C/A/T Phototypesetter command set

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Warren Burstein

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Jul 30, 1987, 1:01:00 AM7/30/87
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I had the idea that I might be able to do some useful things
with the output of (old) troff if I know what the command set
of the phototypesetter looks like. Does anyone know this
information, or have any programs that they are at liberty
to let me see that deal directly with the typesetter that
might shed some light on the subject?

thanks
--
/|/~\~~\ The entire world Warren Burstein
|__/__/_/ is a very strange carrot.
| But the farmer philabs!tg!pluto!warren
/ is not afraid at all. Why doesn't life come with subtitles?

Scott Simpson

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Jul 30, 1987, 12:45:17 PM7/30/87
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Warren Burnstein writes:
> I had the idea that I might be able to do some useful things
> with the output of (old) troff if I know what the command set
> of the phototypesetter looks like. Does anyone know this
> information, or have any programs that they are at liberty
> to let me see that deal directly with the typesetter that
> might shed some light on the subject?

This is a commonly asked question so here is a manual page and include
file for the C/A/T. You should be able to write a driver from this
documentation.

#! /bin/sh
# To extract, remove mail header lines and type "sh filename"
echo x - cat.h
sed -e 's/^X//' > cat.h << '!FaR!OuT!'
X/* mask for high order 4 bits of byte */
X#define CAT_HIGH_NIBBLE 0xf0
X#define CAT_MAX_BYTE 0xff
X
X#define CAT_ESCAPE_CODE 0x80
X#define CAT_ESCAPE_MASK 0x7f
X#define CAT_MAX_ESCAPE 0x7f
X/* nonzero if escape command and zero otherwise */
X#define CAT_IS_ESCAPE(x) (((x) & (CAT_HIGH_NIBBLE << 3)) == CAT_ESCAPE_CODE)
X/* magnitude of escape */
X#define CAT_ESCAPE(x) (~(x) & CAT_ESCAPE_MASK)
X#define CAT_ENCODE_ESCAPE(n) (CAT_ESCAPE_CODE | (~(n) & CAT_ESCAPE_MASK))
X
X#define CAT_LEAD_CODE 0x60
X#define CAT_LEAD_MASK 0x1f
X#define CAT_MAX_LEAD 0x1f
X/* nonzero if leading command and zero otherwise */
X#define CAT_IS_LEADING(x) (((x) & (CAT_HIGH_NIBBLE << 1)) == CAT_LEAD_CODE)
X/* magnitude of leading */
X#define CAT_LEAD(x) (~(x) & CAT_MAX_LEAD)
X#define CAT_ENCODE_LEAD(n) (CAT_LEAD_CODE | (~(n) & CAT_LEAD_MASK))
X
X#define CAT_SIZE_CHANGE_CODE 0x50
X/* nonzero if point size change command and zero otherwise */
X#define CAT_IS_SIZE_CHANGE(x) (((x) & CAT_HIGH_NIBBLE) == CAT_SIZE_CHANGE_CODE)
X
X/* translates from the weird CAT point size change codes into something sane */
X#define CAT_SIZE_CHANGE(x) \
X ((x) == 0x50 ? 7 : \
X (x) == 0x51 ? 8 : \
X (x) == 0x52 ? 10 : \
X (x) == 0x53 ? 11 : \
X (x) == 0x54 ? 12 : \
X (x) == 0x55 ? 14 : \
X (x) == 0x56 ? 18 : \
X (x) == 0x57 ? 9 : \
X (x) == 0x58 ? 6 : \
X (x) == 0x59 ? 16 : \
X (x) == 0x5a ? 20 : \
X (x) == 0x5b ? 22 : \
X (x) == 0x5c ? 24 : \
X (x) == 0x5d ? 28 : \
X (x) == 0x5e ? 36 : 0)
X
X/* translates from sane point sizes into the weird CAT encodings */
X#define CAT_ENCODE_SIZE(x) \
X ((x) == 6 ? 0x58 : \
X (x) == 7 ? 0x50 : \
X (x) == 8 ? 0x51 : \
X (x) == 9 ? 0x57 : \
X (x) == 10 ? 0x52 : \
X (x) == 11 ? 0x53 : \
X (x) == 12 ? 0x54 : \
X (x) == 14 ? 0x55 : \
X (x) == 16 ? 0x59 : \
X (x) == 18 ? 0x56 : \
X (x) == 20 ? 0x5a : \
X (x) == 22 ? 0x5b : \
X (x) == 24 ? 0x5c : \
X (x) == 28 ? 0x5d : \
X (x) == 36 ? 0x5e : 0)
X
X#define CAT_FLASH_CODE 0x00
X#define CAT_FLASH_MASK 0x3f
X#define CAT_MAX_FLASH 0x3f
X/* nonzero if printable character and zero otherwise */
X#define CAT_IS_FLASH(x) (((x) & (CAT_HIGH_NIBBLE << 2)) == CAT_FLASH_CODE)
X#define CAT_FLASH(x) ((x) & CAT_MAX_FLASH)
X#define CAT_ENCODE_FLASH(n) (CAT_FLASH_CODE | ((n) & CAT_FLASH_MASK))
X
X#define CAT_CONTROL_CODE 0x40
X/* nonzero if control command and zero otherwise */
X#define CAT_IS_CONTROL(x) (((x) & CAT_HIGH_NIBBLE) == CAT_CONTROL_CODE)
X
X/* CAT-8 control commands */
X#define CAT_INITIALIZE 0x40
X#define CAT_LOWER_RAIL 0x41
X#define CAT_UPPER_RAIL 0x42
X#define CAT_UPPER_MAGAZINE 0x43
X#define CAT_LOWER_MAGAZINE 0x44
X#define CAT_LOWER_FONT 0x45
X#define CAT_UPPER_FONT 0x46
X#define CAT_ESCAPE_FORWARD 0x47
X#define CAT_ESCAPE_BACKWARD 0x48
X#define CAT_STOP 0x49
X#define CAT_LEAD_FORWARD 0x4a
X#define CAT_LEAD_BACKWARD 0x4c
X#define CAT_TILT_UP 0x4e
X#define CAT_TILT_DOWN 0x4f
X#define CAT_NOOP 0x00
X/* trapdoor for CAT extensions */
X#define CAT_EXTENSION 0x4b
X
X/* CAT_BIG_LEAD means take the next byte * 64 to obtain leading */
X#define CAT_BIG_LEAD 0x01
X#define CAT_BIG_LEAD_MULTIPLIER 64
X#define CAT_MIN_BIG_LEAD (CAT_BIG_LEAD_MULTIPLIER * 0x01)
X#define CAT_MAX_BIG_LEAD (CAT_BIG_LEAD_MULTIPLIER * 0xff)
X
X/* CAT_BIG_ESCAPE means take the next byte * 128 to obtain escape */
X#define CAT_BIG_ESCAPE 0x02
X#define CAT_BIG_ESCAPE_MULTIPLIER 128
X#define CAT_MIN_BIG_ESCAPE (CAT_BIG_ESCAPE_MULTIPLIER * 0x01)
X#define CAT_MAX_BIG_ESCAPE (CAT_BIG_ESCAPE_MULTIPLIER * 0xff)
X
X/*
X * CAT_FORMFEED means advance to next page resetting current row
X * and column to <0,0>.
X */
X#define CAT_FORMFEED 0x03
X
X/*
X * Returns nonzero if a single point size and zero otherwise.
X * The parameter is the `sane' point size and NOT the weird CAT encoding.
X */
X#define CAT_IS_SINGLE(p) ((6 <= (p) && (p) <= 14) || (p) == 18)
X
X/*
X * Returns nonzero is a double point size and zero otherwise.
X * The parmeter is the `sane' point size and NOT the weird CAT encoding.
X */
X#define CAT_IS_DOUBLE(p) ((p) == 16 || (p) >= 20)
X
X/*
X * Returns nonzero if the old to new point size transition is a
X * single to double transition and zero otherwise.
X * The parameters are the `sane' point sizes NOT the weird CAT encodings.
X */
X#define CAT_IS_SINGLE_TO_DOUBLE(old, new) \
X (CAT_IS_SINGLE(old) && CAT_IS_DOUBLE(new))
X
X/*
X * Returns nonzero if the old to new point size transition is a
X * double to single transition and zero otherwise.
X * The parameters are the `sane' point sizes NOT the weird CAT encodings.
X */
X#define CAT_IS_DOUBLE_TO_SINGLE(old, new) \
X (CAT_IS_DOUBLE(old) && CAT_IS_SINGLE(new))
X
Xtypedef struct CAT {
X char escape_where; /* BACKWARD or FORWARD */
X char lead_where; /* BACKWARD or FORWARD */
X char font; /* bit 0 => tilt, bit 1 => rail, bit 2 => magazine */
X char font_half; /* LOWER or UPPER */
X char point_size; /* current point size */
X} CAT;
X
X#define CAT_FORWARD 0
X#define CAT_BACKWARD 1
X#define CAT_UPPER 0
X#define CAT_LOWER 1
X
X/* vertical resolution per inch */
X#define CAT_VERTICAL_UNITS 144.0
X/* horizontal resolution per inch */
X#define CAT_HORIZONTAL_UNITS 432.0
X
X/* compensatory escape for single/double point size transitions */
X#define CAT_LENSE_COMPENSATION 55
X
X#define CAT_TILT 01
X#define CAT_RAIL 02
X#define CAT_MAGAZINE 04
X
X/* default troff and scribe font mountings for CAT-8 */
X#define CAT_ROMAN_FONT 0
X#define CAT_ITALIC_FONT 2
X#define CAT_BOLD_FONT 4
X#define CAT_SPECIAL_FONT 6
X
X/* the maximum number of characters on a filmstrip */
X#define CAT_MAX_FONT_INDEX 108
!FaR!OuT!
echo x - cat.5
sed -e 's/^X//' > cat.5 << '!FaR!OuT!'
X.TH CAT 5 TRW
X.UC 4
X.SH NAME
Xcat \- GSI CAT-4/8 phototypesetter code
X.SH SYNOPSIS
X.B "#include <local/cat.h>"
X.SH DESCRIPTION
XThe Graphic Systems Industries CAT phototypesetter is driven by sending it a
Xsequence of one-byte codes
Xwhich specify characters, fonts, sizes, and other control information.
X.PP
XThe CAT's basic unit of length is 1/432 of an inch (6 units to a
Xtypesetter's ``point'').
XThe quantum of horizontal motion is one unit.
XThe quantum of vertical motion is three units (1/144 of an inch, 1/2 point).
X.PP
XThe top two bits of the code classify it as one of three major
Xtypes:
Xan
X.I escape
Xcode (top bit 1),
Xa
X.I flash
Xcode (top bits 00),
Xor a control code (top bits 01).
XA code of all zeros is ignored; a code of all ones is illegal.
X.PP
XA flash code specifies flashing one of 63 characters, as given by the
Xremaining six bits.
XSince this is not enough to specify all possible characters, or even
Xall characters in a single font \- there are 108 per font \-
Xvarious control codes (described later) select a font and either
Xthe
X.I lower
Xor
X.I upper
Xhalf of the font.
XThe lower half is the first 63 characters of the font;
Xthe upper half is the remaining 45.
XA flash code of 46 or higher in the upper half is illegal.
X.PP
XAn escape code specifies horizontal motion.
XThe size of the motion, in horizontal quanta, is the one's-complement
Xof the low seven bits of the code.
XThe direction of the motion is set by control codes.
XHitting the right or left margin limit switch is illegal and will
Xcause the machine to stop.
XThe machine starts out, after initialization, hard against the left
Xmargin limit switch; an initial escape of 16 units
X.I must
Xbe given before starting work, and the position after this motion
Xshould be the limit of all future leftward motions.
XFrom this point, the distance to the right margin limit switch
Xis about 7.5 inches.
X.PP
XA code with the top three bits 011 is a
X.I lead
Xcode,
Xspecifying vertical motion.
XThe remaining five bits are the one's-complement of the size of
Xthe motion, in vertical quanta.
XThe direction of motion is set by control codes.
XThe amount of vertical motion is, in principle, limited only by
Xrunning off the paper in the upward direction and by the limited
Xcapacity of the output cartridge in the downward direction.
X.PP
XA code with the top four bits 0101 is a size-change code, which
Xspecifies movement of the lens turret and the doubler lens to
Xchange point size.
XThese codes are as follows:
X.PP
X.RS
X.nf
X.ta 2c
XSize Code
X
X6 0101\|1000
X7 0101\|0000
X8 0101\|0001
X9 0101\|0111
X10 0101\|0010
X11 0101\|0011
X12 0101\|0100
X14 0101\|0101
X16 0101\|1001
X18 0101\|0110
X20 0101\|1010
X22 0101\|1011
X24 0101\|1100
X28 0101\|1101
X36 0101\|1110
X.DT
X.fi
X.RE
X.PP
XSize changes involving the doubler lens alter the horizontal position.
XChanges from single to double sizes should be followed by a forward
Xescape of 55 quanta; changes from double to single sizes should be
Xfollowed by a reverse escape of 55 quanta.
XThe single sizes are 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, and 18;
Xthe double sizes are 16, 20, 22, 24, 28, and 36.
X.PP
XThe control codes with the top four bits 0100 specify miscellaneous
Xcontrol codes, not all of which have valid meanings.
XThey are:
X.PP
X.RS
X.ta 6c
X.nf
Xinitialize 0100\|0000
Xstop 0100\|1001
Xupper rail 0100\|0010
Xlower rail 0100\|0001
Xupper magazine 0100\|0011
Xlower magazine 0100\|0100
Xtilt up 0100\|1110
Xtilt down 0100\|1111
Xupper font half 0100\|0110
Xlower font half 0100\|0101
Xescape forward 0100\|0111
Xescape backward 0100\|1000
Xlead forward 0100\|1010
Xlead backward 0100\|1100
X.fi
X.DT
X.RE
X.PP
XThe
X.I initialize
Xcode causes leftward motion to the left margin limit
Xswitch,
Xand sets the following modes:
Xescape forward, lead forward, lower font half,
Xlower rail, lower mag, tilt down.
XNote that the left margin limit switch does not define a precise
Xposition, and hence reinitializing the machine
Xwill destroy precise left-margin alignment.
X.PP
XThe
X.I stop
Xcode stops the machine, which must be manually
Xrestarted (normally after changing output cartridges);
Xthis code should be used only at the end of a run.
X.PP
XFonts are selected by the combination of
X.IR rail ,
X.IR magazine ,
Xand
X.IR tilt .
XThe tilt codes do not exist on the 4-font CAT; this is the only user-visible
Xdifference between the 4-font and 8-font machines.
XThe correspondence between rail/magazine/tilt and font number is as follows:
X.PP
X.RS
X.nf
X.ta 2c 5c 7c 9c
Xrail magazine tilt 4 font 8 font
X
Xlower lower up 1 1
Xlower lower down 1 2
Xupper lower up 2 3
Xupper lower down 2 4
Xlower upper up 3 5
Xlower upper down 3 6
Xupper upper up 4 7
Xupper upper down 4 8
X.DT
X.fi
X.RE
X.PP
XSeveral additional commands were introduced locally to ease
Xthe simulation of the CAT on a variety of raster plotters.
XEach is several bytes long.
XThe first byte is the
X.I extension
Xcontrol code 0100\|1011.
XThe remaining bytes specify the command and its argument
X(if any, treated as an unsigned integer).
XThe commands are:
X.PP
X.RS
X.nf
X.ta 6c
Xbig lead 0000\|0001
Xbig escape 0000\|0010
Xformfeed 0000\|0011
X.fi
X.DT
X.RE
X.PP
XThe
X.I "big lead"
Xcode specifies vertical motion whose magnitude is
X64 * the following byte.
XThe
X.I "big escape"
Xcode specifies horizontal motion whose magnitude is
X128 * the following byte.
XThe
X.I formfeed
Xcode specifies an advance to the next page resetting the current
Xrow and column to <0,0>.
X.PP
XA complete CAT file should begin with an
X.I initialize
Xcode followed
Xby an
X.IR escape -16
Xcode,
Xand should end with 14 inches of trailer and a
X.I stop
Xcode.
X.SH HEADER FILE
XIn the following description of
X.I cat.h
X.I b
Xdenotes an arbitrary byte treated as an unsigned integer,
X.I c
Xdenotes a CAT code and
X.IR i " or " j
Xdenotes a small positive integer.
X.TP
XCAT_IS_CONTROL(c)
Xreturns nonzero if
X.I c
Xis a control code and zero otherwise.
X.TP
XCAT_IS_DOUBLE(i)
Xreturns nonzero if
X.I i
Xis a double point size and zero otherwise.
X.TP
XCAT_IS_DOUBLE_TO_SINGLE(i,j)
Xreturns nonzero if and only if
X.I i
Xis a double point size and
X.I j
Xis a single point size.
X.TP
XCAT_IS_ESCAPE(c)
Xreturns nonzero if
X.I c
Xis an escape code and zero otherwise.
X.TP
XCAT_IS_FLASH(c)
Xreturns nonzero if
X.I c
Xis a flash code and zero otherwise.
X.TP
XCAT_IS_LEADING(c)
Xreturns nonzero if
X.I c
Xis a leading code and zero otherwise.
X.TP
XCAT_IS_SINGLE(i)
Xreturns nonzero if
X.I i
Xis a single point size and zero otherwise.
X.TP
XCAT_IS_SINGLE_TO_DOUBLE(i,j)
Xreturns nonzero if and only if
X.I i
Xis a single point size and
X.I j
Xis a double point size.
X.TP
XCAT_IS_SIZE_CHANGE(c)
Xreturns nonzero if
X.I c
Xis a size change code and zero otherwise.
X.TP
XCAT_ESCAPE(c)
Xreturns the magnitude of the escape code
X.IR c .
X.TP
XCAT_LEAD(c)
Xreturns the magnitude of the lead code
X.IR c .
X.TP
XCAT_SIZE_CHANGE(c)
Xextracts the size change from the point size code
X.I c
Xtranslating the CAT encoding to the corresponding integer value.
X.TP
XCAT_ENCODE_ESCAPE(i)
Xretuns an escape code with magnitude
X.IR i .
X.TP
XCAT_ENCODE_LEAD(i)
Xreturns a lead code with magnitude
X.IR i .
X.TP
XCAT_ENCODE_SIZE(i)
Xreturns a point size change code for size
X.IR i .
X.TP
XCAT_ENCODE_FLASH(i)
Xreturns a flash code with font index
X.IR i .
X.TP
XCAT_HORIZONTAL_UNITS
Xthe horizontal resolution per inch of the CAT-4/8 as a floating
Xpoint number.
X.TP
XCAT_LENSE_COMPENSATION
Xthe amount of compensatory escape for single/double
Xpoint size transitions.
X.TP
XCAT_MAX_FONT_INDEX
Xthe maximum number of glyphs on a CAT-4/8 filmstrip.
X.TP
XCAT_VERTICAL_UNITS
Xthe vertical resolution per inch of the CAT-4/8 as a floating
Xpoint number.
X.PP
XThe constants:
X.nf
X
X CAT_BIG_ESCAPE
X CAT_BIG_LEAD
X CAT_ESCAPE_BACKWARD
X CAT_ESCAPE_FORWARD
X CAT_EXTENSION
X CAT_FORMFEED
X CAT_INITIALIZE
X CAT_LEAD_BACKWARD
X CAT_LEAD_FORWARD
X CAT_LOWER_FONT
X CAT_LOWER_MAGAZINE
X CAT_LOWER_RAIL
X CAT_NOOP
X CAT_STOP
X CAT_TILT_DOWN
X CAT_TILT_UP
X CAT_UPPER_FONT
X CAT_UPPER_RAIL
X CAT_UPPER_MAGAZINE
X
X.fi
Xare provided as mnemonics for the CAT-4/8 control codes.
X.PP
XThe structure:
X.nf
X.ta \w'typedef 'u +\w'char escape_where; 'u
X
Xtypedef struct CAT {
X char escape_where; /* BACKWARD or FORWARD */
X char lead_where; /* BACKWARD or FORWARD */
X char font; /* bit 0 => tilt, bit 1 => rail, bit 2 => magazine */
X char font_half; /* LOWER or UPPER */
X char point_size; /* current point size */
X} CAT;
X
X.DT
X.fi
Xis used to represent the CAT internal state.
X.PP
XThe constants:
X.nf
X
X CAT_BACKWARD
X CAT_FORWARD
X CAT_LOWER
X CAT_MAGAZINE
X CAT_RAIL
X CAT_TILT
X CAT_UPPER
X
X.fi
Xare provided as aids for setting and testing components of the state.
X.PP
XThe constants:
X.nf
X
X CAT_ROMAN_FONT
X CAT_ITALIC_FONT
X CAT_BOLD_FONT
X CAT_SPECIAL_FONT
X
X.fi
Xare the font positions assummed by
X.IR scribe (1)
Xfor the CAT-8.
XThey are upward compatible with the default font postions
Xassummed by
X.IR troff (1)
Xfor the CAT-4.
X.SH AUTHORS
XHenry Spencer, University of Toronto
X.br
XMichael Gorlick, TRW
X.SH BUGS
XThe documentation and the hardware disagree on the initial tilt setting;
Xthe above describes the hardware.
X.SH SEE ALSO
Xcati(1)
!FaR!OuT!
exit
--
Scott Simpson
TRW Space and Defense Sector
...{decvax,ihnp4,ucbvax}!trwrb!simpson

br...@bradley.uucp

unread,
Aug 1, 1987, 9:33:00 PM8/1/87
to

We have programs to take C/A/T output and put it on Printronix
printers (haven't used it in years) and at one time had a program
that worked on LA-100 letterwriters.


Bradley Smith UUCP: {cepu,ihnp4,noao,uiucdcs}!bradley!brad
Text Processing ARPA: cepu!bradley!br...@CS.UCLA
Bradley University PH: (309) 677-2337
Peor@se kn!F1!F1!

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