (An) and then " B " followed

by (Bn). The machine Ka then starts to do the work of JC, but whenever

a provable formula is found, this formula is compared with (An) and with

(Bn). If it is the same formula as (An), then the figure " 1 " is printed, and

the n-th. section is finished. If it is (B,J, then " 0 " is printed and the section

is finished. If it is different from both, then the work of K is continued

from the point at which it had been abandoned. Sooner or later one of

the formulae (An) or (B?1) is reached; this follows from our hypotheses

about a and 21, and the known nature of JC. Hence the n-th section will

eventually be finished. 3CO is circle-free; a is computable.

It can also be shown that the numbers a definable in this way by the use

of axioms include all the computable numbers. This is done by describing

computing machines in terms of the function calculus.

It must be remembered that we have attached rather a special meaning

to the phrase " 21 defines a ". The computable numbers do not include all.

(in the ordinary sense) definable numbers. Let 8 be a sequence whose

n-th figure is 1 or 0 according as n is or is not satisfactory. It is an immediate consequence of the theorem of § 8 that 8 is not computable. It is (so

far as we know at present) possible that any assigned number of figures of 8

can be calculated, but not by a uniform process. When sufficiently many

figures of 8 have been calculated, an essentially new method is necessaiy in

order to obtain more figures.

III. This may be regarded as a modification of I or as a corollary of II.

We suppose, as in I, that the computation is carried out on a tape; but we

avoid introducing the "state of mind" by considering a more physical

and definite counterpart of it. It is always possible for the computer to

break off from his work, to go away and forget all about it, and later to come

back and go on with it. If he does this he must leave a note of instructions

(written in some standard form) explaining how the work is to be continued. This note is the counterpart of the "state of mind". We will

suppose that the computer works in such a desultory manner that he never

does more than one step at a sitting. The note of instructions must enable

him to carry out one step and write the next note. Thus the state of progress

of the computation at any stage is completely determined by the note of

254 A. M. TURING [NOV. 12,

instructions and the symbols on the tape. That is, the state of the system

may be described by a single expression (sequence of symbols), consisting

of the symbols on the tape followed by A (which we suppose not to appear

elsewhere) and then by the note of instructions. This expression may be

called the "state formula". We know that the state formula at any

given stage is determined by the state formula before the last step was

made, and we assume that the relation of these two formulae is expressible

in the functional calculus. In other words, we assume that there is an

axiom 2( which expresses the rules governing the behaviour of the

computer, in terms of the relation of the state formula at any stage to the

state formula at the preceding stage. If this is so, we can construct a

machine to write down the successive state formulae, and hence to

compute the required number.

10. Examples of large classes of numbers which are computable.

It will be useful to begin with definitions of a computable function of

an integral variable and of a computable variable, etc. There are many

equivalent ways of defining a computable function of an integral

variable. The simplest is, possibly, as follows. If y is a computable

sequence in which 0 appears infinitely! often, and n is an integer, then let

us define £(y, n) to be the number of figures 1 between the n-th and the

(?i-\- l)-th figure 0 in y. Then <f)(n) is computable if, for all n and some y,

.<f>(n) = £(y, n). An equivalent definition is this. Let H(x, y) mean

<f)(x) = y. Then, if we can find a contradiction-free axiom 21^, such that

2^-* P, and if for each integer n there exists an integer N, such that

% &

and such that, if m=£<f>(n), then, for some N',

% &

then <j> may be said to be a computable function.

We cannot define general computable functions of a real variable, since

there is no general method of describing a real number, but we can define

a computable function of a computable variable. If n is satisfactory,

let yn be the number computed by ./U {n), and let

| If *Al computes y, then the problem whether .11 prints 0 infinitely often is of the

same character as the problem whether A\, is circle-free.

1936.] ON COMPUTABLE NUMBERS. 255

unless yn = 0 or yn — 1, in either of which cases an = 0. Then, as n

runs through the satisfactory numbers, an runs through the computable

numbersf. Now let <f)(n) be a computable function which can be

shown to be such that for any satisfactory argument its value is satisfactory %. Then the function /, defined by f(an) — a^n), is a computable

function and all computable functions of a computable variable are

expressible in this form.

Similar definitions may be given of computable functions of several

variables, computable-valued functions of an integral variable, etc.

I shall enunciate a number of theorems about computability, but I

shall prove only (ii) and a theorem similar to (iii).

(i) A computable function of a computable function of an integral or

computable variable is computable.

(ii) Any function of an integral variable defined recursively in terms

of computable functions is computable. I.e. if 0(ra, n) is computable, and

r is some integer, then rj(n) is computable, where

(iii) If <f> (m, n) is a computable function of two integral variables, then

<j>{n, n) is a computable function of n.

(iv) If (j>(n) is a computable function whose value is always 0 or 1, then

the sequence whose fi-th figure is <f>(n) is computable.

Dedekind's theorem does not hold in the ordinary form if we replace

*' real'' throughout by '' computable''. But it holds in the following form :

(v) If G(a) is a propositional function of the computable numbers and

(a) (3a)(3jB){G(a)&(-G(j8))},

(6) Q(a)

and there is a general process for determining the truth value of G(a), then

f A function an may be defined in many other ways so as to run through the

computable numbers.

J Although it is not possible to find a general process for determining whether a given

number is satisfactory, it is often possible to show that certain classes of numbers are

satisfactory.

256 A. M. TURING [NOV. 12r

there is a computable number £ such that

In other words, the theorem holds for any section of the computables

such that there is a general process for determining to which class a given

number belongs.

Owing to this restriction of Dedekind's theorem, we cannot say that a

computable bounded increasing sequence of computable numbers has a

computable limit. This may possibly be understood by considering a

sequence such as

l ± 1 I I I J

-5 2 ' 5 ' 8 ' io j

2» ••• •

On the other hand, (v) enables us to prove

(vi) If a and /? are computable and a < /? and <£(a) < 0 < </>(/?), where

(f>(a) is a computable increasing continuous function, then there is a unique

computable number y, satisfying a < y < fi and <f>(y) = 0.

Computable convergence.

We shall say that a sequence fin of computable numbers converges

computably if there is a computable integral valued function N(e) of the

computable variable e, such that we can show that, if e > 0 and n > N(e)

and m > N(e), then \pn—j8m| < e.

We can then show that

(vii) A power series whose coefficients form a computable sequence of

computable numbers is computably convergent at all computable points

in the interior of its interval of convergence.

(viii) The limit of a computably convergent sequence is computable.

And with the obvious definition of " uniformly computably convergent":

(ix) The limit of a uniformly computably convergent computable

sequence of computable functions is a computable function. Hence

(x) The sum of a power series whose coefficients form a computable

sequence is a computable function in the interior of its interval of

convergence.

From (viii) and TT— 4(1—i-|--i—...) we deduce that TT is computable.

From e= l + l+n-j-+»-j+... we deduce that e is computable.

1936.] OlST COMPUTABLE NUMBERS. 257

From (vi) we deduce that all real algebraic numbers are computable.

From (vi) and (x) we deduce that the real zeros of the Bessel functions

are computable.

Proof of (ii).

Let H(x, y) mean "r](x) = y", and let K{x, y, z) mean "(f>(x, y) = z".

21^ is the axiom for <f>(x, y). We take 31, to be

% & P & (F{x, y)-*Q{x, y)) & [G{x, y) & G(y, z)->G(x, z))

& (FW-*H{U, VP>)) & (J(v, w) & #(v, x) & Z(w, x} z)->H(iv, z))

& [£f(w, 2) & ^(2 , <)v (?(<, z)

I shall not give the proof of consistency of %n. Such a proof may be

constructed by the methods used in Hilbert and Bernays, Grundlagen der

Mathematik (Berlin, 1934), p. 209 et seq. The consistency is also clear

from the meaning.

Suppose that, for some n, N, we have shown

% &

then, for some M,

% &

&

and

Hence 21,

Also ST, &

Hence for each w some formula of the form

is provable. Also, if M'^M and if'^ m and m^r)(u), then

SI, & FW^G^W), u^) v G(u^m\

8EB. 2. VOL. 42. NO. 2145.

258 A. M. TURING [NOV. 12,

and

2( & FW)-^ f {G(u^n

^, w(m)) v G(u^m\

&

Hence 21, & FW"> -> (-H{u^ n \ u™)).

The conditions of our second definition of a computable function are

therefore satisfied. Consequently rj is a computable function.

Proof of a modified form of (iii).

Suppose that we are given a machine Tl, which, starting with a tape

bearing on it 9 9 followed by a sequence of any number of letters "F" on

P-squares and in the m-configuration b, will compute a sequence yn

depending on the number n of letters " F ". If <f>n(m) is the m-th figure of

yv, then the sequence /3 whose n-th. figure is <f>n{n) is computable.

We suppose that the table for Tl has been written out in such a way

that in each line only one operation appears in the operations column. We

also suppose that S, 0, 0, and 1 do not occur in the table, and we replace

9 throughout by 0, 0 by 0, and 1 byl. Further substitutions are then

made. Any line of form

95

te(23, u, h, k)

93

re(93, t>, h, k)

and we add to the table the following lines:

u pe(ul5 0)

Uj. R, Pk, R, P0, R, P0 u2

u2 re(u3, u3, k, h)

u3 pe(u2, F)

and similar lines with x> for u and 1 for 0 together with the following line

c R, PE, R, Ph 6.

We then have the table for the machine

(H/ which computes jS. The

initial m-configuration is c, and the initial scanned symbol is the second a.

we

and

by

21

replace by

21

any line of

21

2(

the

aa

form

a

a

PO

PO

Pi

Pi

1936.] ON COMPUTABLE NUMBERS. 259

11. Application to the Entscheidungsproblem.

The results of § 8 have some important applications. In particular, they

can be used to show that the Hilbert Entscheidungsproblem can have no

solution. For the present I shall confine myself to proving this particular

theorem. For the formulation of this problem I must refer the reader to

Hilbert and Ackermann's Grundziige der Theoretischen Logik (Berlin,

1931), chapter 3.

I propose, therefore, to show that there can be no general process for

determining whether a given formula 2( of the functional calculus K is

provable, i.e. that there can be no machine which, supplied with any one

21 of these formulae, will eventually say whether 21 is provable.

It should perhaps be remarked that what I shall prove is quite different

from the well-known results of Godelf. G odel has shown that (in the formalism of Principia Mathematica) there are propositions 21 such that neither

'21 nor — 21 is provable. As a consequence of this, it is shown that no proof

•of consistency of Principia Mathematica (or of K) can be given within that

formalism. On the other hand, I shall show that there is no general method

which tells whether a given formula % is provable in K, or, what comes to

the same, whether the system consisting of K with —21 adjoined as an

cextra axiom is consistent.

If the negation of what Godel has shown had been proved, i.e. if, for each

21, either 21 or — 21 is provable, then we should have an immediate solution

of the Entscheidungsproblem. For we can invent a machine JC which will

prove consecutively all provable formulae. Sooner or later JC will reach

either 21 or —21. If it reaches 21, then we know that 2( is provable. If it

reaches — 21, then, since K is consistent (Hilbert and Ackermann, p. 65), we

know that 21 is not provable.

Owing to the absence of integers in K the proofs appear somewhat

lengthy. The underlying ideas are quite straightforward.

Corresponding to each computing machine i t we construct a formula

Un (it) and we show that, if there is a general method for determining

whether Un (.11) is provable, then there is a general method for determining whether i t ever prints 0.

The interpretations of the propositional functions involved are as

follows :

Rst(

x

> V) is

to be interpreted as "in the complete configuration x (of

J/l) the symbol on the square y is S".

t Loc. cit.

S2

260 A. M. TURING [NOV. 12,

I(x, y) is to be interpreted as "in the complete configuration x the

square y is scanned".

KQm(x) is to be interpreted as "in the complete configuration x the

m-configuration is qm.

F(x, y) is to be interpreted as

sty is the immediate successor of x ".

Inst {qt Sj 8k L 37} is to be an abbreviation for

(x, y, x', y') I (BSj(x, y) k I(x, y) k K8i(x) k F(x, x') k F(y', y))

f

I{x'iy')kBSk{x',y)kKqi{x')

k (z) \_F{y', z)v(RSj(x, z) + Rak(x', z)

Inst {q{ 8, Sk R qt} and Inst {qt 8j Sk N q{]

are to be abbreviations for other similarly constructed expressions.

Let us put the description of .11 into the first standard form of § 6. This

description consists of a number of expressions such as "q{ 8i Sk Lqt" (or

with ROT N substituted for L). Let us form all the corresponding expressions such as Inst {qt $3- Sk L qt} and take their logical sum. This we call

Des(.U).

The formula Un(.U) is to be

{3u)[N{u) &, (x)(N{x)->{3x')F(x, X'))

&. (y, z)(F(y, z)->N(y) k N(z)) & (y) R>%(% y),

& I(u, u) & Kqi{u) & Des(..U)l

->(35) (30 [N(s) & N(t) & RSl(s, t)).

[K{u)&... &Des(.U)] may be abbreviated to A(M).

When we substitute the meanings suggested on p. 259-60 we find that

Un(.U) has the interpretation "in some complete configuration of M, S-^

(i.e. 0) appears on the tape ". Corresponding to this I prove that

(a) If Sx appears on the tape in some complete configuration of • U, then

Un(U) is provable.

(b) If Un (• U) is provable, then 8X appears on the tape in some complete

configuration of • 11.

When this has been done, the remainder of the theorem is trivial.

1936.] ON COMPUTABLE NUMBERS. 261

LEMMA 1. / / S± appears on the tape in some complete configuration of

.At, then Un(.At) is provable.

We have to show how to prove Un (it). Let us suppose that in the

n-th complete configuration the sequence of symbols on the tape is

&r(n,o)> *^r(n,i)5 •••> $i<n,nh followed by nothing but blanks, and that the

scanned symbol is the i(n)-th, and that the m-configuration is q^n). Then

we may form the proposition

, u) & RSrluJvF>, u') & ... & RSr{H,Mn

\

which we may abbreviate to CCn.

As before, F{u, u') & F{u', u") & ... & F{u^\ w(r)) is abbreviated

to F<r).

I shall show that all formulae of the form A{-W) & F™^- CCn (abbreviated to CFn) are provable. The meaning of CFn is " The n-th. complete

configuration of i t is so and so ", where "so and so " stands for the actual

n-th. complete configuration of it. That CFn should be provable is

therefore to be expected.

CF0 is certainly provable, for in the complete configuration the symbols

are all blanks, the m-configuration is qx, and the scanned square is u, i.e.

CC0 is

(y) RSo{u, y) & I(u, u) & KQl(u).

A(o\i)->CC0 is then trivial.

We next show that CFn^-CFn+1 is provable for each n. There are

three cases to consider, according as in the move from the n-th to the

(n-j-l)-th configuration the machine moves to left or to right or remains

stationary. We suppose that the first case applies, i.e. the machine

moves to the left. A similar argument applies in the other cases. If

r[n,i(n)}=a, r(n-\-l, i(n-\-l)} = c, k(i(n)j =b, and k(i(n-\-l)) =d,

then Des (it) must include Inst {qa 8b Sd L q^ as one of its terms, i.e.

Hence A(.AV) & Fin

+n^1nat{qa8b8dLqc} &

But Inst{qa Sb 8dLqc} & ^ n +w^(CCn -

is provable, and so therefore is

A (• It) & F(n

+»-> (CCn -» C(L .,

262 A. M. TURING [NOV. 12,

and (AIM) & F™^CCn) -+ (.4(it) & F<n

+V^CCn+1),

i.e. CFm-»CF.n+V

CFn is provable for each n. Now it is the assumption of this lemma

that 8± appears somewhere, in some complete configuration, in the sequence

of symbols printed by M; that is, for some integers N, K, CGN has

RS[(u^N

\u^) as one of its terms, and therefore CCN^RSl{u{N\ u(K)) is

provable. We have then

and A(.M)&FW->CCN

.

We also have

(3u)A(M)-+(3u)(3uf

)...

where N' — max (N, K). And so

(3u) A (. U.) -> (3^7

)) (3uW) RS

(3u)A(M)->(3s)(3t)RSl(s,t),

i.e. Un(-U) is provable.

This completes the proof of Lemma 1.

LEMMA 2. / / Un(-U) is provable, then S1 appears on the tape in some

complete configuration of M.

If we substitute any propositional functions for function variables in

a provable formula, we obtain a true proposition. In particular, if we

substitute the meanings tabulated on pp. 259-260 in Un(^U), we obtain a

true proposition with the meaning " S1 appears somewhere on the tape in

some complete configuration of .M".

We are now in a position to show that the Entscheidungsproblem cannot

be solved. Let us suppose the contrary. Then there is a general

(mechanical) process for determining whether Un(.tl) is provable. By

Lemmas 1 and 2, this implies that there is a process for determining whether

.41 ever prints 0, and this is impossible, by §8. Hence the Entscheidungsproblem cannot be solved.

In view of the large number of particular cases of solutions of the

Entscheidungsproblem for formulae with restricted systems of quantors, it

1936.] ON COMPUTABLE NUMBERS. 263

is interesting to express Un(ii) in a form in which all quantors are at the

beginning. Un(At) is, in fact, expressible in the form

{u){3x){w){3u1)...{3un)%, (I)

where 95 contains no quantors, and n = 6. By unimportant modifications

we can obtain a formula, with all essential properties of Un(.it), which is of

form (I) with n = 5.

Added 28 August, 1936.

APPENDIX.

Computabiliiy and effective calculability

The theorem that all effectively calculable (A-definable) sequences are

computable and its converse are proved below in outline. It is assumed,

that the terms "well-formed formula " (W.F.F.) and "conversion " as used

by Church and Kleene are understood. In the second of these proofs the

existence of several formulae is assumed without proof; these formulae

may be constructed straightforwardly with the help of, e.g., the

results of Kleene in "A theory of positive integers in formal logic'",

American Journal of Math., 57 (1935), 153-173, 219-244.

The W.F.F. representing an integer n will be denoted by Nn. We shall

say that a sequence y whose n-th figure is (f>y(n) is A-definable or effectively

calculable if l-\-</>y(u) is a A-definable function of n, i.e. if there is a W.F.F.

My such that, for all integers n,

i.e. {My} (Nn) is convertible into Xxy.x(x(y)) or into Xxy.x(y) according as

the n-th figure of A is 1 or 0.

To show that every A-definable sequence y is computable, we have to

show how to construct a machine to compute y. For use with machines it

is convenient to make a trivial modification in the calculus of conversion.

This alteration consists in using x, x', x", ... as variables instead of

a, b, c, .... We now construct a machine JL which, when supplied with the

formula My, writes down the sequence y. The construction of X is somewhat similar to that of the machine K which proves all provable formulae

of the functional calculus. We first construct a choice machine £-v which,

if supplied with a W.F.F., M say, and suitably manipulated, obtains any

formula into which M is convertible. £± can then be modified so as to

yield an automatic machine £-2 which obtains successively all the formulae

264 A. M. TURING [NOV. 12,

into which M is convertible (cf. foot-note p. 252). The machine £>

includes ^2

a s a Par^. The motion of the machine X when supplied

with the formula My is divided into sections of which the n-th. is

devoted to finding the n-th figure of y. The first stage in this n-th. section

is the formation of {My} {Nn). This formula is then supplied to the

machine £2, which converts it successively into various other formulae.

Each formula into which it is convertible eventually appears, and each, as

it is found, is compared with

and with Aa:|Aa;'[{a;}(a;')] |, i.e. Nv

If it is identical with the first of these, then the machine prints the figure 1

and the n-th section is finished. If it is identical with the second, then 0

is printed and the section is finished. If it is different from both, then the

work of .!!2 is resumed. By hypothesis, {My}(Nn) is convertible into one of

the formulae N2 or Nx; consequently the n-th section will eventually be

finished, i.e. the n-th. figure of y will eventually be written down.

To prove that every computable sequence y is A-defUiable, we must

show how to find a formula My such that, for all integers n,

{My}(Nn)c(mvN1+<j)y{n).

Let .11 be a machine which computes y and let us take some description

of the complete configurations of -U by means of numbers, e.g. we may take

the D.N of the complete configuration as described in §6. Let £(n) be

the D.N of the w-th complete configuration of M. The table for the

machine ..U gives us a relation between £(n-\-l) and £(n) of the form

where py is a function of very restricted, although not usually very simple,

form : it is determined by the table for. U. py is A-defmable (I omit the proof

of this), i.e. there is a W.F.F. Ay such that, for all integers n,

Let U stand for

Xu[{{u}(Ay))(Nr)],

where r=£(0); then, for all integers n,

{Uy}(NJ conv N,{n).

1936.] ON COMPUTABLE NUMBERS.

It may be proved that there is a formula V such that

265

conv Nx if, in going from the n-th to the (n-\- l)-th

complete configuration, the figure 0 is

printed.

conv JV2 if the figure 1 is printed,

conv N3 otherwise.

Let Wy stand for

so that, for each integer n,

conv {Wy} (Nn),

and let Q be a formula such that

\{Q}(Wy)UNs) convNr(s),

where r(s) is the 5-th integer q for which {Wy} (NQ) is convertible into either

N-L or JVa. Then, if j|f7 stands for

it will have the required property f.

The Graduate College,

Princeton University,

New Jersey, U.S.A.

t In a complete proof of the A-definability of computable sequences it would be best to

modify this method by replacing the numerical description of the complete configurations

by a description which can be handled more easily with our apparatus. Let us choose

certain integers to represent the symbols and the m-configurations of the machine.

Suppose that in a certain complete configuration the numbers representing the successive

symbols on the tape are s1s2... sn, that the m-th symbol is scanned, and that the ?n.-configurationhas the number t; then we may represent this complete configuration by the formula

where

etc.

„ N» ..., #,„,_,], [Nt, NaJ, [NSM+V ..., NSlt]],

[a, 6] stands for \u f" -{ {u} (a) )(&)]»

[a, 6, c] stands for AM P I \ {u} (a)}(b) J (c)l,

Aug 19, 2020, 5:59:32 PM8/19/20

to

Karacter rekognition problem?

> ON COMPUTABLE NUMBERS, WITH AN APPLICATION TO

> THE ENTSCHEIDUNGSPROBLEM

> By A. M. TURING.

You've posted a couple of interesting historic papers, but why do it in

this bad ASCII format? The maths is unreadable and yet both are

available as reasonable quality facsimile PDFs. You could have linked

to them.

--

Ben.

> ON COMPUTABLE NUMBERS, WITH AN APPLICATION TO

> THE ENTSCHEIDUNGSPROBLEM

> By A. M. TURING.

this bad ASCII format? The maths is unreadable and yet both are

available as reasonable quality facsimile PDFs. You could have linked

to them.

--

Ben.

Jan 11, 2022, 7:47:12 PMJan 11

to

Jan 13, 2022, 9:37:35 PMJan 13

to

On Thursday, 20 August 2020 at 05:54:22 UTC+8, Jeffrey Rubard wrote:

> 230 A. M. TUKING [Nov. 12,

> ON COMPUTABLE NUMBERS, WITH AN APPLICATION TO

> THE ENTSCHEIDUNGSPROBLEM

> By A. M. TURING.

>

> [Received 28 May, 1936.—Read 12 November, 1936.]

...
> 230 A. M. TUKING [Nov. 12,

> ON COMPUTABLE NUMBERS, WITH AN APPLICATION TO

> THE ENTSCHEIDUNGSPROBLEM

> By A. M. TURING.

>

> [Received 28 May, 1936.—Read 12 November, 1936.]

[snip] (Thanks brought it up)

...

The "computable" numbers may be described briefly as the real

numbers whose expressions as a decimal are calculable by finite means...
...This will include a development

of the theory of functions of a real variable expressed in terms of computable numbers. According to my definition, a number is computable

if its decimal can be written down by a machine.

...
if its decimal can be written down by a machine.

-------

In my programming experience, all the numbers X (X=f(x)) in consideration are

eventually a kind of expression (e.g n-ary, p-adic, rational or continued

fraction). These final forms can be said an expression of integers. Then,

what is integer? I may say a form of restricted polynomial (number is reduced

to an expression of 0 to 9).

Therefore: Number (or numerical value) is a kind of arithmetic expression.

Considering the Natural number and the conversion with the counting reality,

number= S(S(S(S(0))))...=SSSS... I.e. all numbers (plus +-*/) may actually be

functions, or an algorithm of calculation (computing).

Jan 14, 2022, 5:12:26 AMJan 14

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Jan 14, 2022, 10:03:09 AMJan 14

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Jan 15, 2022, 12:30:24 PMJan 15

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