comp.sys.newton.* Frequently Asked Questions [1/9]

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Paul Guyot

Oct 1, 2002, 12:00:17 AM10/1/02
Archive-name: palmtops/newton/faq/index
Posting-Frequency: monthly
Last-modified: 2002/10/01
Version: This is the October 2002 update
Maintainer: Steve Weyer <>,
Peter Rand <>,
Sean Luke <> and Paul Guyot <>

FAQ for the Newton Community

This is the September 2002 Update. Released on September, 1st.
Newton 1999-2002 FAQ Group: Please don't ask us questions directly, but
post them in related groups/forums.
* Maintainers:
+ Steve Weyer <>
+ Peter Rand <>
+ Sean Luke <>
+ Paul Guyot <>
* Hosters:
+ Grant Hutchinson from Splorp <>
+ Rich Lindsay from ThisOldNewt <>
+ Chris Stephens <>
+ Victor Rehorst from Newton Resources <>
+ Mark Rollins (Newton Book compiler) <>
+ Bill Davis from Info-Newt <>
+ Laura from PlanetNewton <>
+ Bill Shamam from Guns <>
+ Anthony V. Jeancola from Newton Resurrection <>
RESPONSIBILITY: This FAQ is provided "as is" with no warranties expressed
or implied.

Top five questions

* IIC6a My Newton won't turn on. What should I do?
* IIA1e I have a Newton model H1000. What is this?
* IIIB3 How do I connect the Newton to my Mac/PC?
* IIB2a Which modem can I use? Are there drivers for my modem?
* IIA1f I heard a rumor that Apple is making a new Newton. Is this true?

Table of contents

* PART I: Introduction
Basis information and links to other FAQs.
* PART II: Newton Hardware
The Newton MessagePad family, compatible hardware & hardware problems.
* PART III: Newton OS
System versions, use of the NOS & problems
* PART IV: The Newton Community on the Internet
Groups & links
* PART V: Newton Software
Sources, Apple software, Internet, Fonts & localization software
* PART VI: Newton Books
How to find & create books
* PART VII: Development
Links to development solutions & documentation for all platforms and
Change History

Paul Guyot

Oct 1, 2002, 12:00:19 AM10/1/02
Archive-name: palmtops/newton/faq/introduction
Posting-Frequency: monthly
Last-modified: 2002/10/01

Version: This is the October 2002 update
Maintainer: Steve Weyer <>,
Peter Rand <>,
Sean Luke <> and Paul Guyot <>

PART I: Introduction

* A) General
+ 1) What is this document?
+ 2) Where can I get the newest version?
+ 3) Who shall I contact for corrections/suggestions or comments?
* B) Sources and special thanks
+ 1) Where can I get other FAQs about the Newton?
x a) General FAQ
x b) Specific FAQs
+ 2) FAQs in other languages
+ 3) Special thanks to:

A) General

1) What is this document?

This document used to be a FAQ related to common questions and issues about
Newton Message Pad hardware, software and sources. It is now a huge
database of knowledge, including questions you would dare to ask and
answers you even ignored. It is by no means a simple newbie only tool, but
it includes useful links and can also be used as a bookmark directory.

2) Where do I find the latest version?

The FAQ is traditionally updated once per month. Because it's a huge
document with plenty of links and because it reflects a large part of the
Newtledge (Gregory J. Wayman) there are always changes to make.
The plain text version of this FAQ is automatically posted monthly on
comp.sys.newton.misc, comp.answers and news.answers. The latest text
version should be available on MIT FTP
<> and on mirrors. For
example, you can find the latest version a couple of days later on the web
at <>.
It's now been quite a long time that the HTML version of the FAQ is sent to
popular Newton site webmasters who wanted to mirror the FAQ. But the
webmasters have more or less time to upload the latest version to their
website. The consequence is that some copies on the web have incorrect or
outdated information about several points.
Since September 2001 the FAQ is automatically posted and some mirrors are
automatically updated just after the new version is released.
* Websites which are automatically updated on the first day of each month:
+ Guns (Bill Shamam): <>
+ Newton Resources (Victor Rehorst): <>
* Websites which mirror the latest released version of the FAQ (rarely
takes more than a couple of days):
+ Splorp (Grant Hutchinson): <>
+ ThisOldNewt (Rich Lindsay): <>
+ Chris Stephens' site: <>
+ Newton Resurrection (Anthony V. Jeancola):
Mark Rollins compiled the November 2000 release to a Newton Book:

3) Who shall I contact for corrections/suggestions or comments?

The FAQ Project was originally led by Steve Weyer, Peter Rand, Sean Luke
and Paul Guyot. I (Paul) am currently doing updates from user input. Feel
free tomail us.
Please note that the FAQ isn't our knowledge. It's the knowledge of the
community and consequently we're often not the best person to ask if you
have any problem with your Newton. You shall better post your question in
Finally, the FAQ wouldn't exist without its hosters. Cf question IA2.

B) Sources and special thanks

1) Where can I find other Newton FAQs?

a) General FAQs:

* Robert Sexton wrote a complete FAQ:
* Andree Dettmer MetaFAQ:
* Old FAQ (1995) (useful for 1.x models) by Jean-Christophe Bousson

b) Specialized FAQs:

* Apple Knowledge Archive (former TIL)
Newton-related articles can also be found in the NewTIL which can be found
at various places:
+ C.W. Otto Sohn's mirror:
+ ThisOldNewt's mirror: <>
+ Richard Harbottle's European mirror:
* Grant Hutchinson's glossary:
* Standalone's FAQ (memory, miscellany):
* Handwriting recognition tips for the Newton by Hardy Macia at Catamount:
* Daniel Domberger's Newton Heap Mini-FAQ:
* David Arnold's IR FAQ:
* The Newton Underground's IrDA FAQ [dead link]:
* Joseph N. Hall started the Battery FAQ which is now maintained by Eric
Damien Berna:
* The Newton Pre-Buyers' Guide (MP2x00 and EM300):
* Info on what to do with compressed SIT and HQX files:
<> (dead link?)
* (THX 1138 / ben)'s Connections FAQ:

2) FAQs in other languages

* A Japanese Newton FAQ is available:
* There is a German Newton FAQ originally written by Guido Heer and now
maintained by Pascal B. Kreil:

3) Special thanks to:

First, the Newton Community for its spirit. Also, I'd [PG] like to thank
Laura (although PlanetNewton completely disapeared, she did send me useful
comments), Steve Weyer and Peter Rand for their support. I also want to
thank Robert Sexton for his work (allowing me to complete mine), David
Arnold for his complete site for developers, and Rich Lindsay (This Old
Newt) for his helpful links. Finally, this FAQ wouldn't have reached this
achievement without comments, suggestions, additions and corrections from
many Newton Users (more than 20!).

Paul Guyot

Oct 1, 2002, 12:00:18 AM10/1/02
Archive-name: palmtops/newton/faq/history
Posting-Frequency: monthly
Last-modified: 2002/10/01

Version: This is the October 2002 update
Maintainer: Steve Weyer <>,
Peter Rand <>,
Sean Luke <> and Paul Guyot <>

FAQ for the Newton Community - Change History

* 09/01/2002 [Paul Guyot]
+ Flagged, removed or fixed dead links (there are a couple left):
x Question IA2
x Question IB1a
x Question IB1b
x Question II4
x Question IIIB3e
x Question IIIB4
x Question IVA2
x Question IVA3
x Question IVB2
x Question IVB3
x Question VA2
x Question VB2b
x Question VB3b
x Question VB4d
x Question VB5
x Question VD2c
x Question VE2
x Question VF1
x Question VIA3
x Question VIIA1a [Thanks Steven]
x Question VIIA2a
+ Added Lava to question IIC6d [Thanks John]
+ Note: this is probably the last time I update this FAQ. Daniel Padilla
will be the new FAQ poster. A new team of maintainers is being created to
work on the reorganization of that document. Drop Daniel a line if you want
to help ( BTW, the FAQ celebrated its third
birthday on August, 18th.
* 08/01/2002 [Paul Guyot]
+ Mostly changes submitted by Victor Rehorst (thanks):
x Rephrased question IIB2 and added a link to a NTLK message
x Added iTunes plug-in in question IIIB3b
x Some cleanup in question VA1Some day, there will only be UNNA there
x Several links cleanup in questions VB1*
x Added a link to the ErrorsDB in question VC1a
+ I planned to finish to check links and to write a new question about
what to do when an error pops out, but I haven't found the time. Maybe for
September update: stay tuned! ;)
* 07/01/2002 [Paul Guyot]
+ Fixed link to GFUN's DIY screen protector page in question IIC6b
(thanks Grant)
+ Added a link to James Elliot page on screen protectors (idem).
+ Qualified statement about using NiMH batteries in MP1x0s in question
IIB6. Indeed, some sources say it can damage these units. (thanks Eric)
+ Added a link to Walter R. Basil's tutorial on synchronizing the Newton
with Palm Desktop in questionIIIB3d
+ Removed the link to maintainers on front page and added question IA3
* 06/01/2002 [Paul Guyot]
+ Added a link to Q&As in question VIIB1a [Thanks Victor]
+ Updated question VIIB1c regarding HHSys issues.
+ Updated link to PineHill AppGen in question VIIA4 [Thanks Victor]
+ Added Screen Shooter in question IIIB7
+ Added question IIIB10 "Is there any virus on NewtonOS?"
+ Fixed some minor HTML problems in page newton-faq-hardware.html
+ Updated link to Bernie's BookReader in question VIA2
+ Removed the JNUG from question IVA3 (the link has been dead for too
long, can't find anything on Google)
+ Updated the link to the LANUG in question IVA3 (well, the new link
doesn't seem to work right now)
+ Removed the NewtChamp from question IVA3 (the link has been dead for
too long, can't find anything else on Google)
+ Fixed the link to the Newton Heap Mini-FAQ in question IB1b
+ Removed the link to the Newton RAM page in question IB1b (dead for too
long, can't find it on Google or WebArchive)
+ More dead links to be fixed for the July or August update.
Exceptionally, there will be an August update this year.
* 05/01/2002 [Paul Guyot]
+ Added Agfa ePhoto 780c in question IIB9 [Thanks Neal]
+ Added question IIA1j "Where can I find information about Newton
prototypes?" [Thanks Victor]
+ Updated question IVC1 [Please provide more links/infos]
+ Updated link to James Elliott's page in question IVA3
* 04/01/2002 [Paul Guyot]
+ Turned reference to question IIIB9in question IIIB2e into an hyper link
[Thanks Robert]
+ Updated the link to every TIL article in the FAQ.
+ Added Nikon CoolPix 800 to Tibet compatible cameras in question IIB9
[Thanks Randy]
+ Updated links to resources on David Arnold's website in questionsIB1b,
VIIB1b& VIIB1c [Thanks David]
+ I no longer host the FAQ archives on my FTP server (question IA2)
+ Added Motorola TimePort P280 in Cell Phones compatibility list
(question IIB2b) [Thanks Eric]
+ Fixed link to MP120's overclock DIY page in question IIB4 [Thanks Dar]
+ Fixed links to Stephanie Macks pages in question IIB4
+ Victor rewrote question IIB12 with new more accurate information.
[Thanks Victor]
+ Added question IVC1 "What are the April Fool Jokes (I have a problem
with NewtonQuake)?" [Please provide more links/infos]
+ Added a link to James Elliott's page in question IVA3
* 03/01/2002 [Paul Guyot]
+ Updated the link to Oliver Fross' Easter Eggs page in question IIID1
[Thanks Oliver]
+ Added Stephanie Macks overclock pages and removed the dead link to
Sine's eMate overclock in question IIB4 [Thanks Stephanie]
+ Added that every Newton-branded adapter will work with any Newton in
question IIB7 [Thanks Victor]
+ Updated the URL of Handheld Sys Magazine archives in question VIIB1c
[Thanks Jeroen]
+ Links to docs on David Arnold's website leads to 403s in question
VIIB1c [Thanks Jeroen]
+ Updated some links in question VIIB1b as well
+ Been more explicit in question VIIA1a [Thanks Aaron]
+ Added a reference to question IIIB9 in question IIIB2e[Thanks Grant]
* 02/01/2002 [Paul Guyot]
+ Added Victor's entry on the jaggies (question IIC6g) [Sorry Victor for
having forgot it last month]
+ Added newtVNC as a way to make screen shots in question IIIB7
+ Replaced reference to old MP3 project by Eckhart's MAD Newton in
question IIA4
+ Updated question VD1c from Brian McEwen and Tom Sheppard experiences.
Apparently, sharing with MacIP doesn't work (the FAQ mentioned for a long
time that it does, so if you have a counter experience, please report it).
This question also became "How can my Newton share a desktop computer's
Internet connection?". [Thanks Brian and Tom]
+ Added a complementary notice on Combo cards in question IIB2a
* 01/02/2002 [Paul Guyot]
+ UNNA Links have been updated:
x IIA5
x IIB8
x IIIA2a
x VB5
x VIIA1b
+ Updated the link to Newtourage in question IIIB3d (thanks Andree)
+ Added question IIIB9 (Storage space arithmetic) (thanks Christian)
* 12/01/2001 [Paul Guyot]
+ Updated Carsten Lemmen's tip to use NTK over EtherTalk on MacOS X in
question VIIA1a [Thanks Carsten]
+ Steve Weyer submitted a couple of changes: [Thanks Steve]
x Added Kip's BinHexer in question IIIB3b
x Added EE Transfer to question IIIB3e
+ Ben Truesdale submitted a couple of changes:
x Removed links to NCU on his website from questionVB1a,VB1d,VB2a
x Updated the links to his fonts in sectionVE1.
+ Added VNC to Internet applications in question VD2d
+ Added a link in question IIIB3babout e-mail software and package
+ *I know that more updates have been submitted, especially all the links
Victor broke in UNNA, but it has been scheduled for new year update.*
* 11/01/2001 [Paul Guyot]
+ Updated the link to Heaven Or Hell in question IIIC2a.
+ Removed the link to the bug repository on Victor's website (yeah, it
has been closed a long time ago) in question IIIC2.
+ Added a bug in the list of known bugs of the NewtonOS, discovered by
Victor Rehorst, as questionIIIC2h
+ Victor Rehorst sent a bunch of changes: [Thanks Victor]
x Removed the reference to NewtonOz in question IIA2
x Added information about the NotePad in question IIA1h
x Replaced the reference to DNUG in question IIA4 to UNNA.
x Added D-Link DE-660+ to question IIB2c.
x Added a link to Grant's Stowaway keyboard project in question IIB3.
x Added a link to Sine's page about how to accelerate the eMate in
question IIB4.
+ Added the link to NetHopper on UNNA in question VD2b.
+ Added Carsten Lemmen's tip to use NTK over EtherTalk on MacOS X in
question VIIA1a [Thanks Carsten]
* 10/01/2001 [Paul Guyot]
+ Grant Hutchinson suggested a bunch of changes: [Thanks Grant]
x Fixed the link to the Rochester archives which moved in question VA1
x The link to the original NewtonCage website is dead, noted it as such
in question.VA2
x J. Farmer no longer hosts a copy of NCU for MacOS. The link was
removed from question VB1d.
x Most of Macintalk links are dead. Replaced them with a link to UNNA
in questionVB3b.
x The URL of Enfour's Newton product page changed, updated the link in
x Rephrased (Grant says Typo corrections when it's actually correcting
my English :) parts of questionIIA2
x Hiroshi Noguchi's web page has moved (question IIB12)
x Added a navigation footer to the history and index pages.
x Added a mention that the NewtonTalk mailing list has archives in
question IVA2
x Added a link to the emergency mailing list in question IVA2
x Fixed the HTML link to Matt's Tracker in question IVA3
+ For an unknown reason, there was a link to Enfour's USA page (saying
that you have to contact the Tokyo headquarters) in question IIC5. Removed
+ J. Farmer's website where Paul Bowles books can be found moved. The URL
has been updated in questionVIA3
+ Added a link to Apple's article on the compatible printers in question
IIB8[Thanks Ben]
+ Added Apple's Knowledge Archive and the NewTIL in question IB1b.
* 09/01/2001 [Paul Guyot]
+ Bill Shamam's company is called Guns (index page and questionIA2)
+ Added Sean's experience about an unseated daughterboard in question
IIC6a[thanks Sean]
+ Added an information about grey dongles (for EVT units) Don Vollum
posted on usenet in a new questionIIA1i [Thanks Don & Brian]
+ Fixed a problem in the text version of the question IIIA2a [Thanks
+ Moved Cliff Penwell's experience with the US Apple Service Center from
questionIIA2 where it was misplaced to questionIIC3
+ Added Christopher Dean's report that Apple still has dongles and they
cost 38 AUD in questionIIA2 [Thanks Chris]
+ Added new question IIIB3f"How can I transfer data between my Newton and
another PDA?" with a remark on using Claris Organizer/NCU to transfer data
between Palms and Newtons by Mark Ross [Thanks Mark]
+ Added a link to Thomas Tempelmann's tool in question IIIB3c
[Thanks Laurent]
+ Added a link to question VB1e in questionIIB2c and a note about
Basilisk II in questionVB1e. [Thanks Robert]
+ Added a link to Frank Gruendel's page about refurbishing an eMate
battery pack in questionIIC7 [Thanks Robert]
+ Added a reference to the RadioShack adapter & adapter plug to be used
with Newtons in questionIIB7 [Thanks Carl, Michael & Roman].
+ Added Cadenza/Lotus Notes in question IIIB3d and a remark concerning
the R5 of Lotus Notes [Thanks Harri]
+ Updated the list of compatible cameras with Tibet in question IIB9from
a thread in NewtonTalk.
+ Added the new NewtonTalk website in question IVA2 [Thanks Victor]
+ Added the Newton Developers Bulletin Board in question IVA4 [Thanks
+ Added question IIIC3d "I have problems with a package on Windows" from
information provided by Steve Weyer [Thanks Steve]
+ The FAQ is now automatically posted. Added a note about this in
question IA2. Some mirrors are automatically updated, they're marked as
such there.
+ Added Anthony V. Jeancola in the list of hosters, his mirror in the
list of mirrors (index page and question IA2)
+ Updated Peter Rand's address in the index page.
+ Added serial numbers for Tibet now I got Russell Tait's bless IIB9
[Thanks Russell]
+ Updated question IIB8 with input from NewtonTalk members [Thanks folks]
+ Fixed the URL of the NENUG (now Pondlife), the URL of the NYCNUG (now
NYCDAUG) and marked the links to JNUG, LANUG, NewtChamp, TUNA & TVNUG as
dead in question IVA3 [Thanks Victor]
* 07/01/2001 [Paul Guyot]
+ Added Bill Shamam in the list of hosters, his mirror in the list of
mirrors and removed Newted and Stacey Tenen. (index page and question IA2)
+ Added more details on the equivalence of NOS 1.0.x and 1.1.x systems in
question IIIA2a [Thanks Carsten]
+ Added Terry Fischer's website in the list of Newton Book sources
(question VIA3)
+ Updated links to Paul Filmer's dedicated Newton Server in question IVA3
+ Updated the price of the flip door and the stylus for MP2x00 in
question IIA2 [Thanks Myron]
+ Added question IIIB8 Where can I find my Newton's ID? [Thanks to Eric
Strobel for noticing it was missing]
+ Added Cliff Penwell's experience with the US Apple Service Center in
question IIA2 [Thanks Cliff]
* 06/01/2001 [Paul Guyot]
+ NCT stands for Newton C++ Toolbox and not Newton C++ Toolkit or
anything else. Sections VB2dVIIA1b,VIIA3e, and VIIB1c have been updated
accordingly. [Thanks Grant]
+ Added Newton Glossary in section IB1b.
+ Changes submitted by Victor Rehorst [Thanks Victor]
x Question IIIB2f only applies to the OMP and the 1x0 models.
x NOS 1.0.5 is functionnally equivalent to NOS 1.1.1 (question IIIA2a)
[additionnal thanks to Carsten]
x Various corrections to question IIIB3b:
o NewtDump can export names and quotes as well as notes and inbox
o Added Notes2Notes. It also has been added to question IIIB3d
o Added RCU and Notable
o Added NewtShare
x Added a link to Fax Cover Creator on UNNA in question IIIB5
x Added RCU in the ways to take a screen shot in question IIIB7
x Added a link to AladdinSys website in question IIIC3c
x Added a reference to NewtPackageFlags in question IIID2
+ Changes submitted by Otto Sohn [Thanks Otto]
x The FAQ still had the old link to GNUE website in section VF1.
x The HKNUG website is no longer available, although the group seems to
still exist (question IVA3 & VF1)
x The eMate upgrade is no longer been built IIB1c
+ Questions VB2c and VB2d are now just pointers to questions VIIA1aand
+ PlanetNewton website is now down. Changed all references to the mirror
on UNNA (sections IIIB3a, VIIA1a, VIIA1b) or UNNA directly (sections IIB2a,
VB4e, VIIC1) or deleted them (IA2, IVA2 (where I put a link to NTLK2),
IVB3, VA1)
+ Added a link to NewtonDev in sections VIIA1a andVIIA1b
+ Added a link to Walter Smith's website for his articles in question
+ Added a link to Basilisk II in question VIIA3e
+ Updated the information about the French and German Newtons in
questions IIA1b,IIA1d,IIIA2b,IIIA2cand IIIA2d.
+ Changed the link to Deja to a link to Google in question IVA1c.
* 05/01/2001 [Paul Guyot]
+ Added question VIIA4 (Are there any other tool to develop Newton
Packages?) for PineHill (thanks Victor)
+ Updated the links to Apple's FTP in questions IIIA2a,IIIA2b, VB1b,VB1c,
VB2c,VIIA1a, VIIA1b andVIIB1a (thanks Matthew & Andrew Beals)
+ The service manuals are online again. Put the link into question IIA6
+ Added a link to Ben Truesdale's fonts in question VE1
+ Added a link to the NEWTtools font page in question VF1 (thanks Ben)
+ Added the CZ support page by Michael Vacik in question VF1
+ Updated the list of FAQ mirrors. They are now sorted in regularly
updated mirrors and out of date mirrors (I followed Steve suggestion,
thanks Steve). (cf question IA2) Every month when doing the update (at the
end of the month), I'll look who has the latest version of the FAQ and
update the list accordingly.
* 04/01/2001 [Paul Guyot]
+ Fixed two typos in the index page (thanks Grant) and a mistake in the
history page.
+ Added the link to the 424157 system update on UNNA in question IIIA2c
(thanks Victor)
+ Updated the links to English and German system updates on UNNA in
questions IIIA2band IIIA2b
+ Updated question IIA1d and especially updated the list of available
languages for the Sharp Expert Pad (thanks to Maximilian Hartel)
+ Added information for phone cabling with a Sagem RD435 in question
IIB2band information for the Newton to External modem cable in question
IIB2a (thanks to Helmut)
+ Added the Olympus D-450Z in the list of Tibet compatible cameras (IIB9)
(thanks to Hansel Chung)
+ Added Newton Data Browser by Thomas Tempelmann in question IIIB3b
+ Added Carsten's big list of parts number in question IIA2 (thanks
+ Added the battery bug in NOS 2.1 for MP2x00 as question IIIC2g (thanks
to Victor and Bill)
+ Added a link to Newtourage in question IIIB3d
* 03/01/2001 [Paul Guyot]
+ Added a link to the Korean Newton Users' Group in question IVA3 (thanks
to Victor)
+ Revised question IVA3 using links from Info-Newt's NUG page
+ Added question IIIA2c about French System Updates (question IIIA2c is
now question IIIA2d)
+ Updated question IIIA2d with the MP110-F code
+ Added Jean-Christophe Bousson FAQ in question IB1a (thanks to Brian
+ Added new parts numbers for question IIA2 (thanks to Paul Filmer)
+ Added question VIA4 Can I read PilotDOC books on the Newton? (thanks to
* 02/01/2001 [Paul Guyot]
+ Added a link to the Alex Catalogue website in question VIA3 (thanks to
Thomas McDougal & Dan Duncan)
+ Carsten Lemmen excellent page on Memory Cards is now in English (see
question IIB1b)
+ Updated the link to Landware commercial fonts in question VE1 (thanks
to Sean)
+ Added Victor's detailed steps to connect to NCU using EtherTalk for 2.1
Newtons in question VB1e (thanks Victor)
+ Added the MP2x00 original adapter specifications in question IIB7
(thanks to Helmut Fischer)
+ Updated the link to Enfour's adapter in question IIB11 (thanks to Emil
+ Marked the link to the SIT and HQX FAQ dead in question IB1b (thanks to
Fix Bornes)
+ Added a link to the ATA Project page in question IIB10
* 01/01/2001 [Paul Guyot]
+ This FAQ is now posted on comp.answers and news.answers (see section
+ Updated the URLs for Steve Weyer's webpage and updated his e-mail
+ NetStrategy link works (section VD2a)
+ Added Eudora light 1.0fc1 in the e-mail software list (question VD2a)
+ Updated NetHopper home page (doesn't work today, though) (question
+ Added a link to Waba port in question VIIA3d
+ Put the list of manuals in question IIA5
+ Added links to question IIA5 in various questions
+ The service manuals are no longer available from Apple's FTP (section
+ Added question IIB13 What cable do I need to connect to my desktop
+ Added a link to the connection FAQ in questions IIIB3band IIIB3d
+ Fixed the Flash card information in question IIB1b (thanks to Carsten
+ Added information about how to get the serial dongle from Apple in
question IIA2(thanks to Matt Clark)
+ Question VD2b is now entitled "Web & WAP browsers", added a link to the
WAP browser by Eric M. Schneck in it.
+ Updated the link to The Newton Pre-Buyers' Guide in question IB1b
+ Updates in question VIIB1c:
x Renamed the question to "Articles and additional documentation"
x Added information about where to get the ARM ARM and Intel papers
x Updated the link to the Handheld Sys Archives
+ Added a link to the European mirror of the Newton Cage and the Newton
Cage at Newton Resources in questionVA2
+ Added question IIA1h "I have a Newton MP2x00 EVT/DVT. What is it?"
(Thanks to Don A. Vollum)
+ Updated the link to late Guido Heer's FAQ which is now maintained by
Pascal B. Kreil in questionIB2 (Thanks to Carsten Lemmen)
+ Updated information about PowerPen in question IIIB3b (Thanks to Geoff
+ Added a link to the Newton FR mailing list and removed the link to the
dead NGFUN forum (questions IVA2 & IVA3)
+ Updated the link to Apple's Discussion Board (question IVA4)
+ Added a link to the MacNN PDA forum (question IVA4)
+ Added a link to Paul Filmer's Active Newton User Groups Meetings in
question IVA3
* 12/01/2000 [Paul Guyot]
+ Corrected question VIIA2b: nsScribe is created by Prism Research.
(Thanks to Jonathan Kipling Knight)
+ Rearranged section VIIA3:
x Question VIIA3c is now only for assembler,
x There is a separate question for C/C++ on other platforms (VIIA3e).
x Added a link to Roger's page in section VIIA3c
+ Fixed the HTML bug introduced with the November update
+ Since August where there was no change, the change dates were wrong
+ Updated list of mirrors: added Stacey Tenen's Newton Community (yes, I
should have done that months ago) and Mark Rollins Newton Book (IA2)
+ New Apple Repair Center phone number; added the repair cost (IIC3)
(Merci Laurent)
+ Added links to Nick's keyboard and PowerTrans Keyboards in section
+ Added Nick's D-Locale in section VF1.
+ Added TermLimit to section IIIB3e.
+ Added a link to Battery Tech in section IIA2 (Thanks to James Pelton).
+ Fixed the link to LunaTech in sections VD2aand VD2d (Thanks to Ralph
+ Added informations about NapKinCalc in section VB4e (Thanks to James
+ Added a link to the German version of NewtWorks VB4b and more links for
QuickFigure VB4d (Thanks to Andree Dettmer)
+ Added question "I bought a Newton but it didn't come with the
CD/Floppies. Where can I find them?" (VB5)
+ Added a link to Andree Dettmer's MetaFAQ (IB1a)
+ Added links to UNNA in various sections (more to be added).
+ Added a link to the Newton Bowels Project (VIIB1d)
+ Updated links to my website.
* 11/02/2000 [Paul Guyot]
+ Moved the change history into a new file & made some changes in the
+ Added the Olympus D-360L in the Tibet compatibility list (IIB9) (thanks
to Mark Rollins)
+ Clarified the compatibility of Linear Flash cards from Carsten Lemmen's
summary (IIB1)
+ Updated the question IIB10 about the possibility of an ATA driver and
moved the Airport and WaveLan to a new question (IIB12), and added a new
question about the -10582 error. (IIIC2f)
+ Added question IIA1g "How can I distinguish a MP2000 from an upgraded
+ Added UNNA in the software sources (VA1)
+ Updated the link to NewtonMAD in the software sources (VA1)
+ Removed a dead link ( in the software sources
+ [I haven't added links to software to UNNA or NewtonMAD yet]
+ Added more links to book sources (VIA3) [Thanks Victor]
* 10/01/2000 [Paul Guyot]
+ Updated NPDS home page address (IIIB3b)
+ Added Newton Link to the transfer section (IIIB3b) [Thanks to Brian
McEwen & Victor]
+ Added a link to Mark Rollins' page for Merlin modem setup (IIB2b)
[Thanks Victor]
+ Added a link to J. Farmer's Paul Bowles Newton Books (VIA3)
+ Added a link to NCU on J. Farmer's website (VB1c) [Thanks Josie]
+ Updated information concerning big flash cards (IIB1b) [Thanks Harri]
+ Updated the links to the manuals (IIA5 &IIA6) [Thanks to Steven
* 09/01/2000 [Paul Guyot]
+ Added a link to NewtKey in section IIB3 (Thanks Victor)
+ Added section IIB11 (Are there any third-Party accessories that use the
Interconnect port on the 2x00 or eMate?) '(Thanks Victor)
+ Removed the link to
in section IIIA2a since it no longer works. (Thanks to James Pelton)
+ Removed the link to Auto61 Fix (Don Vollum) in sectionIIIC2b since it
is dead. (Thanks to James Pelton)
+ Added David Huff's description to PelicanWare in section . (Thanks
+ Added section IIIC2e (What are these -16022 errors every time I try to
use my modem?) (Thanks Victor).
+ Removed all references to Newton Intelligence since it is down forever.
(sectionsVA1,VB1d,VB2b,VIIA1a, & VIIA1b).
+ Updated the list of Tibet compatible cameras in section IIB9. (Thanks
to Robert & Victor)
+ Fixed the link to Tomoyoshi Murai's package info (section IIIB6).
(Thanks to James Pelton)
+ Added GNUE's package info (section IIIB6).
+ Qualified the statement about NOS 1.x and the maximum size of cards in
sectionIIB1b. (Thanks Harri)
+ Updated information about where to find the FAQ in sectionIA2.
+ Updated the link to NuShield in section IIC6b.
+ Added notice to some dead links in section IB1b. (Thanks Frédéric)
+ Updated the link to Tomoyoshi Murai website (sections IIID2& VF1)
(Thanks Sean)
+ Added a link to the Windows Patch for 710031 in sectionIIIA2a
+ HTML code checking (I still have a problem innewton-faq-hardware.html
with the hidden table for the ASCII version.
* 07/03/2000 [Paul Guyot]
+ Fixed some bugs in the section IIIA4 (Thanks Victor)
+ Added a link to a DIY hack to accelerate the MP120 in section as
suggested by Harri Hohteri (Thanks Harri)
+ Added a link to the new NewtonOS bugs repository in section IIIC2
+ Added some informations concerning IPNetRouter (VD1c)
+ I realized nothing was said about Works, while questions are frequently
asked about it. I added a new section (VB4) into the software part with
links including to Laurent Daudelin's website. However, it is not finished
because there are several links/informations I should search.
+ Fixed some html bugs - iCab didn't smile at all pages
+ Info-Newt FTP at DNUG no longer exists. Hence I updated some links.
+ Ben (THX 1138) moved his Newton Connections site. Change in section
IB1b & new links in section VB1
* 06/02/2000 [Paul Guyot]
+ Changed Laura email address to
* 05/30/2000 [Paul Guyot]
+ Added section IIC7 "how to replace your own eMate batteries while not
spending too much" by Robert Benschop
* 05/29/2000 [Paul Guyot]
+ Fixed some html bugs (iCab didn't really smile at all pages)
+ Victor Rehorst suggested several fixes:
x Section VB1a, the links for my site ( actually point to NCU
not NCK. The links should probably be moved down to section d
x Section VC1b - can't positive-number errors be caused by hardware
problems as well? (I [PG] updated the explanation)
x Section VD1b - NIE 2.0 only works with OS 2.1 - It provides extra
functions that NIE relies upon AFAIK.
x Section VD2d - NewtJabber at
<> [PG] Also updated the section
with NCQ
x Section IIIB3b - NewtDump can export In/Out box messages and notes to
ASCII text on any PC: <>
x The link for QuickPort in that section is also dead. You might want
to add EETransfer as well. [PG] The server for QuickPort seems down. I put
a small comment and the AMUG link.
x Section VIB1 should have a link to VB2
+ Rewrote question IIIB7 about screen shots to add EETransfer.
+ Added links to NotesWeb and NewsReader by T. Kuwabara. (VD2c,VD2e),
although the server seems down.
* 05/07/2000 [Paul Guyot]
+ Added the date at the top of this page
+ Fixed the links to Newton Resources (the web site moved)
+ Newton Resources copy of the FAQ is finally added in the list of
+ Added information about the Siemens S25 (IIB2b) (thanks to Olaf
'Holger' Bohlen and Peter Rand)
+ Added question IIB10) Can I use an Airport/WaveLan/Click/IBM
Microdrive/ATA Flash/Compactflash adapter in my Newton? (Thanks to Victor
+ Victor also suggested some changes:
x Added a link to his site about Apple Canada IIC3
(I updated the whole question)
x Removed Roadrunner Tracks link IIC6b
x Fixed broken links to the service manuals IIA6
* 04/02/2000 [Paul Guyot]
+ Question IIA5 was missing
+ Added question IIA6 concerning Service Manuals
+ was PDA Dash, there is no need for two links.
+ Added section VIIC for sample code
+ Changed answer to "What is this document" IA1
+ Added instruction to order parts to Apple (BTW, I lost the
contributor's name of the original message on csnm, if anyone could tell
me, I'll add it) to questionIIA2
+ Question IIB2a is now "Which modem can I use? How do I make a modem
+ Added a remark concerning Ethernet Card D-Link DE-660IIB2c (thanks to
Kent Wong, Rick Roberts and Bill Davis)
+ Added a remark concerning the HP Deskjet 340CBiIIB8 (thanks to Peter
+ Add MPW marks to sections of the FAQ. (nobody minds, anyway)
+ Minor changes
* 02/29/2000 [Paul Guyot]
+ Fixed information concerning German OMP & MP100 IIA1 (thanks to Carsten
+ Ebb Data Systems is now called Modasys IIA4 (thanks to Carsten Lemmen)
+ Added information concerning Paul's Braham cards IIB1b (thanks to
Carsten Lemmen)
+ Fixed information concerning eMate upgrades IIB1c (thanks to Carsten
+ ADT has a new address ( IIC3 (thanks to Carsten
+ Added information concerning mailing lists & forums IVA2, IVA4 (thanks
to Victor Rehorst)
+ Added link to the NCK VB1a and NBM VB2b copies at Newton Resources
(thanks to Victor Rehorst)
+ Added information concerning the -10061 bug (more packages & comments)
IIIC2a (thanks to Andree Dettmer)
+ Added question about how to connect to the Internet (or any TCP
network) through a Macintosh. VD1c (thanks to Bob O'Shaughnessy)
+ Added question about how to help developers to fix bugs (basically,
where to find BugTrap & TrashPak). VC4
+ Minor changes
* 02/08/2000 [Paul Guyot]
+ Added question IIIB3e about the terminal softwares (thanks to Steve)
+ Fixed some bad links, although not all: the following haven't been
fixed yet (I don't have the time now)
x to Steve, again)
+ Fixed some informations about models IIA1 and cards IIB1a (thanks to
Carsten Lemmen)
+ Added Adam Tow's Backlight Plus in the Backlight softwares list IIC6d
(thanks to Allen Russel)
+ Added question IIB2c [c) Which network cards can I use?] written by
Victor Rehorst and completed by Harri Hohteri
+ Fixed some information about Canon cameras IIB9 (thanks to Daniel
+ Added some information about the eMate DRAM update IIB1c (thanks to
C.W. Otto Sohn)
+ Added a link to the NGFUN IVA3
+ Added a top five questions and all other suggestions/revisions from
x Section IIA1
x Section IIC6
x Section IIIB2
x Section IIID3
+ Added all information relative to 710031:
x IIIA2a
x IIIA2c
x IIIC2b
* 01/02/2000 [Paul Guyot]
+ Fixed some informations about NSBasic softwares
+ Updated the name of ChARM (it is now called
Compiler-Formerly-Known-As-ChARM) (VIIA3c)
+ Added Joost (Alien) technical corrections about RAM types (IIA3)
+ Joost (Alien) remarked that the paragraph about combo cards was a
little bit too pessimistic (IIB2a)
+ Added a warning with memory cards for MP120/2.0 and MP130. (IIB1b)
+ Improved the description of the Newton Models (IIA1b)
+ Some more comments about the updates (IIIA2)
+ Fixed a typo (thanks to Peter Edwardsson) (VD2a)
+ Added a question about synchronization although its content may change
in the future (IIIB3d)
+ Added a link about IR Transfers (IIIB3c)
+ comp.sys.newton.announce is now announced as moderated (IVA1a)
+ International newsgroup are no longer called 'English newsgroups'
+ Added a remark about the misuse of the maintainers/hosters addresses
* 11/30/1999 [Paul Guyot]
+ Fixed the typo in the date of the latest release
+ Changes now have a link in the HTML version to the changed paragraphs
[Suggested by James Pelton]
+ Updated NPDS URL (VD2e) [Thanks to Camillus Guhl]
+ Updated some links of previously available softwares on Ben
('s site Newton Connections to refer now to DNUG,
since Ben site no longer host them (VB1a& VB2a) [Thanks to Ben
+ Added link to NCU on DNUG (VB1d) [Thanks to Ben
+ Updated the link to Guido Heer German FAQ (IB2) [Thanks to Chris
+ Updated the link to this FAQ on Chris Stephens' Site (IA2) [Thanks to
Chris Stephens]
+ Added a link to SimpleMail in the Cyrillic Fonts section (VF1) [Thanks
to Sean Luke]
+ Added a link to NewtWorks Fix in the NewtonOS bugs section (IIIC2d)
+ Added a reference to four system updates (OMPs updates, MP120/1.3's
465333 & German MP2100's 747260) (IIIA2a& IIIA2b [Thanks to Joost
+ Added question IIIA2c: c) What is the numbering system? [From a
discussion on comp.sys.newton.programmer in March 1998]
+ Fixed some problems in some links (IIIA2a)
* 10/31/1999 [Paul Guyot]
+ Added changes suggested by Jacek Jadwiszczak
+ Added numerous suggested [Steve, Bill, Joost, Dennis, ...] changes
* 09/30/1999 [Paul Guyot]
+ Updated the link of the FAQ
+ Fixed some links
* 09/27/1999 [Paul Guyot]
+ Added some additional information from Jacek Jadwiszczak's suggestions
+ Added some more questions (localization, NewtWorks bug, MP3, etc...)
+ Added clone Newton models
* 09/22/1999 [Paul Guyot]
+ Splitted the FAQ
+ Fixed some HTML bugs
* 09/21/1999 [Sean Luke]
+ Small tweaks
+ Fixed HTML coding practice
+ Moved the Java question
+ Added sections on Fonts and Internationalized Software
+ Added MP100 power issues
* 09/11/1999 [Paul Guyot]
+ Formatted Peter's changes.
+ Fixed some html bugs.
+ Added some questions (compression bit & other suggestions from Steve).
* 09/08/1999 [Peter Rand]
+ Proof read/revised entire Newton FAQ.
+ Added info on cell phones.
+ Added numerous new URLs.
+ Created a NewtonBook of the Newton FAQ.
* 08/25/1999 [Paul Guyot]
+ Formatted Steve's changes.
+ Added some questions.
* 08/25/1999 [Steve Weyer]
+ Fixed some mistakes.
+ Added a few links.
+ Added some questions.
* 08/24/1999 [Paul Guyot]
+ Added some links: Apple Docs, Apple software.
+ Added IIA5 "Where can I find original manuals?".
+ Added subquestions a), b)... into the TOC.
+ Changed all ASCII lists (with *) to HTML lists, now that the perl
script can handle them.
* 08/23/1999 [Paul Guyot]
+ Added some links. Updated DNUG Newton Version URL.
+ Released the Perl script to convert to ASCII.
+ Added VD4 "Is there a Sherlock equivalent for the Newton?".
+ Fixed some more typos.
* 08/22/1999 [Steve Weyer]
+ Fixed some mistakes.
* 08/22/1999 [Paul Guyot]
+ HTML version.
+ Table of contents.
+ Added some links.
* 08/19/1999 [Paul Guyot]
+ Added new topics from sources (see: other FAQs?).
* 08/19/1999 [Steve Weyer]
+ Filled in gaps
* 08/18/1999 [Paul Guyot]
+ Original FAQ from scratch

Paul Guyot

Oct 1, 2002, 12:00:25 AM10/1/02
Archive-name: palmtops/newton/faq/nos
Posting-Frequency: monthly
Last-modified: 2002/10/01

Version: This is the October 2002 update
Maintainer: Steve Weyer <>,
Peter Rand <>,
Sean Luke <> and Paul Guyot <>


* A) System Versions
+ 1) What are the different Newton OS (NOS) versions?
+ 2) What system upgrades are available for my Newton? Which one is the
most recent? Where can I find it?
x a) US updates
x b) German updates
x c) French updates
x d) What is the numbering system?
+ 3) How do I find out which NOS version I have?
+ 4) What are the differences between OS versions?
x a) NOS 2.x is really different from NOS 1.x
x b) NOS 2.1 has some additional features compared to NOS 2.0.
x c) Latest revision (US MP2x00: 710031) of NOS 2.1
x d) eMate 737246
* B) Using the Newton OS
+ 1) How do I find the Newton's built-in helpbook?
+ 2) What are the different ways to reset the Newton OS?
x a) Soft Reset
x b) Deep Reset
x c) Reset With Extensions Off
x d) MP2000 and MP2100 Power-Drain Reset
x e) Hard Reset ("Brainwipe")
x f) Cold boot
+ 3) Transferring data to and from the Newton
x a) What are the various methods to input data on the Newton?
x b) What are the various methods of transferring data to/from the
x c) Can I use IrDA (infrared) to transfer information between my
desktop and my 2.x Newton?
x d) What are the various methods to synchronize my data with a desktop
x e) What are the various terminal softwares available for Newton?
x f) How can I transfer data between my Newton and another PDA?
+ 4) What are the alternatives to the original HWR?
+ 5) Can I change the fax cover page?
+ 6) How do I find out information about a package in Extras?
+ 7) How do I take screen shots?
+ 8) Where can I find my Newton's ID?
+ 9) Storage space arithmetic
+ 10) Is there any virus on NewtonOS?
* C) Troubleshooting
+ 1) Is Newton Y2K compliant?
+ 2) Are there known bugs into Newton OS?
x a) I've heard about the nasty -10061 error on MP2x and eMate -- how
can I reduce/prevent this?
x b) What is the Dates/Find bug?
x c) When I write, sometimes some strokes do not appear or disappear.
x d) When I do a find with NewtWorks, the free memory amount falls.
x e) What are these -16022 errors every time I try to use my modem?
x f) When I insert a memory card, I get a -10582 error. What's wrong?
x g) When I insert a flash memory card, my MP2x00 tells me the battery
in the card needs to be replaced.
x h) I installed a new version of the backdrop application I'm using
and I can't see it.
+ 3) Packages on other platforms
x a) On my Mac, the icon of a .pkg file is plain, and NPI refuses it.
x b) When I download a .pkg via my Newton web browser, it's not
recognized as a package.
x c) I can't expand StuffIt archives (on both platform).
x d) I have problems with a package on Windows
+ 4) Why does the I/O Box always open to Out Box? Can I change that?
+ 5) Why does the available memory decrease when the Newton is idle?
* D) Miscellaneous
+ 1) Where can I find informations about Easter Eggs?
+ 2) How are packages compressed? (The story of the compression bits)
+ 3) How it all works
x a) Newton Process Management
x b) Newton Memory Organization
x c) The Newton "File System"

A) System Versions

1) What are the different versions of the Newton OS (NOS)?

The Newton OS is burned into ROM. Hence the version depends on the model of
Newton you have (cf the table of the models). However, some upgrades do

2) What are the system upgrades for my Newton? Which one is the latest?
Where can I find it?

Upgrades can be found on various sites, including Newton Source:
Updates are in fact installer packages (which auto-remove themselves), and
they all include a system version checking mechanism: you cannot damage
your Newton by installing a wrong update: it will simply not install.
Latest upgrades are:

a) US & International English updates

* Newton OS System update 1.0.5 for 1.0 ROM OMP's (over System version
1.0.4 or earlier)
* Newton OS System update 1.1.1 for 1.1 ROM OMP's (over System version
* MP100 1.3 415333 (over 415059, 415172, 415313, & 415313p3 (developer
* MP110 1.3 345333 (over 1.2.00, 344052, 344138, 345025 & 345025p3
(developer release))
* MP120 1.3 445333 (US) (over 444217 & 444347)
* MP120 1.3 465333 (Int'l) (over 464353)
* MP120 2.0 516263 (over 516205, 515264 & 515299)
* MP130 2.0 526205 (over 525314, 526060 & 526167)
* MP2000 & MP2100 2.1 710031 (over 717260, 717145, 717006, 717041 & 717132)
* eMate 300 2.1 737246 (over 737041)
The 6 digit system update was introduced with NOS 1.3 to fix the confusion
with previous system patches numbers. Indeed, the pre 1.3 systems are
divided into 1.0.x ROMs and 1.1.x ROMs which, with system updates, are more
or less equivalent:
1.0.x ROM 1.1.x ROM

That means 1.02 is equivalent to 1.10, but 1.05 is more recent than 1.11.
MP2x00 710031 was designed by me [Paul Guyot] after Apple discontinued
NewtonOS with little information. Hence there may be some problems although
none were reported. It fixes the Date/Find bug. For copyright reasons, I
only published an updater, one for MacOS and one for Windows. They can be
found on Kallisys website: <>.
MP120 2.0 and MP130 updates can be found in .hqx or .zip/.exe at:
All apple updates (MacOS or Windoze) can be found at:
All system patches can be found on UNNA:

b) German updates

* OMP D-1.1.1 (over D-1.10) which was factory pre-installed
* Upgraded OMP D-1.3/MP100-D 435334
* MP120/1.3 435334
* MP120 2.0 536205 (over 535344 & 536030)
* MP130 2.0 536205 (over 535344 & 536030) (It is not the same update than
MP120 2.0 536205, although it fixes the same bugs: MP120/2.0-D and MP130-D
actually have the same ROM [except for the Gestalt Machine Type])
* MP2000 & MP2100 2.1 747260
OMP upgrades are very rare upgrades which can be found at:
Other upgrades can be found in .hqx or .exe at:
and (sea.bin or .hqx):
All German system patches can also be found at UNNA:

c) French updates

* MP100 424112 (is there a newer version?)
* MP110 424157
* MP120 455334
The MP110 system update is available at UNNA:

d) What is the numbering system?

That's a direct quotation from Walter Smith (
The numbering system originated as a response to customer irrationality.
:-) Because each patch applies to a single ROM image, there are multiple
patches that produce the same end result. The exact numbers may be off, but
let's say the OMP had version 1.0 software, then the MP100 came out with
version 1.1. We released an update for the OMP that brought it up to date,
and gave it version 1.01.
The problem here is that even though 1.01 and 1.1 are functionally
equivalent, people with OMPs were unhappy because their version number was
lower. There was lots of misinformation floating around about "upgrading"
1.01 to 1.1, meaningless though that actually was. It got even worse when
1.1 was patched, so you had 1.03 vs. 1.12.
To address this, we had to distinguish between the actual version number
that tells tech support what software the customer has and the end-user
version number that tells the customer what functionality they have. The
six-digit number is unique to a particular update (software version), and
the x.y number indicates what functionality you get when the update is
applied (end-user version).
Unfortunately, some customers are a little too smart to fall for that, so
there's still all sorts of consternation over the supposedly meaningless
system update numbers.
The actual scheme is some combination of the ROM version the update applies
to and the date the patch was generated. I don't remember the details.
Here there are: (but that's my own interpretation, although I was helped by
Henry Cate's answer to Walter's post (both of them worked in the Newton
department at Apple))
* First two digits is the model code:
+ 34: MP110 US
+ 41: MP100 US
+ 42: MP100 & MP110 French
+ 43: MP100 & MP120/1.3 German
+ 44: MP120/1.3 US
+ 45: MP120/1.3 French
+ 46: MP120/1.3 Int'l
+ 51: MP120/2.0 US
+ 52: MP130 US
+ 53: MP120/MP130 German
+ 71: MP2000/2100
+ 73: eMate 300
+ 74: MP2000/2100 German
* Third digit is the last digit of the year.
* Last three digits is the day the package was built.
The question then is: how will we do with years 2000's? Was the
discontinuing of Newton planned from the beginning (at least before the
52nd day of 1994) by Apple? With 710031, I (Paul Guyot) coded year 2000
with a 0. However, 710031 seems lower than 717260. Hence, Avi Drissman
suggested to now code year 2000 with an A.

3) How do I find out which NOS version I have?

This depends on the OS itself.
If you have a 1.x OS: Go to the preferences. It appears at center-bottom of
If you have a 2.x OS: Go to the Extras Drawer, select the i button, then
Memory Info. You can read something like: ROM Version 2.1 (710031)-1

4) What are the differences between the versions of the OS?

a) NOS 2.x is really different from NOS 1.x

You can read the doc about it at:

b) NOS 2.1 has a few more features compared to NOS 2.0.

NewtWorks support, gray scale, sound manager,...

c) Latest revision (US MP2x00: 710031) of NOS 2.1

717260 introduces some changes with the contrast button (allowing greater
contrast control), and fixes a few bugs concerning memory, printing, faxing
and PC cards. See the Read Me file that comes with the 717260 upgrade for
more details.
The 710031 patch (US MP2x00 only) also fixes the Dates/Find bug.

d) eMate 737246

See the Read Me file that comes with the 737246 upgrade for more details.

B) Using the Newton OS

1) How do I find the Newton's built-in helpbook?

Tap the i button in the lower left hand corner of the screen, and then
select "help". This general helpbook is provided in all built-in programs.
Some third party programs can also access the built-in helpbook or their
own particular helpbook via the i button.
You can also tap the "How Do I?" button in the Assistant (at least with NOS
2.x). Or tap the help icon in the Extras Drawer.

2) What are the various ways the Newton can be reset?

Pressing the power button does not "reset" or "restart" your Newton. The
power button isn't really a power button per se -- it's more of a "go to
sleep" button. Unlike other computers, the Newton never completely turns
off. It's closer to being in a suspended or sleeping state. It is still
able to receive beams, faxes, or wake you up if you configured it to do so.
The Newton has a number of ways of resetting/rebooting, in various levels
of severity. Four of them, for the original MessagePad and MP1x0 models,
are described in Apple's article
<> But
actually, this article applies to MP1xx models.

a) Soft Reset

This is the most straightforward of the four resets. Just press the "Reset"
button on the back of your Newton with your stylus. Alternatively, many
software packages have the ability to perform a soft reset.
A soft reset can be helpful if the Newton becomes sluggish or runs out of
heap memory. You will NOT lose any data doing a soft reset.

b) Deep Reset

The Deep reset is similar to a soft reset. You tap the reset button on the
back of the Newton, but this time hold it down for about 20 seconds, until
the Newton chimes. This reset is used when there's a power problem with
your Newton, or there's a problem when doing a standard restart. It resets
at a slightly lower level than a soft reset.

c) Reset With Extensions Off

A reset with extensions off allows you to reset your Newton but not load
any packages. It's as if all packages were frozen. This returns the Newton
to an almost virgin state, and is useful if you're having conflicts between
two packages, or when you need to maximize heap for a certain procedure.
With no packages loaded, your Newton will have it's maximum amount of heap
To perform a reset with extensions off, hit the reset button, on the back
of the Newton and then flip the Newton over so the screen is facing you, as
for normal usage. Immediately hold the pen down halfway down the left edge
of the screen, about a centimeter from the casing, down the screen. Keep
holding the pen there, and soon a dialog box will appear asking if you'd
like to activate packages on the store "Internal". Answer "no." If you have
any PC cards installed, return the pen to the left edge and keep holding it
down. You'll then get the same dialog for each card. Answer "no" to each.
Your Newton now is restarted with no packages loaded.
You will NOT lose data doing a reset with extensions off. However, if you
have a third party application as the Backdrop, (such as Backdrop Plus) it
will be replaced with the NotePad, so you'll have to re-designate it as the

d) MP2000 and MP2100 Power-Drain Reset

The MP2000 and MP2100 have a special last-resort reset which cures most
ills, but doesn't lose any of your data. It's simple: remove the
batteries, cards, and the power adapter. Don't worry, your data is safe.
Let your Newton sit by itself for several hours. Then put in fresh
batteries, plug in the power adapter, and press reset.

e) Hard Reset ("Brainwipe")

Before you perform a hard reset, first remove all PCMCIA cards from the
Newton (this is *really* important, otherwise you may destroy the card!).
This hard reset WILL ERASE EVERYTHING ON YOUR NEWTON. Use it with caution,
and usually only as a last resort. If you are performing a Backup and
Restore Cycle, you will want to perform a hard reset after the backup and
before the restore. Other than that, you will probably never perform one;
unless you have major data corruption, or are selling your Newton.
To perform a Hard reset, tap the reset button, while holding down the power
switch. You will be presented with a dialog box asking "Do you want to
erase data completely" . Tap Yes if you want to perform the Hard reset and
erase everything on the Newton. You will be asked to reconfirm your
selection, and then the data will be erased.
Note that doing a backup/hard reset/restore cycle might speed up your
Newton. See question IIIB9 about defragmentation.

f) Cold boot

(From Apple's article which only applies to the OMP and 1x0 models.)
A Cold Boot erases all data, any System Update installed, and sets the
Newton OS back to factory defaults. There are two methods to do this.
WARNING: You should backup your data prior to a Cold Boot.
Method 1
* 1. Disconnect any AC power.
* 2. Remove the main batteries.
* 3. Remove the round Lithium backup battery.
* 4. Hold the power switch down for 5 seconds.
* 5. Release the power switch.
* 6. Repeat steps 4 and 5 four more times.
Method 2
* 1. Disconnect any AC power.
* 2. Remove the main batteries.
* 3. Remove the round Lithium backup battery.
* 4. Let the Apple MessagePad sit this way for 15 minutes.
* On a MessagePad 120: No data is erased since data is stored in the
internal non-volatile Flash RAM.
* On the MessagePad 120, a Cold Boot resets the Power Manager. Pen
alignment is required on the next use.
* The Time Zone, Date, Time, and Prefs need to be set up.

3) Transferring data to and from the Newton

a) What are the various methods to input data on the Newton?

There are many ways to input data:
* using the stylus and handwriting recognition.
* via the virtual keyboard: some software provide alternate keyboards such
+ Nick's keyboard:
+ PowerTrans Keyboards:
+ Kallisys Foreign Kits: <>
* Graffiti (cf What are the alternatives to the original HWR?)
* Newton keyboard (cf What kind of keyboard can I use?)
* Desktop keyboard with NCU (cf Apple's software) or with a terminal
emulator on the desktop computer and a software like SerialKey,
SerialInput, Sloup or TypeIt...

b) What are the various methods of transferring data, to/from the desktop?

You can:
* Use Newton Connection Utilities to import/export/synchronize data with a
MacOS or Windows desktop computer. (cf question VB1).
* Use Sloup by Steve Weyer to import/export data with most types of
desktops using a terminal emulation program such as ZTerm and ClarisWorks
for Mac, HyperTerminal for Windows as well as programs for Unix and other
platforms. <>
* Use Dan Rowley's X-Port program to import/export with Windows or MacOS
* Use QuickPort by PowerPen Software for transferring ASCII text to any
terminal on the desktop. PowerPen was a project of the EECS, but Dr.
Schlimmer left the Washington States University and therefore the homepage
no longer exists. However, it can be found on AMUG:
* Use EETransfer from EasterEggs
* Use NewtDump by Victor Rehorst. It can export In/Out box messages, notes,
names and Quotes to ASCII text (or .vcf for names) on any PC running
Windows: <> - requires Sloup
* Use emails. This also allows you to export packages. Note: every mail
software has its own package unrelocation mechanism, and in fact, none
perfectly works. It will work properly for most packages, though.
* Use Newton Personnal Data Sharing (NPDS) (a Newton web server!)
* Use NewtonLink (for Unices)
* Use Thomas Tempelmann's Newton Data Browser (for MacOS PPC and Windows)
* Use Notes2Notes to synchronize between the NotePad and Microsoft Outlook
97, 98 & 2000: <> -
requires Sloup
* Use NewtShare, a webserver for Windows to access documents translated the
right way for Newtscape on the Newton:
* Use RCU or Notable by Revelar Software: <>
* Use PackageBuddy by Tactile to export packages:
* Use Johnathan Kip's BinHexer to transfer binaries from/to the desktop to
the Newton by de/encoding them on the Newton:
* iTunes with the plug-in by Eric Schneck allows you to transfer mp3s:
I suggest that you read the Connection FAQ for more details:

c) Can I use IrDA (infrared) to transfer information between my desktop and
my 2.x Newton?

This does not seem to be supported by Apple tools (NCU, NBU, etc.).
It is possible to use a terminal emulator and Sloup to communicate via
IrDA: <>
There is a special page about this issue:
You can also use Thomas Tempelmann's Newton Data Browser (IrDA only works
on MacOS PPC) to connect to the Dock application of your MP2x00/eMate 300.

d) What are the various methods to synchronize my data with a desktop

The easiest way to synchronize is to use NCU for 2.x models. This software
can synchronize with Now UpToDates, Now Contacts, Claris Organizer and Palm
Desktop for MacOS, Schedule+ 7.0 and Lotus Organizer 2.1 for Windows.
Walter R Basil (quoted by Mark Ross) wrote a tutorial about how to achieve
a synchronization with Palm Desktop:
You can also use Cadenza, available on UNNA
<> with Lotus Notes. The
Cadenza documentation says that you can synchronize with Lotus Notes 4.5,
4.6, but Harri Hohteri reports that it works with the R5 (especially
5.0.8). It's not clear whether Lotus Notes R5 normally comes with
nnotes.dll or not, but this file seems to be required (it's included in
4.5/4.6 versions).
You can also use Newtourage from DelCann Software for synchronizing with
Entourage on MacOS: <>
There are Unix softwares to synchronize, import and export with, to and
from Unix softwares. Cf Linux-Newton mini HowTo:
You can also use Notes2Notes to synchronize between the NotePad and
Microsoft Outlook 97, 98 & 2000:
<> - requires Sloup
I suggest that you read the Connection FAQ for more details:

e) What are the various terminal softwares available for Newton?

* PocketCall <> from Air Media (formerly Ex
Machina) [dead link?]
* PT100 <> from ScrawlSoft 2.x
* NewtTerm terminal program
<> 1.x and 2.x, source
* TermLimit by Ed Anuff
<> 1.x at
* EE Transfer <>

f) How can I transfer data between my Newton and another PDA?

* The easiest way to transfer data between a Newton with NewtonOS 2.1 and a
Palm or any other IrDA capable PDA is BackTalk by SmartDog Software
* Another way to transfer data between a Newton 2.x and a Palm is to use
Newton Connection Utilities for MacOS (cf question VB1) and synchronize the
data with Claris Organizer (Palm Desktop).

4) What are the alternatives to the original HWR?

You can use other recognizers:
* Graffiti available at Newton Cage <>
This is the input method used in Palm devices.
* Free Style by ParaGraph <>
This input method is used in some WinCE devices.
You also can use software that improves the Newton's original HWR:
* Corrector+ by Adam Tow (Foundation Systems) <>
* alt.rec.... by Paul Guyot on Kallisys website

5) Can I change the fax cover page?

Yes, you can use Fax Cover Creator by Standalone Software. You can find it
on their website <> and on UNNA:

6) How do I find information about a specific package in Extras?

There are several 3rd party utilities that will do this.
* PkgInfo by Steve Weyer (2.x only) [freeware]:
* Package Info by Tomoyoshi Murai [freeware]:
* Package Info by GNUE (2.x only) [freeware]:
* And of course the excellent SBM Utilities from Softwarebüro Müller
[Shareware]: <>

7) How do I take screen shots?

There are several ways:
* NTK (Apple Newton ToolKit) (the screen shot is in the desktop clipboard)
* X-Port (the screen shot remains on the Newton)
* NPDS, the Newton WebServer <>
* EETransfer from EasterEggs <>
* RCU from Revelar Software <>
* NewtVNC by Steve Weyer (in server mode) <>
* Daniel Padilla's Screen Shooter. It lets you take shots and send them by
e-mail with SimpleMail. <>

8) Where can I find my Newton's ID?

Since NewtonOS 2.0, each Newton have a hardware unique NewtonID which is
accessible from software. The easiest way to get it is to use Adam Tow's
NewtonID software at <>.
The Newton ID has no (direct) link with the Newton's serial number, but it
uniquely identifies the unit nevertheless, and even if the serial number
sticker is removed.
On the 2.1 devices, the Newton ID is stored in a specialized chip, the
Dallas Semiconductor DS2401 Serial Number ROM. If Apple changes your
motherboard, your Newton ID will be changed as well.

9) Storage space arithmetic

This is an answer to the following questions:
* When I add up Free space and Used space, I don't get the size of the
internal store/card?
* The Newton tells me the internal store/card is full while it also says I
have hundreds of KB free?
* Is it true that the storage can be fragmented and unfragmenting it will
speed up the transfer?
Storage space arithmetic is very close to Bistromathics. It is completely
unrelated to Peano's axioms or anything else you could have learnt in
The NewtonOS storage space arithmetic shares with conventional filesystems
storage arithmetic its weirdness. However, even if these rules remain a
complete mystery for the human minds, they are very different.
There are actually two values returned by the system:
* The used space
* The total space
When the Extras drawer (or anything else) gives a value of the free space,
it is just total minus used.
One can also compute/find other values, such as the nominal size of a store
(what is written on a card or what you will find in the hardware section of
the FAQ for the internal store), the sum of the size of all objects that a
program can access and other similar things. Beware, don't mix up System
RAM installed and the internal store size, see question IIID3b
All these values give you an idea of the situation, but you can't simply
add or substract values, here are a coule of reasons:
* The internal flash (4 MB on MP2x00s) is not entirely reserved for the
internal store. Part of it contains the system update, the calibration
(tablet and temperature) data, etc.
* NewtonOS storage system is transactional, which means that to make a
change, the system writes a copy and then commits the change. This means
that some space is to be reserved for transaction, and if not enough space
for the transaction can be found, the transaction fails and the Newton will
display the storage full alert
* Flash chips used are divided in 64 KB blocks that can only be erased at
once (individual bits can be muted from one state, say 0, to the other, say
1 - 0 and 1 could be exchanged here, depends on the chips). For some
reason, the NewtonOS also divides SRAM in 64 KB blocks and consider them
just like flash blocks.
* Originally, objects could not be included into more than one block. And
in fact, soup entries had to fit one 64 KB block. To have bigger objects,
there is a special kind of objects, Large Binary Objects, that are divided
into several blocks. If a store is nearly full, a newly large binary object
is divided into many blocks. This is what can be called fragmentation.
* A store includes more data than what some software counts as the used
space. There is some information on the store (including its name, ID,
kind, password (this is partly implemented in the OS, the missing part is
the slip to set it/ask for it). The store also can have some information
associated to it (see the programmer's doc for details). And finally, we
have the soups. Each soup can have information associated (idem), such as
the last time it was backuped, and some information to identify them (name,
what is indexed). Data includes the indexes and the entries of course.
Finally, a store used size can temporarily include the VBOs.
* NewtonOS stores are garbaged collected, which isn't surprising for a
persistent object store. There is a single persistence root for the
curious, a special object with an ID that is determined by the system (it
is 0x27 for flash stores, another fixed value for Package Store (0 AFAIR)
and some variable value for ATA stores).
Note: Linear and ATA stores follow different arithmetics.
To end with these arithmetics, note that probably the most serious website
about storage cards, Carsten Lemmen's
( relies on Nick's Test It
speed values. While the time spent to do the test is probably the best
comparison tool, even if it can change a lot due to various factors
including pen input, software installed, etc., the speed given by Nick's
Test It does not mean much.
Indeed, Nick's Test It creates a temporary soup (hence with at least an
index on the unique ID) and then creates 335 entries with the following
frame:{ s : "ABC..YZabc...wxABC..YZabc...wxABC..YZabc...wxABC..YZabc...wx"
which is 452 bytes; therefore if we count out the index, and the unique ID
slot, we have 148 KB of useful data transferred.
Additionally, on a flash store, creating an entry actually means creating a
transaction, i.e. copying 64 KB of data. So copying 335 entries means much
more than 100 KB. I also think that if the store is nearly empty, the 64 KB
aren't copied when possible, hence the much higher value for freshly
formatted cards.
Finally, defragmenting can be done by doing a full backup, erasing all data
and restoring the backup. Since backups never hurt, defragmenting cannot
hurt. Whether it helps getting some bytes back/improving speed depends on
your belief.

10) Is there any virus on NewtonOS?

There is no known virus on NewtonOS.

C) Troubleshooting

1) Is the Newton Y2K compliant?

Apparently so:
However, different date/time related problems might occur starting in 2010,
2099 and 2924 (should you be so lucky to be alive, with a functioning
Newton). These problems are discussed here:
And Avi Drissman made an experimental fix for that:

2) Are there known bugs in the Newton OS?

a) I've heard about the nasty -10061 error on MP2x and eMate -- how can I
reduce/prevent this?

This only happens on devices with 4MB DRAM memory (upgr eMate and 2100 or
upgr 2000).
Information can be found in an article by Frank Wegener translated by
George Oehl: <> or
There are fixes such as:
* '61 Memory Fix v1.0 by Avi Drissman - the first fixing tool:
* Richard Li's SysPatch avoids -10061 by Power off scan and regular scans
on activated packages: <>
* Auto61 Fix (Don Vollum). Available at
* -10061 Utilitiy - automatically pops up and offers a reboot or FIX 61
* Heaven or Hell - checks on demand, when the Newton is idle, on power on
and power off
Since these programs take different approaches to fixing the -10061
problem, there are generally no conflicts even if you have several of the
fixes installed at the same time.

b) What is the Dates/Find bug?

From Avi's pages:
This bug only happens on Newton OS 2.1. The bug is easy to see. Open up the
Dates app, tap Find, and do a search for something that will be found in
your dates (e.g. the letter "e"). From the list of results, select several
and try to print them. Or fax them. Or even preview. It cannot be done. It
has been fixed in System Update 710031 for US MP2x00. It is also fixed by
Dates/Find Bugfix for eMates and German MP2x00:

c) When I write, sometimes pen strokes either do not appear or disappear.

This is a known bug. However, as far as I know, nobody has fixed it yet.

d) When I do a find with NewtWorks, the free memory amount falls.

This is a bug in Newton OS 2.1 protoTXViewFinder.FindString method. It is
in ROM. However, a workaround fix exists (for Works only). It has been
designed by Paul Guyot and can be freely downloaded from Kallisys website:

e) What are these -16022 errors every time I try to use my modem?

[From Victor Rehorst: <>]
There is a bug in NewtonOS 2.1 where the system is unable to detect which
slot a modem is inserted in. To fix this error, first choose a slot where
you will always have your modem inserted. Then, go to the Prefs panel from
Extras and tap on Modem. Change the Connect Using setting ro either Right
PC Card or Left PC Card, depending on the slot you've chosen.

f) When I insert a memory card, I get a -10582 error. What's wrong?

The -10582 error is kError_ATA_No_Partition. It is triggered when the
built-in ATA card handler cannot find a Master Boot Record. Actually, it
won't find it, even if the card was DOS formatted, because the driver in
the ROM always reads zeroes. And even if it worked, the card handler isn't
finished either.
The consequence is that you cannot use ATA cards with the Newton without a
third-party driver. See which memory cards work with your Newton (IIB1).

g) When I insert a flash memory card, my MP2x00 tells me the battery in the
card needs to be replaced.

This is a known bug. Your card probably doesn't have any battery. Install
the latest system patch for your MP2x00 (see IIIA2a).

h) I installed a new version of the backdrop application I'm using and I
can't see it.

This is a known bug discovered by Victor Rehorst. Technically, you can on
NewtonOS have two packages with the same signature provided that they're
not on the same store. Normally, in such a case, the system shows the
secondly loaded package with a big cross on it, to tell you that it hasn't
been activated. Additionally, the system doesn't show the backdrop
application in the Extras Drawer.
The bug is that it actually doesn't show any package with the same
signature than the backdrop application, and therefore, if you have two
packages with the same signature and one is the backdrop application
(therefore on the internal store), the other one (on a card) will be
filtered nevertheless. The solution is to make another application (e.g.
the Extras Drawer) the backdrop application, and then you'll see both
packages. This isn't a very painful bug (on the contrary to the -10061),
but I found it worth it to mention that there is another bug that was left
in the OS ;)

3) Packages on other platforms

a) On my Mac, the icon of a .pkg file is plain, and NPI refuses it.

The file's type and creator are not set properly. To fix it, you can use
ResEdit and change the settings to "pkg " for the type and "pkgX" for the
creator. (this is NPI creator. Some of your packages can have another
creator, such as NTK creator code).
Steve Weyer wrote a simple program, PackType, that does that:
If you don't want this to happen again with your zipped packages or with
the packages that you may download, you must add/correct the .pkg entry in
the files mappings of Internet Config or Internet Control Panel in the
latest MacOS.

b) When I download a .pkg via my Newton web browser, it's not recognized as
a package.

Assuming the package was properly uploaded as a binary file, then the
likely explanation is that the server is not providing the correct MIME
type. You can ask the server administrator to use this Content-Type in MIME
table: application/x-newton-compatible-pkg or you can contact your browser
vendor to support additional MIME types.

c) I can't expand StuffIt archives (on both platform).

Aladdin published a new version of StuffIt Tools (5.x) which doesn't
produce compatible archives with older tools. If you bought these tools,
just get the expander which you'll find at <>

d) I have problems with a package on Windows

If you have an error using Windows unstuff utilities where file does not
appear to be package format, set the CROSS PLATFORM preference to NEVER for
'Convert Text files to Windows format' and set to NEVER for 'Save Macintosh
files in MacBinary format'. (Otherwise, Mac resource fork is left in).
If you have unzipped a .pkg file on a PC and it isn't recognized/installed
properly, it might be because it is macbinary-encoded. You may be able to
strip the MacBinary header using Pkg Stripper by Roger Milne:

4) Why does the I/O Box always open to outbox? Can I change that?

There was a problem in older versions of Newt's Cape (2.0a, 1.5) -- if you
selected a mailto: link, it created a message in your Outbox and opened to
that directly.
Some other softwares could have also changed the default setting which is
to open to inbox.
describes a fix that you can make from a soup editor (or just run the
example in Newt's Cape).

5) Why does the available memory decrease when the Newton is idle?

This kind of memory usage is perfectly normal in a system like Newton that
does automatic memory management (also similar to Smalltalk, Lisp, Java).
As the event loop runs or even idles, the Newton creates temporary objects.
(ala Heisenberg, just observing the state of the Newton in order to update
time or amount of heap, uses heap). When this gets to a certain threshhold,
the Newton reclaims memory by tracing/discarding items that aren't being
referenced anymore by any other object (aka "garbage collection"). [From a
developer's perspective, not having to worry about allocating and
deallocating memory is great, compared to traditional language environments
like C; things just eventually disappear if you stop referencing/using
A real "leak" happens if most of the heap isn't reclaimed. This could
happen if an application hangs onto extra, unnecessary stuff even when
closed. And this sometimes can happen also during soup (database)
processing when the heap becomes partitioned/fragemented (an unfortunate
memory management bug that Apple never got around to fixing...)

D) Miscellaneous

1) Where can I find informations about Easter Eggs?

There are plenty of Easter Eggs in the Newton. Best known are Rosetta!,
eclipse, dates prefs, Groom Lake, About Newton?, Egg Freckles & hidden
Here are some links:
* Oliver Fross' Easter Egg page: <>
* A 2.x easter egg package [if it is the one I have (by Emmanuel Raviart),
it enables the Poker & the Patience]
* To replay an the Eclipse, there's a package 2.x package:
* Avi's Egg Freckles Enabler:

2) How are packages compressed? (The story of the compression bits)

Packages are compressed when loaded on the Newton (i.e. when transfered
from a desktop computer). They are uncompressed on the fly when mapped on
the Virtual Memory. This may result in a (little) slow down. The Newton OS
compresses packages according to a flag called the compression bit. This
flag is set by the programmer in NTK (NDE offers the same option). But it
can be set on some packages that were not designed to be compressed.
Moreover, NOS 2.x packages also have a fast compression bit. Having it set
reduces the compression gain, but it is said to speed up things. I have
never felt an important change, however.
Some packages must not be compressed (so wrote Apple's guys in Newton
Formats) because they need to be resident. This is very rare, so you may
want to compress the uncompressed packages. To do so, you can use a
software for MacOS called PackageFlag Changer 0.1a2 that can be found at:
Victor Rehorst wrote a software to change the flags of Newton Packages on
Windows, NewtPackageFlags. It can be found on his website:
Kip from Prism Research enabled compression on some usual uncompressed
packages: <>

3) How it all works

a) Newton Process Management

There are two kinds of processes on the Newton. First, there are
lower-level operating system processes (such as handwriting recognition or
the NewtonScript interpreter). Such processes are usually written in C++,
though some have been written in assembly code. As of NewtonOS 2.0,
third-party developers can write some (but not all) of their program code
in this low-level C++ fashion as well.
The other kind of process is a "NewtonScript application". NewtonScript
applications are not actually applications -- they're better thought of as
plug-ins to the NewtonScript interpreter. Just like Java applications on
other platforms, NewtonScript applications can be in a pcode format to be
interpreted by the interpreter (slow), or can be compiled directly into
machine code. The Newton even has a compiler built-in; it's possible to
use this compiler to build NewtonScript applications directly on the Newton
without ever using another computer. Nearly all the icons you see in the
Extras Drawer are NewtonScript applications. There's a lot of NewtonScript
stuff in the background too.
Does the Newton multitask? Yes and no. As we understand it, the Newton's
underlying operating system has a preemptive multithreaded process manager;
the inker, handwriting recognition, low-level I/O, and NewtonScript
interpreter all run in separate processes. However, NewtonScript
"applications" (like the Note Pad, or a third-party calculator, or the
Button Bar, etc.) are not multitasked in any sense of the term. In fact,
they are in essence different functions in the same big computer program
hosted by the NewtonScript interpreter. They all share the same memory and
run together in a single process. Any one application can hog all the
processor power if it wants to. From a user's perspective, no, the Newton
doesn't have preemptive multitasking. However, when two cards are inserted
at the same time, maybe two NS tasks run at the same time.
The main way that NewtonScript applications "share" processor time is using
an *event model*. Events (keystrokes, pen taps,incoming serial port
information, etc.) are piled up at a low level into an event queue where
they await processing by appropriate applications. NewtonScript
applications register *callback functions* to be called when certain events
occur that are germane to that application. NewtonScript calls these
functions "scripts". When a callback function has been called and has
completed its work, the processor is released from duty and some callback
function is called for the next event in the queue. When no events are in
the queue, the processor sleeps. Applications may register for timer
events which occur periodically (once an hour, week, day, etc.).
Applications may also register for "idle" events -- if there is no event
presently in the queue, the processor every once in a while queues up an
"idle" event and hands it off to a registered callback function. This
allows applications to do work in the background all by themselves.
Besides, since there is only one Event Loop, the system stops when there is
nothing to do, awaiting for any event (including a clock change) which will
wake it up. This allows the Newton to consume very few power.

b) Newton Memory Organization

The Newton Processor can access memory for 32 bits, i.e. 4 GB. All this
memory is not used. There is globally five chunks dedicated to specific
* Page zero is for some interrupts. It cannot be read except when an
interrupt occurs.
* The ROM. MP2x00 have 8 megs of ROM. It is read only.
* The Patchable Tables. It is a zone in DRAM but locked and updated at
startup from the update which is saved into the Internal Store Block 0. It
includes tables to elements which are in the ROM at a ROM dependent place.
There are other tables which we don't know how to patch (yet).
* The RAM. The whole memory is divided into heaps, the DRAM is divided into
at least two heaps (we are sure that there are two heaps, although there
may be more, and programs can create some):
+ A large hunk of DRAM of unknown size is reserved to hold the actual
computer code and some read-only resources for running C++ and NewtonScript
applications. Another chunk of memory, in DRAM, probably about 200K in
size on an MP2000, is where C++ programs and the operating system allocate
memory as necessary. This includes the window management and graphics
system, handwriting recognition, low-level runnning of the NewtonScript
interpreter, the file system, etc. It also includes the Newton Internet
Enabler, which is why for example the MP2000 will often hang if you open or
close windows while running NIE (both need C++ memory, and there isn't
enough to go around). MacinTalk and the sound subsystem also use this
space, as do the C++ parts of various third-party applications. These two
areas of DRAM are roughly equivalent to a typical computer's RAM in that
they hold the application code and allocated memory state.
+ The most famous chunk of memory, the NewtonScript heap or "frames
heap", is where the NewtonScript interpreter manages memory for various
NewtonScript applications. On an MP2000, this space is about 150K in size
and resides in DRAM. All NewtonScript applications, including the built-in
ones and nearly everything written by third parties, share this memory
space when they're open. Even when closed, some applications hang on to
small parts of this memory to "remember" certain things related to
process-to-process interaction -- for example, Newt's Cape hangs on to a
small chunk of global memory in which is registered all of its plug-ins.
NIE also holds on to quite a large chunk of memory to manage its interface
to various NewtonScript internet applications. The Newton also maintains a
small piece of NewtonScript memory for every unfrozen application,
containing pointers to its name and icon, as well as small NewtonScript
functions ("scripts") which get run when the application's card is removed
or installed, or when the application is deleted. The more applications
you have unfrozen, the smaller your NewtonScript heap will be.
* A virtual zone where virtual binary objects are stored. This zone
contains the activated packages locked there.
The last area of memory is where the Newton's "File System" (so to speak)
is managed. This area consists of internal DRAM on some early units,
internal Flash RAM on others, and of course all of the Flash or DRAM on
inserted RAM cards. Flash RAM is not useful for the other chunks of
memory, because it is far too slow to hold executing computer code or
dynamic memory allocation. Flash RAM also can only be accessed in hunks of
(16K) memory at a time, similar to a hard disk's sectors. But Flash RAM is
excellent for storing archival information, since it does not require
battery backup.
When the user presses the reset button on a Newton, certain chunks of the
DRAM are wiped clean and the system is restarted. This basically means the
RAM which holds the executing computer code, the allocated C++ memory, and
the NewtonScript heap. The low-level system areas and the "file system"
storage of course remain intact.

c) The Newton 'File System'

The Newton does not have a file system per se. It has a shallow database
system. The newton considers its internal storage, and each inserted card,
as a separate "store" (a volume). On any store may be placed either
read/write "soups" (databases), or read-only objects called "packages".
Packages are roughly equivalent to application programs, though they may
also be storage areas or plug-ins. They consist of bundles of "parts". A
"part" might be a chunk of executable computer code, a set of large binary
objects, a read-only embedded soup,etc. Packages can be stored in
compressed or uncompressed format on the Newton. They are always
uncompressed on desktop computers.
A soup is a simple one-table database of "entries" which may be indexed in
many ways and over which a variety of queries may be made. Various soups
store the Newton's equivalent of "documents" or "files". The newton has a
rich set of indexing and querying mechanisms for soups. One important
index is the "tags" index. Soup entries may be "tagged" with some
user-defined string; applications use these tags to give the illusion of
filing entries into "folders", one folder per user-defined string. This is
for example the case when filing programs in the Extras Drawer.
Soups have an accompanying ID symbol which represents a soup of that
"kind"; this ID is assigned to a soup by the application which created it
and uses it. For example, Hemlock maintains two soups, each with a
different ID. One soup holds Hemlock's search engines, and the other holds
Hemlock's current query results.
Soups on different stores may have the same ID, meaning that they are the
same kind of soup, just spread out on different cards. When applications
access soups, they usually do so by querying and accessing a "union soup"
object. From an application's perspective, union soups merge all the soups
of a given ID on different stores into one unified soup for that ID. This
happens dynamically; when a user adds or removes cards, the union soup
changes automatically, each application is notified, and they update their
presentation to the user to reflect this. For example, when the user yanks
a card containing a Note Pad soup, the appropriate soup entries (hence
"notes") in the Note Pad's union soup automatically disappear, the Note Pad
is notified, and its display is updated to show that these entries are now
gone. It is this general philosophy of treating documents as database
entries in a global union soup which is why the Newtons are so graceful at
handling multiple cards yanked and inserted while applications are running.
There are a few global soups which all applications use; the most important
one is the "System" Soup, which stores global information for applications,
commmonly application preferences. When applications are installed they
often will insert an entry into this soup to store their preferences, but
when they are deleted they very often forget to remove this entry. As a
result the System soup grows and grows. Some users have reported a bloated
System soup as a key culprit in the "squiggles", a Newton condition where
the Newton cannot properly register the location of the pen.

Paul Guyot

Oct 1, 2002, 12:00:21 AM10/1/02
Archive-name: palmtops/newton/faq/hardware
Posting-Frequency: monthly
Last-modified: 2002/10/01

Version: This is the October 2002 update
Maintainer: Steve Weyer <>,
Peter Rand <>,
Sean Luke <> and Paul Guyot <>

PART II: Newton Hardware

* A) The Newton MessagePad family
+ 1) What are the various Newton MessagePad models?
x a) The full list
x b) Some models were localized
x c) The differences
x d) Other differences concern the OS and the size of the memory
x e) I have a Newton model H1000. What is this?
x f) I heard a rumor that Apple is making a new Newton. Is this true?
x g) How can I distinguish a MP2000 from an upgraded MP2000?
x h) I have a Newton MP2x00 EVT/DVT or a "Newton NotePad". What is it?
x i) I have a grey dongle for MP2x00. What's the difference with the
black ones?
x j) Where can I find information about Newton prototypes?
+ 2) Where to find Newton MessagePads or accessories?
+ 3) What is the difference between RAM, DRAM, FlashRAM, ROM, SRAM...?
+ 4) What are the Newton's sound capabilities?
+ 5) Where can I find original manuals?
+ 6) Where can I find service manuals?
* B) Extending the MessagePad hardware
+ 1) What kind of memory cards can I use in my Newton?
x a) What cards are suitable for the Newton?
x b) What sizes and models are suitable for my Newton?
x c) Can I increase the Newton's internal DRAM?
+ 2) Communications: what kind of modem/ethernet card/cell phone can I
x a) Which modem can I use?
x b) Which cell phones can I use?
x c) Which network cards can I use?
+ 3) What kind of keyboard can I use?
+ 4) Can I speed up the processor?
+ 5) Can I change the ROM of the Newton?
+ 6) What kind of batteries can I use?
+ 7) What kind of AC power adapters should I use?
+ 8) What kind of printers can I use?
+ 9) Can I use digital cameras with my Newton?
+ 10) Can I use a Click/IBM Microdrive/ATA Flash/Compactflash adapter in
my Newton?
+ 11) Are there any third-Party accessories that use the Interconnect

port on the 2x00 or eMate?

+ 12) Can I use an Airport/WaveLan card in my Newton?
+ 13) What cable do I need to connect to my desktop computer?
* C) Hardware problems
+ 1) Why does my MP130/MP2000/eMate whine when the backlight is on?
+ 2) Why does my MP120/130 whine?
+ 3) What should I do if I have a hardware problem with my Newton?
+ 4) Why does my Newton wake up at 3 AM?
+ 5) How long will the backlight last?
+ 6) Common hardware problems
x a) My Newton won't turn on. What should I do?
x b) How can I protect my MessagePad screen?
x c) How do I turn on the backlight?
x d) What softwares can be used to turn the backlight on?
x e) Why does my MP100 turn itself off as soon as I turn it on?
x f) The serial port on my MP2000/MP2100 is caved in. What do I do?
x g) My MP2000/2100 pen input is all messed up. What can I do?
+ 7) How to replace eMate batteries?

A) The Newton MessagePad family

1) What are the various Newton MessagePad models?

a) The full list

You can view most of them all at
* Apple's Newtons:
+ Original MessagePad,
+ MP100,
+ MP110,
+ MP120 w/ NOS 1.3,
+ MP120 w/ NOS 2.0,
+ MP130,
+ MP2000,
+ MP2100,
+ eMate 300.
* Clones:
+ Sharp ExpertPad,
+ Digital Ocean Tarpon,
+ Digital Ocean Seahorse,
+ Motorola Marco,
+ Harris SuperTech 2000.
+ Siemens NotePhone, a Telephon/OMP-Clone/Modem combination

b) Localized models

The OMP 1.1, MP100, MP120 & MP130 were available in German. The MP100,
MP110 and the MP120/1.3 were available in French. The MP120/2.0-D ROM is in
fact the same than the one in the MP130-D (except for the Gestalt answer
about the kind of machine).
(From Carsten Lemmen) The OMP was available as a localized German model
with 1.1 ROMs and factory preinstalled update to 1.11. This OMP could be
upgraded (ROM replacement) to OS 1.3 (MP100 equivalent) through an Apple
upgrade program in 1994.
AFAIK there was also a Japanese Version of Newton OS, at least the Sharp
Expert Pad (OMP clone) was available with Japanese localisation.

c) The differences

Physically, 1xx models are smaller than 2k models, and they can are
equipped with only one PCMCIA slot. MP 130s, MP2ks and eMate 300 are
equipped with a backlight. The eMate 300 is equipped with a keyboard, and
it looks like the iBook, but smaller.

d) Other differences concern the OS and the size of the memory

From: Holger Schmidt, <>, from Pascal B. Kreil
site <>, and MSNUG Newton Gallery

Hardware informations
| | | | | | | | | |
| Type: | RAM |ROM | CPU | N/OS | Peri. | Fax | Screen | Sound |
| | | | | | | | | |
| OMP |640K |4MB |ARM 610| 1.0 |one PC Card|send | | Speaker |
| | | | 20MHz |(1.05)|one Serial |only | 336x240 | only |
| | | | | 1.1 |IR(ASK) | | | |
| Sharp |640K |4MB |ARM 610| 1.0 |one PC Card|send | 320x248 | Speaker |
| Expert | | | 20MHz |(1.05)|one Serial |only | | only |
| Pad | | | | |IR(ASK) | | | |
| MP100 |640K |4MB |ARM 610| 1.3 |one PC Card|send | | Speaker |
| | | | 20MHz | |one Serial |only | 336x240 | only |
| | | | | |IR(ASK) | | | |
|Motorola| 1MB |5MB |ARM 610|1.0.2?|one PC Card|send | 320x240 | |
| | | | 20MHz |1.0.3?|one Serial |and |back-light| ??? |
| Marco | | | | |IR, modem |rec | | |
| MP110 | 1MB |4MB |ARM 610| 1.3 |one PC Card|send | 320x240 | Speaker |
| | | | 20MHz | |one Serial |only | | only |
| | | | | |IR(ASK) | | | |
| MP120a | 1MB |8MB |ARM 610| 1.3 |one PC Card|send | 320x240 | Speaker |
| | * | | 20MHz | |one Serial |and | | only |
| | | | | |IR(ASK) |rec | | |
|Digital | 2MB |4MB |ARM 610| 1.3? |one PC Card|send | 320x240 | Speaker |
| Ocean | |upgr| 20MHz | 2.0? |one Serial |and |back-light| only |
| Tarpon | | | | |IR, Radio |rec | | |
|Digital | 2MB |4MB |ARM 610| 1.3? |one PC Card|send | 320x240 | |
| Ocean | |upgr| 20MHz | 2.0? |one Serial |and |back-light| ??? |
|SeaHorse| | | | |IR, Radio |rec | | |
| Harris | 2MB |4MB |ARM 610| 1.3? |one PC Card|send | 320x240 | Speaker |
| Super | |upgr| 20MHz | 2.0? |one Serial |and |back-light| only |
|Tech2000| | | | |IR, 2xRadio|rec | | |
| MP120b | 2MB |8MB |ARM 610| 1.3 |one PC Card|send | 320x240 | Speaker |
| | * |upgr| 20MHz | 2.0 |one Serial |and | | only |
| | | | | |IR(ASK) |rec | | |
| MP130 |2.5MB|8MB |ARM 610| 2.0 |one PC Card|send | 320x240 | Speaker |
| | * |upgr| 20MHz | |one Serial |and |back-light| only |
| | | | | |IR(ASK) |rec | | |
| eMate | 3MB |4MB |ARM 710| 2.1 |one PC Card|send | 480x320 |Speaker, |
| 300 | | | 25MHz | |one Serial |and |back-light|headphone|
| | | | | |IR(IrDA) |rec | 16 grays | jack |
| MP2000 | 5M* |8MB |Strong | 2.1 |two PC Card|send | 480x320 |Speaker* |
| | | | ARM | |one Serial |and |back-light| and |
| | | |162MHz | |IR(IrDA) |rec | 16 grays | micro |
| MP2100 | 8MB*|8MB |Strong | 2.1 |two PC Card|send | 480x320 |Speaker* |
| | | | ARM | |one Serial |and |back-light| and |
| | | |162MHz | |IR(IrDA) |rec | 16 grays | micro |

Other informations:
| Type: | lg |Codename| Rel |
| | | | Date |
| OMP | en | |8/3/93 |
| | de | | 12/93 |
| Sharp | en | | |
| Expert | de | | ? |
| Pad | | | |
| | de | | ? |
| MP100 | en | | 3/94 |
| | fr | | ? |
| MP110 | en | Lindy | 3/94 |
| | fr | | ? |
| MP120 | de | |10/94 D|
| 1.3 | en | Gelato |1/95 US|
| | fr | | |
| MP120 | de | | |
| 2.0 | en | Q | 11/95 |
| MP130 | de | | |
| | en | Dante | 3/96 |
| eMate | | | 4/97 |
| 300 | en | | |
| MP2000 | en | | 3/97 |
| MP2100 | de | | 11/97 |
| | en | | |

*[Robert Sexton's Note] The MP2000/MP2100/eMate has a special connector,
known as the interconnect port, which contains the line in, line out, and
two serial ports. At the time of this writing, the interconnect port
connector is not widely available. The eMate has an interconnect port, a
headphone jack and a regular serial/LocalTalk port.
The MP120 (1MB) memory consists of 639K of DRAM and 385K of FlashRAM.
The MP120 (2MB) memory consists of 687K of DRAM and 1361K of FlashRAM.
The MP130 memory consists of 1,199K of DRAM and 1,361K of FlashRAM.
The eMate memory consists of 2MB FlashRAM and 1MB DRAM.
The MP2000 memory consists of 1MB of DRAM, and 4mb of Flash RAM. The MP2100
memory (and upgraded MP2k) consists of 4MB of DRAM, and 4Mb of Flash RAM.

e) I have a Newton model H1000. What is this?

You have an original Newton MessagePad (OMP), the first model made, or you
have an MP100, its immediate successor.

f) I heard a rumor that Apple is making a new Newton. Is this true?

That's very probably just a rumor based on the interest of Apple for Palm
devices. BTW, Palm Desktop which is to be found on iBooks is compatible
with NCU (the format is like Claris Organizer).

g) How can I distinguish a MP2000 from an upgraded MP2000?

The difference between both is simply the DRAM size. If Apple upgraded the
MP2000, there should be a MP2100 sticker near the interconnect port and the
serial number. Otherwise, you can simply go to the Memory Info (press the
[i] button under Extras) which should tell System RAM installed something
close to 4 MB (3984 KB) if you have an upgraded MP, or something close to 1
MB if you have a MP2000.

h) I have a Newton MP2x00/eMate 300 EVT/DVT or a "Newton NotePad". What is

EVT and DVT are two levels of prototype in the Newton program.
The initial prototypes were called "EVT" ("Engineering Verification Test").
After the EVT units were tested for a while, and various changes were made,
the DVT ("Development Verification Test") units were created. DVT units
were supposed to be closer to the final production devices.
Initial EVT prototypes were similar to the final MP2K, except instead of
the StrongARM processor, they had the ARM710 processor (same as the eMate).
A second batch of EVT devices ("EVT 2" devices) with StrongARM processors
were built.
A batch of DVT devices was built. Most of the units were configured as the
original MP2000. There were a few 4mb DRAM devices built in the DVT run
(they therefore are like MP2100s). Besides, some units have a special ROM
Board with an additional 8 MB of Flash for Internal memory (bringing the
total to 12 MB). There may have been units with Flash instead of ROM and
with 16 MB of ROM instead of 8.
The Newton NotePad were probably DVT units of the original MessagePad. It's
not known how they differed from the production OMPs.

i) I have a grey dongle for MP2x00. What's the difference with the black

Brian Parker reported on Usenet:
I have a very weird gray Newton 2K serial adapter! It appears to be
exactly the same as the normal black ones, except it is beige/gray and has
"TAIWAN N 2" instead of China on the bottom. It has the same part number as
the black ones.
Don Vollum answered:
IIRC, the gray adapters were for the DVT (second batch of prototype) 2000
units (codenamed "N2"). [Editor's note: cf the previous question]
The EVT units had black adapters, which looked like the production ones.
Between the EVT 2 run and the DVT run, they changed one of the pins, hence
the need for different adapters.
I believe that functionally, the gray adapter should be identical to a
production unit.

j) Where can I find information about Newton prototypes?

There was several Newton prototypes. Some pictures can be found in Newton
Gallery <>.
Larger pictures with some text are available at Newton Secrets Secret
Newtons: <>.
Finally, Russ Uzes purchased a Newton Cadillac on eBay and put some
pictures there: <>.

2) Where can I find a Newton MessagePad and Newton accessories?

* eBay <> on the Internet.
* comp.sys.newton.marketplace.
* Tima Scientific <Tima Scientific>
* Small Dog Electronics <Small Dog Electronics> (use the search box)
* Battery Tech: <> for
Apple Battery Pack
Additionally, you can buy parts directly from Sun Remarketing
<> or Apple themselves. To buy
parts to Apple, you need first to get the part numbers (available on Sun
Remarketing Website).
[This is a direct quote from csnm. Unfortunately, I lost the original
message. If anyone can remind me who was the author of this contribution,
I'll add necessary credits]
Call the Apple Fulfillment Center at 1-888-273-3594. This is the department
within Apple that someone was once transferred to in a previous message.
There is no guarantee that you will experience the same level of success
using it. Don't call Apple support at (800) SOS-APPL as you may waste many
hours of your life in this endeavour.
Tell them you would like to order a replacement part and that you have all
the info already (ie. part number, case number-if necessary). Since you
didn't call Apple SOS to get a case number try to stay away from this
subject. I was also prepared to lie and say that my Newton was still under
warrenty. That part number for the Newton replacement Flip Top is
#922-3306. Cost? Around $10 USD [Myron reported the price is now 43 USD
as of June, 21st, 2001]. Remember it, learn it, love it.
Have a credit card ready and provide them with shipping information and
credit card number. Shipping cost you ask? Roughly $5 USD for ground
shipping (US + Canada) taking 10-12 days or $20 (USD) for Fed Ex shipping
(1-2 days I think).
[Additional comment by PG] If you chose FedEx and they failed to deliver
the parts in time, they'll charge you the regular price, $5.50
Thanks the person on the phone for solving your door issues then quietly
hang up as you have escaped the long waiting, frustrating conversations and
general annoying details of talking to Apple about the Newton.
Wait. Door should arrive (hopefully) soon after allotted shipping time.
Open arrived package, attach new door, chill and serve. Voila!
[Newer report by Christopher Dean (07/05/2001)]
Dongles are still available through Apple. It is listed in their "service"
catalogue and are available from your Apple reseller.
The cost is $38 Australian (US$ 19).
[Parts numbers]
The prices are approximate and may have changed since we received the
information. Please keep in mind that we don't know which parts are
actually available. Most of the items are from Carsten Lemmen. However, I
thought that 922-2940 was the eMate Display Housing, not the Display Bezel
(which I thought to be 922-2939)
* eMate parts
+ Backlight, Electroluminescent (EL) 922-2681
+ Battery, NiMH 922-2938
+ Bezel, eMate Display 922-2940
+ Card, ROM, eMate 661-1195
+ Case, Bottom Assembly 922-2941
+ Case, Top (includes Logic Board) 661-1194
+ Cover, Top, eMate Display 922-2939
+ Door, Battery, ROM, RAM Access 922-2674
+ Feet, Rubber, Pkg. of 4 922-2679
+ Handle, Rubber Cushion 922-2678
+ Holder, Name Card 922-2676
+ Keyboard, eMate 922-2398
+ Key, Dummy, Keyboard, eMate 300 076-0636
+ Latch Kit 076-0633
+ LCD Assembly, eMate 661-1193
+ Lens, I/R 922-2677
+ Plug, Screw, Bezel, Pkg. of 4 922-2680
+ Plugs, Ink Well, Right and Left, Kit 076-0634
+ Plugs, Screw, Bottom Case, Kit 076-0635
+ Screw Kit 076-0637
+ Sleeve, Battery 922-2675
+ Stylus (eMate Pen) 922-2682
* MP2x00 Parts
+ Battery Pack, Rechargeable, NiMh 922-2968 32.50 USD (or 34 USD?)
+ Battery Tray
922-3307 10 USD
+ Cable, Adapter, MessagePad2000 to DIN-9 922-2971
+ Case, Carrying, MessagePad 2000 922-2976
+ Case, Carrying, Nylon, MessagePad 2000 922-2972
+ Stylus, MessagePad 2000, Pkg. of 5 922-2969 43 USD (21/06/2001)
(maybe it's the price for a single stylus)
+ Flip Top
922-3306* 43 USD (21/06/2001)
+ Serial Adapter (dongle?) 590-0756A 11 USD
* MP110/120/130 Parts:
+ 2.0 ROM Card, French (not for MP110) F661-1054
+ 2.0 ROM Card, German (not for MP110) D661-1054
+ Back Cover Assembly 076-0526
+ Battery Pack, Rechargable 661-1105
+ Battery Cover (Pkg. of 5) 922-0755
+ Battery Recharger 922-0753
+ Case, LC, Leather 922-0761
+ Case, Leather 922-0896
+ Cover, Battery, Lithium (Pkg. of 5) 076-0491*
+ Lithium Battery Cover,MP110 (Pkg. of 5) 922-0756
+ Cover, Battery (Pkg. of 5) 922-1285
+ Cover, Top, Hinged (Pkg. of 5) 076-0492*
+ Foot, Rubber (Pkg. of 50) 922-1375
+ I/O Cover 922-1686*
+ I/R Cover 922-1687*
+ On/Off Knob 922-1688*
+ Rubber Foot, MP110 (Pkg. of 50) 922-0757
+ Stylus (Pkg. of 5) 922-0754
+ Stylus, Recharger Cradle 922-0759
* OMP/MP100 Parts:
+ Battery Cover, Plastic (Pkg. of 5) 922-2037
+ Battery Holder, 4AAA (Pkg. of 10) 922-2038
+ Battery Pack, Nicad 661-1693
+ Battery Recharger 922-0562
+ Case, Carrying, Leather 922-0563
+ Case, Carrying, Sport 922-0569
+ Cover, Connector Rubber (Pkg. of 20) 922-2039
+ Cover, Slip, Vinyl (Pkg. of 5) 922-2040
+ Stylus, MessagePad (Pkg. of 10) 922-2036
* Parts for all Newton Products:
+ Adapter Plug, Australia 922-2975
+ Adapter Plug, Europe 922-2974
+ Adapter Plug, UK 922-2973
+ Adapter, Power, Newton, 9 Watt 922-2951
+ Cable, Macintosh Connect 922-0564
+ Cable, PC Connect 922-0565
+ Battery Booster Pack 922-0570
+ Cable, Print Pack 922-2035
+ Case, Modem, Pkg. of 10 922-0714
+ Flash Memory Card 2MB 661-1695
+ Keyboard Slipcover 922-1493
+ Keyboard 661-0963
+ Keyboard, British B661-0963
+ Keyboard, French F661-0963
+ Keyboard, German D661-0963
+ Keyboard, Swedish S661-0963
+ Modem Card Assembly, PCMCIA 661-1745
+ Modem, Data/Fax, 2400 Baud, External 661-1692
+ Power Adapter, In-Line (old model) 922-0560
+ Power Adapter,Right Angle,Australia X922-0561
+ Power Adapter,Right Angle,Great Britain B922-0561
+ Power Adapter, Right Angle, Int'l Z922-0561*: I'm not sure, which
Newton this part belongs to

3) What is the difference between RAM, DRAM, FlashRAM, ROM, SRAM...?

RAM stands for Random Access Memory. It is the designation for memory that
can be both written to and read. ROM stands for Read Only Memory. ROM
cannot be written to. It is used in the Newton for the Operating System.
Hence you cannot delete it.
SRAM stands for Static RAM. An SRAM cell consists of a small semiconductor
circuit (a flipflop), that holds one bit of information. As long as power
is supplied to this flipflop, it will retain its current state (unless
changed intentionally, of course), hence the back-up batteries in SRAM
DRAM is for Dynamic RAM. A DRAM cell is constructed to be a tiny capacitor.
It is much cheaper to manufacture, and can be much smaller. However, the
capacitor will slowly lose it's charge, hence the need to refreah it
regularly. Also, the needed time to (un)load the capacitor in order to
store a bit of information is significantly longer than the time needed to
(re)set a flipflop.
FlashRAM is based on EEPROM technology. It's a kind of memory that does not
lose its contents when power is no longer supplied. It is used for storage
on the Newton.

4) What are the Newton's sound capabilities?

To record sounds, remember that you'll need a microphone which can only be
found on 2.1 devices.
Software which allows you to record and playback sounds:
* The Newton's built-in recording stationary (MP 2k only)
* VoiceNotes (by Modasys) dramatically improves the Newton's recording
quality, and uses memory much more efficiently than the built-in recording
stationary, thereby turning the Newton into a useful digital recorder.
* The freeware program ModPlayer by Roger Milne lets you play MOD files
directly on your Newton.
* Eckhart Köppen ported MAD, an MP3 player <>
* There are also various sound packages available. Search UNNA
<> for sounds such as:
+ StarWars/Babylon 5/StarTrek/Simpsons
+ Shane Hill sounds: <>
+ The freeware program VoiceAlarm by Serg Koren lets you record sounds
which can be used as alarm sounds on the Newton.
+ Make-your-own audio adaptor (Dave Miller). This site provides advice
how to make a headphone jack for your Newton:

5) Where can I find original manuals?

The manuals can be found on Apple's FTP, Rochester FTP and UNNA
* <>
* <>
* 1.x devices Manuals (including 1.x to 2.0 upgrade related manuals)
+ Newton System Update 1.3 for the MessagePad 100 and MessagePad 110
+ Upgrading Your MessagePad 120 for the Macintosh Operating System
+ New Features of the Newton 2.0 Operating System
+ Transferring Information from an Earlier Model Newton Personal Digital
Assistant (PDA) (moving data from a 1.x device to a 2.0 device)
* MP120 2.0 and 130 Manuals
+ Apple MessagePad Handbook(Big manual for the MP130, suitable for the
MP120 except for backlight which the MP120 doesn't
+ Late-Breaking Information (addenda to the Newton Handbook)
+ Important Information for the MP120/2.0(Before you use your Apple
MessagePad 120 with the Newton 2.0 operating system, it is important that
you make a backup copy of the pre-installed software
* eMate 300 Manuals
+ eMate Manual
+ eMate 300 Getting Started Guide
+ eMate Classroom Exchange
.pdf> or
+ Important Information About Your eMate 300(Review the information to
find out about making backup copies of your information and using
300534AEM300BUERRV.PDF> or
00II.PDF> or
+ Rechargeable battery for the eMate 300
+ eMate 300 Teacher's Guide
TE300TG.PDF> or
+ Using the eMate Connectivity CD
* MP2x00 Manuals
+ Important Information About Your MessagePad 2000(Review the information
to find out about making backup copies of your information and using
NewtWorks, PC Card modems and
306222AMP2000AD.PDF> or
+ MessagePad 2000 Getting Started Guide
+ MessagePad 2000 User's Manual
+ Using E-Mail on Your MessagePad 2000
+ Upgrading Your MessagePad 2000 (Important information before sending
the MP2000 to Apple)(Note: Apple no longer upgrades MP2000s, see question
* Apple software Manuals
+ Newton Backup Utility User's Guide
x For the Macintosh Operating System
x For Windows
+ Newton Conneciton Utilities User's Manual
x For the Macintosh Operating System
x For Windows
+ Newton Press User's Guide
x For the Macintosh Operating System
x For Windows
+ Newton Internet Enabler User's Manual
x NIE 1.x
x NIE 2.0
+ Newton Connection 2.0 Update
+ Newton Connection Kit for Windows UserÕs Guide
+ NewtonWorks Manuals
x NewtonWorks Word Processor UserÕs Manual
x Newton Works Graphing Calculator UserÕs Manual
x See also questions VB4b and VB4d
* Apple additional hardware Manuals
+ Using the Newton Print Pack
+ Connecting Power Plugs
+ Newton 9W Power Adapter (English, French, German, Japanese)
+ Newton Rechargeable Battery Pack (English, French, German, Japanese)
* Misc manuals
+ Important Late-Breaking Information(If you have a MessagePad,
MessagePad 100, or MessagePad 110 device and want to transfer information
from the Name File, Notepad, and Date Book, applications, and application
data to your MessagePad 120, please follow these
+ Connecting a Newton PDA to your Macintosh
+ About Cables
+ Using E-Mail on Your Newton Device
+ Important Information (about GSM and TDK Modem)
+ FREE Newton Backup Utility (how to get a free copy of NBU)(Note: you
can no longer get this free
* Newton Enhancement Pack and Third Party software Documentation(The Newton
Enhancement Pack is a 2 MB Flash card which came with third party software)
+ Getting Started With Your Newton Enhancement Pack
+ Newton Utilities User's Manual
+ Welcome to Newton! Installing Your Newton Software (manual to install
software and Expense Plus in particular - apparently a manual for Apple

6) Where can I find service manuals?

Service manuals are like ghosts on Apple's FTP. They appear and disappear
periodically. However, the Newton service manuals are not really exciting.

sp stands for specifications, ba for basics. emate.up.pdf explains how to
do the eMate upgrade. Manuals with no extension includes these plus a
worthless section called troubleshooting, and exploded view (MP 1xx), which
is worthless, too. eMate manual also includes a section about the
diagnostic (to be used with a special card from Apple). Here is the URL:
* (343 Ko)
* emate.pdf (2913 Ko)
* emate.sp.pdf (105 Ko)
* emate.up.pdf (251 Ko)
* (79 Ko)
* messagepad.sp.pdf (109 Ko)
* messagepad_100.110.120.130.pdf (209 Ko)
* (95 Ko)
* messagepad2100.sp.pdf (92 Ko)
* messagepad_2000.2100.pdf (221 Ko)
In case they disapear again, there is a mirror at:
<>. Apparently, there isn't all
manuals there.
Victor Rehorst made a mirror which is available at:

B) Extending MessagePad hardware

1) What kind of memory cards can I use in my Newton?

a) What cards are suitable for the Newton?

You can use SRAM cards or FlashRAM cards. SRAM cards are more expensive
than FlashRAM cards, and they need an internal battery.
There are several kinds of flash memory cards available today. There are
ATA flash cards, compact flash cards, SmartMedia flash cards and linear
flash cards. Linear, ATA and compact cards are the same size, but only
linear (or regular) cards can be used in Newton Message Pads, and not all.
(see next question).

b) What sizes and models are suitable for my Newton?

There are several common kinds of linear cards, depending on the chip used
in it.

Memory Card compatibility

| | All | All | | |
| Model | 1.x | 2.0 | MP2x00 | eMate |
| | models | models | | 300 |
| | | | | |
| SRAM | Yes | Yes | Yes | Yes |
| | | | | |
|AMD D/AD| | | | |
| | No | Yes | Yes | Yes |
| 5v/5v | | | | |
|Intel II| | | | Read |
| | Yes | Yes | Yes | Only |
| 5v/12v | | | | |
| Intel | | | | |
| II+ | ? | Yes | Yes | Yes |
| 5v/5v | | | | |
| Intel | | | | |
| VS 100 | No | No | Yes | Yes |
| 5v/5v | | | | |
| Intel | | | | |
| VS 200 | No | No | No | No |
| 5v/5v | | | | |
VS: Value Series

Please note that I compiled this table from various sources.
SRAM cards are said to only work if they are 4 MB or smaller.
It is believed that you need Newton OS 2.x to use flash cards bigger than 4
MB, however it appears to be wrong at least with the Intel Series II+ in a
MP100: Harri Hohteri <> succeeded in using such
a card in his MP2100, his MP130 and his MP100.
It is believed that Series II+ only work in 2.x models, but Harri Hohteri's
40 MB card works in his MP100.
The maximum size limit has been said to be 4 MB, 32 MB, or any other value.
Apparently, there is no size limit but the linear cards limit (64 MB),
however nobody reported to have been able (or unable) to use a 64 MB card.
If you do, please contact us.
Intel and AMD are technologies and most of the time suppliers of the chips,
not brands. Therefore Intel cards can be sold under different brand names
(Apple for example ;-). You can identify them by their part number:
nn is the memory capacity in MB
* Series II: iMC0nnFLSA
* Series II+: iMC0nnFLSP
* VS 100: iMC0nnFLSC
The best source about Flash Cards is Carsten Lemmen's website. His page
about memory cards is available in English
<> and in German:

c) Can I increase internal DRAM memory?

You can increase the DRAM memory of the MP2000 by doing the MP2100 upgrade.
Apple no longer do it. Some companies sell the kit or do the upgrade such
as PixSolution <> & Digital Dave
You can expand both the DRAM and the Flash on eMate 300 to what the MP2100
has, by installing a NewerRAM <> or another memory
[From Otto Sohn:] To my knowledge there is not a single manufacturer who
still produces/stocks these cards. The only chance seems to be getting one
on eBay. There have been rumors, though, that one of the manufacturers (I
forgot which one - Lifetime ? Peripheral Enhancements ?) was possibly
considering producing another batch if someone would buy their production
of these cards wholesale. It was rumored to be 25+ cards minimum. I don't
know if that is true.
Related information on eMate upgrades is also available at:
* "Apple eMate 300: Memory Upgrade Discussion"
<> where the
following is said:

"When internal DRAM memory is installed, the total amount of DRAM available
will equal that on the expansion card. However, when internal flash memory
is installed, the storage memory area equals the amount of original
internal flash memory plus that on the internal expansion card.

For example, an expansion card with 4 MB of DRAM and 2 MB of flash memory
would result in a configuration of 4 MB of DRAM and 4 MB of flash memory."
* <> where this
additional information is supplied:

"An additional benefit is that with the expanded DRAM, the eMate will
reconfigure its data path for processed data from 16 to 32 bit, greatly
increasing responsiveness."
Instructions for a do-it-yourself upgrade can be found on Abe Lee's site
at: <>

2) Communications: what kind of modem/ethernet card/cell phone can I use?

a) Which modem can I use? How do I make a modem script?

Any compatible external modem should work properly.
[From Helmut Fischer]: To connect MP and external modem, use a standard
Apple Macintosh modem cable. Works on all MPs I have tried (120, 130,
For internal modems, there is a complete list maintained by Len Lutz
<> at:
DNUG maintains a list of drivers and scripts:
To make a modem script, you can use the sample code provided by Apple,
Modem Setup (latest version is 2), which you can find on UNNA.
Combo cards don't work without a specific driver. Some have one, but most
don't. In the best case you can use the modem part of the card. If the
Newton says "A communications card has been inserted" when you insert a
combo card, it means that the modem part has been recognized and might

b) Which cell phones can I use?

Here's a summary of cell phone compatibility for the Newton. Information on
modems and drivers are further below. Thanks to all the individual
contributors who provided info about their cell phones.
* Motorolla 'Micro TAC Alpha'
*From: <> (David Rouse)*
I've had excellent results with a Motorolla 'Micro TAC Alpha' (flip phone,
on the larger side) and a CELLect 14.4 PCMCIA modem card (which has a neat
geeky manual, it even covers UUCP). Both products are, I believe, as
discontinued as the Newton itself.
* Ericsson T18s
*From: <> (Peter Hofmann)*Hi, i use with my 2100 a
Option 56k GSM ready Card and Ericsson T18s Cell Phone. My Ericsson SH888
also was a good deal (pity you can use the built-in modem)
* Motorola Startac
*From: <> (D. Hochberg/J. Leong)*
I've got a motorola startac with an ositech 5 of diamonds modem. no
* Motorola DPC650
*From: <> (Dave Fleishman)*
I have had some success with a Motorola DPC650, a MOT-1 cable from
Megahertz and a Megahertz XJ4288 modem. Dials great, connects great, but
the cellular connection is slow, and unless I'm near a cell tower, it can
drop in the middle of the transfer. I used both the 14.4 and higher
setting, and the CruiseCard 28.8 setting with success. I have also had
success with a Motorola "black box" with just about all PC card modems I
have used. Let me know if you need the part number for it, because I keep
it in my car.
* Motorola 6200, 8200, 8400, 8700, 8900
*From: <>*
I'm using the CEllect 1+ card and a Newton 130 with a driver I found in a
free data-base a year ago. (sorry, I don't remember the URL) I put up a
page with those informations here:
<> Feel free to copy any
information/driver from this page. I don't know if the driver works with
other models of Newton/cellect. I only tested these phones: motorola 6200,
8200, 8400, 8700, 8900 and flare. 100% ok with my CELLect 1+ card and MP
* Nokia 2110 & 2110(i)
*From: <> (Orjan J Larsson)*
Nokia 2110 and 2110i with an Nokia DTP-2 PC Card works like a charm with an
Newton too.
Also Options 33.6K PC Card modem with "GSM ready" logo onto them, with GSM
cable for Siemens S4, works with Option drivers from Both
as a standard 33.6K modem, as an cellular. Haven't tried anything else than
an S4, but presume that , as you just change cable, it would work with any
cellular that Option has an cable for. Both data and fax, in both cases, I
might add.

* Nokia 6110
*From: <> (Roman Pixell)*
I'm using the mp2000 today with a nokia 6110 and an option modem card. i
rewrote the script, and it works ok i guess.
* Nokia 8110
*From: <> (Kenneth Wong)*
I'm using the Nokia Cellular Data Card DTP-2v2 with my Nokia 8110.

* Nokia 880, 2110(i), 3110, 3810, 5000, 8110(i), 8146, 8148i - and clones
like Technophone, some Philips models.
*From: <> (Harri)*
Nokia 880, 2110(i), 3110, 3810, 5000, 8110(i), 8146, 8148i models works
with DTP-2 ver.II Nokia Cellular Data Card and Nokia GSM ISDN driver. Nokia
880, 2110(i), 5000 (this might be Mobira Cityman not Nokia) and 2110
-clones like Technophone, some Philips-models work with DTP-2 Nokia
Cellular Data Card and Nokia GSM Auto driver. These might work (and
probably will) with each others drivers. The Nokia 6150 can be connected
with TDK, option and some other 3rd party PC Card. These cards support
several other brands and models. The Motorola 8700 - All Motorola phones
which support Cellect PC Card are supported by gsm-motorola driver. Some
future and currently available phones which has built-in modem should be
compatible. These phone are Nokia 7110, Siemens S25, Bosch 909. None of the
phones above can use IrDA to communicate because of the un-complete IrDA
support on Newtons. Obviously some Ericsson models are supported because
there's such thing as gsm-ericsson driver available. I have no idea which
* Sagem RD435 Helmut Fischer has been able to connect his Newton to this
phone using an Apple Modem cable (MinitDIN8 <-> DB9) and connecting the DB9
part to a standard phone - PC cable. He reports: I had to modify the Apple
cable slightly (remove the connection between RxD+ and GND).
* Siemens S25.
*From: Olaf 'Holger' Bohlen*
Today I connected my MP130 to my S25 GSM phone with a normal PC Data-Cable
from Siemens and a Macintosh to PC Modem Adapter Cable. My configuration
for the modem is: "Hayes compatible", "serial" and "no waiting for
dialtone". And it works great. I was able to fax, to mail and to phone :)
* Merlin Wireless Modem.
Mark Rollins put all information on a web page:
* Motorola TimePort P280
*From: <> (Eric Schneck)*
I got the Motorola TimePort P280 working (in analog mode) with my 2100. I
need to do a manual dial-up because otherwise it hangs at the login prompt.

c) Which network cards can I use?

(From Victor Rehorst, <>)
For the 120/2.0 and 130, only one network card is known to work. (From
NewtonTalk) <> (Donald T. Stewart) writes:I purchased
the Roamer (a PC card wireless networking device) and a DynaCOMM Network
Access Point from e-bay a couple of months ago, but just today tried to get
them working. I have no trouble using a 2.0 MP120 with them, and seem to
ba able to access my home Apple Talk network wirelessly.
This card is seemingly incompatible with OS 2.1.
Newtons running OS 2.1 and NIE 2.0 can use ethernet cards from certain
manufacturers, with the proper drivers. The following is an almost
exhaustive list:
* Farallon PN895 EtherWave
* 3Com 3c589, 3C589B (according to Harri Hohteri), 3c589C, 3c589D
(including -TP), 3CXE589DT, 3CXE589ET
* Proxim RangeLAN2 wireless Ethernet *note* this card is not compatible
with AirPort or any other 802.11-based technology
* AmbiCom AMB8010 PowerSaver
* TDK Combo cards: DFL5610, DFL3410, DFL3200, DFL9610
* TDK Ethernet cards: LAK-CD021, LAK-CD021AX, LAK-CD021BX
* D-Link DE-650, DE-660 (can be found at for US$43.99 plus
shipping) [Thanks to Kent Wong] DE-660+
* Fujitsu FMV-J182, FMV-J182A
* Contec C-NET(PC)C
* Longshine LCS-8534TB
* Correga EtherII PCC-T
All of the above drivers are available from Newton Resources:
Note: This applies to TCP/IP. Cf question VB1e"How can I connect to the
Newton using Ethernet with NCU/NPI/NBU?" for these software.

3) What kind of keyboard can I use?

The eMate has a keyboard built-in. No other Newtons do.
Apple Computer made a special optional keyboard which can be plugged into
the MP2k's serial port - no other keyboard can be used.
You can also use a keyboard with MP120 w/ NOS 2.0 & MP130.
There are hacks (software and/or hardware) which allows one to use this
keyboard with earlier Newtons as well.
* Newtkey is a keyboard driver for NOS 1.x devices.
Information (but no solution) for using Palm Stowaway keyboards can be
found at <Grant Hutchinson's site>.

4) Can I speed up the processor?

Yes, PixSolution <> or
<> offers kits to speed up the MP2ks and MP130s.
They can install it.
(From Harri Hohteri <>) For DIY (stands for
do-it-yourself) guys there's an article about accelerating MP120 by Lewin
A.R.W. Edwards:<>
Stephanie Macks wrote two pages for homebrew MP2x00
(<>) and eMate
(<>) speed up.

5) Can I change the ROM of the Newton?

Theoretically, the ROM of Newton MP 120 can be changed from Newton OS 1.3
to Newton OS 2.0. But you've got to find a ROM chip to do this. Other ROM
chips on OMP and MP110 are soldered to the motherboard.
Interestingly, the ROM in an OS 2.1 device (MP2x00, eMate) is installed on
a card, with room for four more ROM chips...

6) What kind of batteries can I use?

You can use alkaline batteries, rechargeable batteries (NiCD, NiMH, ...) or
the Apple battery pack. The MP120 & the MP130 can recharge them (with a
little piece of paper to press the button under the batteries).
Please note that recharging NiMH batteries in MP1x0s can damage the Newton.
Cf: <>.
Only the Apple battery pack can be recharged inside the MP2k. For all other
batteries you will need a separate battery charger, or to modify the
battery holder as described by Nick Müller:

7) What kind of AC power adapters should I use?

The best advice is to use a Newton-branded adapter. Any Newton adapter will
work with any Newton. There are two adapters, the original adapter (shipped
with MP1x0s) and the 9W adapter (officially for MP2x00 and eMates). Both
work in every Newton but the 9W adapter charges batteries faster than the
original adapter (except in the MP100).
Apple published a tech note about that:
Too many Newtons have had their power supplies fried using third party
adaptors. However, if you want to try at your own risk, please note that,
on MP2k, adapters should have the following characteristics:
(-)==( *-(+), 5V DC, 400 mA [This one works, even to recharge batteries, in
both a MP2x00 and a MP120]
This diagram means that the plus is inside and the minus is outside. I'm
not an ASCII artist, but this looks a little bit like the diagram on both
the original adapter and this adapter
Helmut Fischer reported: On my original 9W power adapter (MP2100) it says
7.5V 1.2A. It also works with the MP130.
With his MP120 & MP130, Jacek Jadwiszczak uses a 7V, 3W. Also: 6V works
(but no charging batteries) and 7.5V works just fine, always at least 3W
are needed. Please note that he hadn't give me the polarity yet, and in all
cases, nusing a third party adapter could fry your Newton
Carl Schultz reports:
I have been using a Radio Shack AC adapter for almost a year now. It is the
3-12 volt adjustable model. The new model # is 273-1680 ($34.99 list) and
is rated at 1000mA. Mine is the older 800mA model but otherwise is the
same. The adapter came with several different plug ends, none of which was
correct for my MP2000. I had to buy another one, which I don't have the
part number for, but it has a yellow end if that helps (they are all color
coded). This end may now be included with the adapter, since the Radio
Shack description states that 4 of the included ends are "new". Make sure
that you install the connector in the "tip positive" configuration. I've
been using mine daily at work with no problems.
Michael Vacik reports that the RadioShack plug adapter to use is the
Adaptaplug C:
You might want to check Johannes Wolf advice:

8) What kind of printers can I use?

Apple has a technote answering this question for NewtonOS 2.x:
There are basically three ways to print things from a Newton:
First, you can print with a serial connection (or an AppleTalk connection -
LaserWriter-compatible printers only - or via IrDA if you have a
MP2x00/eMate 300). For this, you need a driver. The NewtonOS has drivers in
the ROM which appear in the list when you select "Choose Other Printer"
from the print dialog. There are also drivers written by Apple which can be
found on UNNA for the SW4500 & SW6500 and the HP IrDA printers (NewtonOS
2.1 devices only): <> [I know
there's a non working one for Epson printers, but is there any other driver
Apple also released a PrintPack which includes a serial/parallel adapter
and which can print on several parallel printers (for the list, cf the
documentation of the software which can be found on UNNA
PrintPack 1 was a cable with the drivers included in it. PrintPack 2
requires the drivers to be on the Newton.
Without the hardware, the PrintPack2 drivers are useless. The
serial/parallel adapter includes a processor and was manufactured by GDT
Softworks (which later became InfoWave) for Apple. This company also
manufactured compatible cables, the pre-V.4.X cables. A regular
serial/parallel adapter will certainly not work.
About the GDT Softworks cables, Jon Glass reports:
I do recall there being a discussion that the last version of the GDT
Softworks version of the PowerPrint adapter wouldn't work with the Newton.
I do know this, the one I have does work with my Epson 900 (Yea!!!).
I'm having trouble trying to decipher what's written on the back, so I'll
include all the text:
"Advanced Components & Peripherals P/L
Made in Singapore
P/N: 590-0839 (whatever "P/N" stands for)
Batch: SPC292

Finally, you you can also print using a PC and Newton PC-Print by Alexander
Kunzer: <>
The HP Deskjet 340CBi is battery powered and has a newton-compatible IrDA
(NewtonOS 2.1 devices) adapter.

9) Can I use digital cameras with my Newton?

Yes you can. You need Tibet Software. This software is no longer supported,
but Russell Tait (the author of Tibet) gave away some registration codes
you can use:
* 02FDAA084142
* 02FDAA090E49
* 02FDAA0A1390
The following digital cameras will work with a MP2k and Tibet software
provided that you have the proper serial cable to connect to the Newton
(i.e., a serial cable to connect to macintoshes):
* Agfa ePhoto 307
* Agfa ePhoto 780
* Agfa ePhoto 780c *
* Agfa ePhoto 1280
* Agfa 1680
* Fuji
* Nikon CoolPix 800
* Nikon CoolPix 900
* Nikon CoolPix 950
* Olympus D-300L
* Olympus D-320L
* Olympus D-340R
* Olympus D-360L
* Olympus D-450Z
* Olympus Camedia C-400
* Olympus Camedia C800L (that's what it is called in Europe, the US
designation is different)
* Olympus C-1000 L
* Epson PhotoPC 700
Neal Sofge <> reports:
I have an Agfa ePhoto 780c, which is apparently an updated version of the
780 in an iMac-compatible blue case. It works with Tibet, but only if you
"distract" the camera by sliding the lens cover open and closed while
trying to communicate with it. The timing on this is tricky, but you can
get good at it after enough practice.
It seems some cameras are compatible with the Fujitsu chipset. (which the
Olympus have inside)
The following cameras will not work:
* QuickTakes
* Kodaks
* Connectix QuickCams
Canon cameras were once reported as compatible, but Daniel Padilla
<> said they don't. At least his PowerShot 350
doesn't. (<>)
Daniel Padilla also reported that to work with Tibet Software, a camera
needs to have the Sierra imaging firmware and a serial port. Look at
<> for a list of
supported cameras.

10) Can I use a Click/IBM Microdrive/ATA Flash/Compactflash adapter in my

Not yet. There is a package to support such hardware being in development.
More info can be found here: <>

11) Are there any third-Party accessories that use the Interconnect port on
the 2x00 or eMate?

[From Victor Rehorst: <>]
Enfour makes serial cables with an Interconnect port molded onto one end,
eliminating the need for a serial dongle:
You can build your audio in/out dongle. Details are at

12) Can I use an Airport/WaveLan card in my Newton?

Yes. Just like an Ethernet card, you need an OS 2.1 Newton, NIE 2.0
installed, and the appropriate driver. The only available drivers so far
is written by Hirochi Noguchi, and is available at:
The driver seems to work with most Lucent WaveLAN cards, and is designed to
use a base station. Apple AirPort base stations with software version 1.3
or 2.0 are known to work.

13) What cable do I need to connect to my desktop computer?

[Partly from Apple's Manual "About Cables"
You can connect to your Newton using either a serial cable or an ethernet
card (connection from a 2.1 device to MacOS computers only). Please note
that using an Ethernet card means first installing the proper driver.
The MP1x0 devices and the eMate 300 have a Mini-DIN-8 RS232 and LocalTalk
compatible port. You can use either a Mini-DIN-8 to Mini-DIN-8 serial cable
to connect to an old-world Macintosh (beige), a Mini-DIN-8 to DB25 cable to
connect to a DB25 Serial port on a Windows Box or a Mini-DIN-8 to USB via
an USB/Serial adapter to a new-world Macintosh. You cannot use IrDA with
Apple Software (see section IIIB3c).
The MP2x00 have an Interconnect port. Using a dongle, you can have a
RS422/GeoPort/LocalTalk compatible port. You can connect the same cable as
with the other Newtons.
See section IIIB3b for the various ways to transfer data to/from your
desktop computer, software and hardware.

C) Hardware problems

1) Why does my MP130/MP2000/eMate whine when the backlight is on?

(From Robert Sexton's FAQ) Backlit Newtons use the same technology that is
found in indiglo watches. The backlighting uses high voltages, and this
requires a transformer which makes the noise. If you listen carefully to
an indiglo watch, you will notice the same effect.
Apple published a tech note about it:

2) Why does my MP120/130 whine?

(From Robert Sexton's FAQ) If you are referring to the sound made by the
backlighting (on MP130), see previous question. The humming when the
MessagePad operates (More noticeable when the CPU is idle) is caused by a
small power transformer. Its a bit annoying, but there is no workaround for
it. Some MessagePads are reportedly noisier than others. This affects the
Apple published a tech note about it:

3) What should I do if I have a hardware problem with my Newton?

Apple can still repair Newton devices, for seven years after they announced
the discontinuation of the Newton platform. In the US and in Canada, there
is a flat fee. It will cost between 175-200 USD and 180 CAD respectively.
In the UK, the cost depends on the repair. It will cost around 400 GBP for
a motherboard change and around 200 GBP for a screen change (these fees are
of course subject to change and were the announced fees in November, 2000).
* US users: (from Laurent Daudelin)
To arrange the repair, call 1-800-275-2273 and request technical support.
When you talk to someone, tell them you're calling for a Newton. They
should arrange to have the Newton repaired. If things don't go as expected,
call the Apple Repair Center in Memphis that handles Newton repairs at
800-233-6555. The people that answer the phone are not very cooperative or
knowledgeable. They serve as a barrier between you and the actual staff
that perform the repair. Insist on talking to a supervisor if you're not
pleased with the answers they give you.
[This is a more recent experience (June, 29th, 2001) from Cliff Penwell]
You can call the Apple Service Center at 1-800-275-2273, opt 1, opt 5, and
tell them what's wrong. (Eventually they sent me to 1-800-320-3728, but I
think you have to start at the other number.)
When I told the service rep what I owned, he told me he had never handled a
Newton repair request and didn't think they still did them, but when I gave
him the serial number he went and checked with someone and verified that it
was an MP2000 and said they still had parts and could do it.
I got a dispatch number for the repair and called the other number, and
they took my credit card info and said I should receive a return box within
four days. Total cost is about $194, including shipping, with about a
ten-day turnaround.

* Canada users:
All information (a full page) is available at Newton Resources:
* Europe users:
Contact ADT/ECPRC, the Apple Repair center: <>
Considering the fee they will ask, you can try the solutions to the
frequent hardware problems (IIC6).

4) Why does my Newton wake up at 3 AM?

(From Robert Sexton's FAQ) The Newton wakes up to move your Todos over from
yesterday, and do other housekeeping.

5) How long will the backlight last?

(From Robert Sexton's FAQ) <> (Alan Drogin) says, It has a
"half life" conjectured to be in the low thousands of hours. Which
translates to at least a couple of years, which also means it doesn't stop
working, just gets dimmer, which ultimately means its within the normal
limits of planned obsolescence accepted by the high tech world.
One thing I can't give a definitive answer to is the actual half life.
I've seen plenty of posts claiming that the half life of the MP130
backlighting is 1600-1700, but no actual proof of source. I've seen claims
about the MP2K backlighting at 2000 and even 5000. John Schettino saw some
web sites from backlighting manufacturers claiming 15,000-20,000 hour half
Apple published a tech note about it:

6) Common hardware problems

a) My Newton won't turn on. What should I do?

There are a number of things you can try. Try the following, in increasing
* Put in fresh batteries and plug in the Newton's power adapter. Turn on
the machine.
* With batteries or the power adapter installed, press the reset button. On
the original MessagePad, MP100, MP110, MP120, and MP130, the reset button
is visible when you remove the battery door. On the MP2000 and MP2100 the
reset button is on the underside of the machine.
* For the original MessagePad, MP100, MP110, MP120, and MP130, replace the
backup battery. Put in fresh batteries and plug in the Newton's power
adapter. Press the reset button.
* For the MP2000 and MP2100, press and hold the reset button for over
twenty seconds. This is a special reset sequence for these machines.
* For the original MessagePad, MP100, MP110, MP120, and MP130, with the
batteries or power adapter installed, press and hold the reset button down,
then press the power switch. Continue to hold the reset button for two
more seconds. Release the reset button. A dialog box appears asking "Do
you want to erase data completely?". Tap on the "NO" button (you don't
want to erase your data!).
* For the MP2000 and MP2100 *only*, remove the battery, cards, and power
adapter. Let the Newton sit by itself for a few hours. Leave it a whole
day or a whole night if you can. You won't lose any data. Then put in
fresh alkalines, and plug in the power adapter. Press the reset button.
This procedure cures nearly every turning-on problem these models have.
* If you have an original MessagePad or an MP100, see section IIC6eof this
* For the MP2x00s, Sean Luke reports: one last resort you can try is to
crack it open and see if its daughtercard has become unseated from its
slot. This happened to me.
* If your Newton still does not wake up, consider posts to the newsgroups
or mailing lists, or consider shipping the unit to Apple.See also section
IIIB2 of the FAQ

b) How can I protect my MessagePad screen?

Try one of these:
* WriteRights by Concept Kitchen <>
* NuShield Screen Protectors by Mark Ross <>
* You can also use a Digital Writer by A.T. Cross to protect the screen
against damage in the first place (digital writers are inserts for Cross
pens. About $6 each.) Order digital writers from Norma Houle
* The Francophone Newton User Group (GFUN) has a page to explain (in
French, of course) how to make your own screen protector:
* James Elliott has evaluated several types of commercially available
transparency papers for use as screen protectors. He also offers
downloadable templates so you can make your own screen protectors from
these materials:

c) How do I turn on the Newton's backlight?

Backlights are included in MP2ks, MP130s and eMate 300. On MP2ks and
MP130s, just depress the power switch until the backlight is activated. To
switch it off, do the same. On eMate 300, just press the light button. The
backlight can also be activitated through software (cf next question).

d) What softwares can be used to turn the backlight on?

* Softwares that add/have a button:
+ Avi's Backdrop (Avi Drissman) <>
+ DashBoard (FiveSpeed) <>
+ BackLight (Sean's Utilities)
* Softwares that allows the backlight to be turned on when the Newton is
turned on:
+ PowerPrefs (Jim Bailey) (probably to be found on AMUG)
+ Options (SBM) [allows to set time range] <>
+ MoreInfo (Silverware) <>
+ Sunrise (Any info?)
+ Silk (Catamount) [probably the most complete one]
+ Lava <>
* Other softwares (additional information needed!)
+ Adam Tow's Backlight Plus <>

e) Why does my MP100 turn itself off as soon as I turn it on?

Old MessagePads (in particular, MP100s) develop power-on problems due to
gunk building up inside the power switch which raises its resistance. Sean
Luke maintains a web page with workarounds and outright fixes at

f) The serial port on my MP2000/MP2100 is caved in. What do I do?

The serial port is poorly soldered onto the MP2K motherboard, and
eventually it can wear out and cave in. If you are very *very* good at
solder, you might try opening the machine and resoldering the contacts. But
it's very difficult, and even proficient solderers won't attempt it. Most
likely, your only recourse is to have Apple fix the problem: see section
The chief culprit here is the Newton's "dongle", the small plug which
connects to the Newton. The dongle has two bumps on the top and two bumps
on the bottom, which help the dongle stay locked in the serial connector,
but cause considerable friction and stress on entry and exit. To prevent
problems in the future, you might try filing down the bumps on the top.

g) My MP2000/2100 pen input is all messed up. What can I do?
This is a problem known as the "Jaggies". The symptoms are:- invalid pen
input, ie. you draw something and the Newton displays something totally
different - random pen input appearing when you draw or writeIt can be
caused by two things:- Dirt that has collected between the lip of the case
and the touchscreen. This can be aggravated by resting your hand on the
case while writing, causing the dirt to trigger an unwanted "tap" on the
screen - A warped case that is exerting pressure on the touchscreen,
thereby confusing the Newton's calibration - A damaged or oxidized
touchscreen connector inside your Newton - A damaged touchscreenIf you
suspect that dirt is the culprit, you can attempt to clean between the case
and the screen:1) Remove any screen protectors that are installed.2) Take a
thin card (such as a paper business card, nothing thicker than a credit or
bank card) and gently insert a corner of it in the gap between the case and
the screen. Run the card along all of the edges of the screen - the goal
here is to remove any dirt particles that may be wedged between the case
and the screen.3) Using a soft cloth, such as a lens or photographic
cleaning cloth (**NOT** tissue paper!) wipe up the dirt that was
dislodged.4) It's probably a good idea to give the screen a nice cleaning
now, before reinstalling your screen protector.Or, it's possible that a
warped case is the culprit, in which case you can try to de-warp
it:<>If none
of this does the trick, then either the touchscreen connector needs
cleaning, or the screen must be replaced. Replacing the screen or cleaning
the touchscreen should only be attempted by an experienced person, as it
required almost complete disassembly of the Newton.

7) How to replace eMate batteries?

[This manual has been written by Robert Benschop ( <>].
To replace your eMate batteries you'll need a torx 8 screwdriver and 4 NiMH
batteries preferably with soldering lips on them of at least 1200 mAh (the
higher the better) and basic soldering skills, nothing too fancy.
Before you proceed with this, first make a backup (or if you're the careful
type, two) and then open the little lid on the back of your eMate next to
the handle with the torx 8 screwdriver.
Your battery pack is the dark rectangular shaped thing that lies in it's
own recessed place on the top (I'm considering the handle as the top side
of the eMate)
* On the right hand side you'll see a couple of wires coming from the
battery pack that attach to the eMate with a little white plug.
* Slide the plug off so that you can lift out the battery pack.
* Open the hard plastic outer casing so that you'll have the actual
batteries in your hands still in the plastic wrapping.
* Cut away the wrapping, replace the old batteries with the new ones in hte
same order of course, while soldering the connections back exactly the way
they were ! (don't forget the temperature sensor, just solder it back in
the same spot on your new batteries, this is about the only moment you
really have to pay attention, so that the temperature sensor will still be
* If you want to keep everything really neat put heatshrink around the four
batteries so that they're as neat and tidy as the original pack.
* Put the hard plastic outer casing back on, reconnect, close the lid,
charge and away you go, happy forever after. (or at least for another
couple of years)
In case you put in i.e. 1600 mAh batteries you'll get even longer lasting
battery life as a bonus.
[Robert added with his usual modesty:]
Actually, I posted the instructions quite a few times to the list in text
(and that might be in the FAQ, I never read the FAQ myself ;-) but there's
an even better instruction (with how-to pictures) made by Frank Gruendel on

Paul Guyot

Oct 1, 2002, 12:00:25 AM10/1/02
Archive-name: palmtops/newton/faq/community
Posting-Frequency: monthly
Last-modified: 2002/10/01

Version: This is the October 2002 update
Maintainer: Steve Weyer <>,
Peter Rand <>,
Sean Luke <> and Paul Guyot <>

PART IV: The Newton Community on the Internet

* A) Discussions and groups
+ 1) What Newton newsgroups are there?
x a) English newsgroups
x b) A German-language newsgroup
x c) How do I search the newsgroups for specific information?
+ 2) What mailing lists are there?
+ 3) Where can I find Newton user groups?
+ 4) Newton discussion forums on the Internet
* B) Sites of general interest
+ 1) Is there a list of Newton related sites, or a ring?
+ 2) Is there an equivalent of Version Tracker?
+ 3) Are there e-zines and internet daily (or nearly) resources for the
* C) Miscellaneous
+ 1) What are the April Fool Jokes (I have a problem with NewtonQuake)?

A) Discussion and newsgroups

1) What Newton newsgroups are there?

a) International Newsgroups

The comp.sys.newton.* hierarchy:
* comp.sys.newton.announce for new hardware and software announcements
* comp.sys.newton.marketplace
* comp.sys.newton.programmer for programming related questions
* comp.sys.newton.misc for anything else, and just that!

b) A German-language newsgroup


c) How do I search newsgroups for specific information?

We suggest a google groups advanced search:

2) What mailing lists are there?

There are several general mailing lists available:
* The famous NewtonTalk list. It is now community-driven and can be found
at: <>. You'll find there archives of the list
since March 1999.
* There is also an emergency mailing list, NewtonTalk2, maintained by Rich
Lindsay. <>. To subscribe to the
emergency list, send an e-mail to: <>.
* A German mailing list: [Danke Guido Heer!]
* The Dutch "NewtonGebruikers" mailinglist
* The eMate Talk mailinglist
To subscribe, send an e-mail to <> with
"subscribe ematelist" (without the quotes) as the subject.
* Newton FR mailing list (in French) <>

3) Where can I find Newton user groups?

[Sources: TON at: <>, Former
Info-Newt's NUGs page, James Elliott's page at:
* AMUG: Arizona's Newton Users <>
* ANUG: Austin Newton Users Group <>
* DNUG: Danish Newton Users Group <>
* GFUN: Groupe Francophone des Utilisateurs de Newton
* HKNUG Hong Kong Newton Users. Their website seems down and it used to be:
<>. However, the group seems to still exist
and regularly meets. You can find them on the comp.pda.newton forum on the news server.
* KNUG Korean Newton Users' Group <>
* LANUG Los Angeles Newton User Group
* MISNIC Mississippi Newton Interest Club [dead link?]
* MSPUG Michigan State Palmtop Users (formerly MSNUG)
* NANUG North Atlanta Newton Users
* Pondlife (ex-NENUG) North of England Newton User Group
* NGFUN: Nouveau Groupe Francophone des Utilisateurs de Newton
* NGN Newton Gebruikersgroep Nederland <>
* NWOU Northwest Of Us Mobile Computing Group (formerly the Northwest of Us
Newton Group) <>
* NYCDAUG (ex-NYCNUG) New York Newton Users <>
* SNAG Stockholm Newton AnvŠndar Grupp
* SNUG Stanford Newton Users Group <>
* TCNUG Twin Cities Newton Users Group <>
* TUNA Teachers Using Newton Alliance [dead link]
* TVNUG Tennessee Valley Newton Users [dead link] <>
Paul Filmer maintains a list of the active Newton user groups meetings on
his Dedicated MP2100 NewtonOS Server
<> (if
the link doesn't work, try to see if Paul's Newton is online by visiting
Matt's NPDS Tracker where Paul usually registers his Newton.

4) Newton discussion forums on the Internet

There are several forums:
* Talk (formerly PDA Dash)
* Newton Forum at PDA Buzz <>
* Apple's discussion forum (Tech Exchange)
<> then follow Older Apple Products
and Newton. Beware, this forum is strictly moderated and if you are too
tough with Apple in a message, they will delete the whole thread.
* Newted Community
* MacNN PDA Forum
* The Newton Developers Bulletin Board

B) Sites of general interest

1) Is there a list of Newton related sites, or a ring?

Yes, there is the Apple Newton Webring:
Some sites also maintains a list of links such as:
* This Old Newt: <>

2) Is there a Newton equivalent of Version Tracker?

There used to be Newton Versions by the Danish Newton User Group.
Unfortunately, the database is no longer on their website and it hasn't
been udpated for months. Christian Fiutak has a copy of the old database on
his website: <>
See also Part V for where to find Newton software

3) Are there e-zines and daily (or regular) internet resources for the

* There is This Old Newt maintained by Rich Lindsay
* You can also go to Newton Lifestyle, Das Online-Magazin von und für
Newton Freaks: <>

C) Miscellaneous

1) What are the April Fool Jokes (I have a problem with NewtonQuake)?

There was several famous April Fool Jokes among the Newton community. These
* NewtonQuake. Link is down. Was it in 2000?
* 2000
+ Sean's iPad
+ Rich Lindsay's interview with Steve Jobs:
* 2001
+ Sean's MP3 Player in Java
+ Color Splash 100 in the FAQ
+ Carsten Lemmen's hidden MB in Intel Cards

Paul Guyot

Oct 1, 2002, 12:00:27 AM10/1/02
Archive-name: palmtops/newton/faq/software
Posting-Frequency: monthly
Last-modified: 2002/10/01

Version: This is the October 2002 update
Maintainer: Steve Weyer <>,
Peter Rand <>,
Sean Luke <> and Paul Guyot <>

PART V: Newton Software

* A) General sources
+ 1) Where can I find commercial, shareware and freeware programs for the
+ 2) Where can I find discontinued software?
* B) Apple's software
+ 1) What connection software is provided by Apple?
x a) Newton Connection Kit (NOS 1.x)
x b) Newton Backup Utility
x c) Newton Package Installer
x d) Newton Connection Utility (program installation, import/export of
data and backups) (NOS 2.x)
x e) How can I connect to the Newton using Ethernet with NCU/NPI/NBU?
+ 2) Book creation and development software
x a) Newton Press
x b) Newton Bookmaker
x c) Newton ToolKit
x d) Newton C++ Toolbox
+ 3) I've heard of MacIntalk for Newton. Where can I find it?
x a) Does it work on my Newton?
x b) Where can I find it?
x c) How can I make it read something?
x d) How can I change the voice?
x e) Can I change the volume?
+ 4) What can NewtWorks do for me?
x a) Does it work on my Newton?
x b) Where can I find it?
x c) What Word Processing software can I use on my 1.x/2.0 Newton?
x d) I have heard of a spreadsheet/drawing/calculation stationery.

Where can I find them?

x e) What other spreadsheet can I use?
+ 5) I bought a Newton but it didn't come with the CD/Floppies. Where can
I find them?
* C) Software problems
+ 1) I get an error message on my Newton. What does it mean?
x a) Negative numbers
x b) Positive numbers are usually bus errors.
+ 2) My Newton is blocked by a certain package (i.e. it crashes at every
+ 3) Unsupported shareware
+ 4) How can I help a developer to fix bugs I have found?
x a) Using BugTrap - How can I make a log to send to developers?
x b) Using TrashPak - How can I get the list of the installed
* D) Internet
+ 1) How can I connect to the Internet on my Newton?
x a) What do I need?
x b) What's the differences between NIE 1.1 and NIE 2.0?
x c) How can I connect my Newton to a MacOS connection (cable,
ethernet, etc.)?
+ 2) What software is needed?
x a) Email software
x b) Web & WAP browsers
x c) Newsgroups
x d) Other protocols
x e) Can I use my Newton as a Web Server?
+ 3) How can I read my mail from AOL or Compuserve?
+ 4) Is there a Sherlock equivalent for the Newton?
* E) Newton Fonts
+ 1) Where do I get roman fonts for the Newton?
+ 2) How do I make a Newton Font?
+ 3) My font doesn't print (or prints poorly) to my printer. Why?
* F) Internationalized Software
+ 1) Where do I find fonts, input systems, encodings, and dictionaries
for non-Roman foreign languages?
+ 2) Is there a web browser which supports non-Roman encodings?

A) General sources

1) Where can I find commercial, shareware and freeware software for the

* Now, the huge archive UNNA (United Network of Newton Archives) is the
first place to go: <>
* AMUG: <>
* The Roundtable Newton Archives at Rochester:
* Various FTP sites:
+ <>
+ <>
* also check AOL PDA forum

2) Where can I find discontinued software?

There is a site specialized in discontinued and unlocked software: Newton
Cage. There used to be three mirrors of Newton Cage, but only the European
mirror is still up. (it doesn't have every packages).
* European mirror: <>
These software are now in UNNA (<>.

B) Apple's software

1) What are the connection software provided by Apple?

a) Newton Connection Kit (NOS 1.x)

This only works with 1.x devices (for 2.x devices, use NCU).
It can be found on UNNA:
* Mac version:
* Win version:
Documentation can be found on Apple's FTP (among others), see questionIIA5.

b) Newton Backup Utility

It can be found on Apple's FTP:
* For MacOS:
* For Windows:
The Mac version can be found on UNNA as well:

c) Newton Package Installer

Can be found for both MacOS and Windows on Apple's FTP:
It can be found on UNNA as well:
* Mac version:
* Win version:

d) Newton Connection Utility (does installation, import/export and backup)
(NOS 2.x)

This only works with 2.x devices (for 1.x devices, use NCK).
It comes with the original CD/Floppies.
The copy on Apple's FTP is an expired beta version. The updater won't work.
I leave the link anyway:
* <>
A complete version can be found on UNNA:
* Mac version:
* Win version:
Documentation can be found on Apple's FTP (among others), see questionIIA5.

e) How can I connect to the Newton using Ethernet with NCU/NPI/NBU?

This only works with 2.1 Newtons (eMate 300 and MP2x00) and with MacOS. The
Windows version of the Newton Connection Software by Apple don't connect
over AppleTalk. A workaround is to use Basilisk II (a MacOS emulator) which
you'll find at <>.
There is a disk image with NCU pre-installed for Basilisk on UNNA:
* Make sure your Ethernet card is one of the supported ones by checking it
with the list and photos at <>
* Install the Newton Devices package from NIE 2.0
* Install the Ethernet package for your card
* Reset your Newton (not required, but it's a good idea)
* Insert the ethernet card - if an ID slip pops up, then the card is
* recognized - if not, then the card is damaged or not compatible
* On the Newton, go to Prefs -> Appletalk, choose to Connect via Ethertalk,
and then choose your Ethernet card.
* On the Mac, in the AppleTalk control panel, choose connect via Ethertalk
(instructions may vary depending on your MacOS version)
* Connect the Newton and a Mac with Ethernet cable through a hub, or use a
special Ethernet crossover cable (ask your local computer shop)
* Load up NCU/NBU/NPI on the Mac, Edit the Preferences, and make sure that
ONLY AppleTalk is selected as a connection option (not required to have
only AppleTalk selected, but it's a good idea)
* Run Dock on the Newton, choose to connect via AppleTalk, browse for a
computer (make sure NCU/NBU/NPI is still running on the Mac!), select your
computer name when it appears.
* Voilà, they should connect.

2) Press and Development software

a) Newton Press

It can be found at Info-Newt:
* Mac version: <>
* Win version: <>
Documentation can be found on Apple's FTP (among others), see questionIIA5.

b) Newton Bookmaker

There is a complete version with documentation at UNNA:

c) Newton ToolKit
Cf question VIIA1a.

d) Newton C++ Toolbox
Cf question VIIA1b.

3) I've heard of MacIntalk for Newton. Where can I find it?

a) Does it work on my Newton?

It only works with NOS 2.1 (MP2k and eMate). You need Macintalk.pkg and

b) Where can I find it?

You can find it:
* On UNNA: <>
* <>
* <>
* <>

c) How can I make it read something?

Most applications with an action button will allow you to read text. A good
place to start is the Notes application.
Moreover, you can use it to read books. (cf How can I tell my Newton to
read books out loud?)

d) How can I change the voice?

Go to I/O Box, tap the i button and choose Speak Text prefs.

e) Can I change the volume?

Generally speaking, no. But you could start the text to be read with[[volm
Volume is between 0 and 1. Default is 1. (this means that the Newton will
never speak louder). You can also do [[volm +0.1]] or[[volm -0.1]] for
relative change.

4) What can NewtWorks do for me?

a) Does it work on my Newton?

NewtWorks word processing's module is mostly in 2.1 ROM. Therefore, it
won't work on any other device. The word processing was written to be used
with the keyboard. However, there are several softwares to directly use the
HWR, although it is more primitive than in normal HWR input zones.
There are also softwares to enhance NewtWorks.
[list to be provided one day]
Andree Dettmer has a lot of links for NewtWorks on his excellent Been
There, Done That! website:

b) Where can I find it?

NewtWorks can normally be found on the floppies/CD that came with your
Newton 2x00/eMate. See question VB5.
The US version can also be found online on Laurent Daudelin's website:
The German version can be found on PDA LifeStyle website:

c) What Word Processing software can I use on my 1.x/2.0 Newton?

You can use AvailWorks. [more information to be supplied one day]

d) I have heard of a spreadsheet/drawing/calculation stationery. Where can
I find them?

There are actually three additional stationeries for NewtWorks: Works
calculation, Works Draw and QuickFigure Works.
They are on the original eMate CD (QuickFigure Works was also available on
the original MP2100 CD). See question VB5.
They can also be found at UNNA and on Laurent Daudelin's

e) What other spreadsheet can I use?

PelicanWare made a standalone spreadsheet called QuickFigure Pro.
[From David Huff <>]
The link is <> and they are now selling products
for the Newton 1.x OS for purchase online (e.g. QuickFigure Pro 2.5) for
$29.95. Their later versions for NOS 2.x are avail for purchase w/demos for
Macapa made another standalone spreadsheet software called NapkinCalc.
[From James Pelton <>]
The place on the company's site where they mention the product is
<>. On that page, they say that if you
want the software, you can either download it elsewhere, or email them, and
they'll send it to you.
It can be found on UNNA:
[description from PlanetNewton]: NapkinCalc 1.1 lets you create sheets in
which you can enter numbers and text, and perform calculations on the
numbers you entered. One of the many strong points of Napkin Calc is that
you can have more than one sheet on your screen at a time. It is also
fairly easy to use. This program does not wish to present itself as a
"super powerful", all knowing, calculation machine. It's purpose is simply
to let you run a few calculations on the fly, and also print or fax a nice
looking report.

5) I bought a Newton but it didn't come with the CD/Floppies. Where can I
find them?

All Newton models came with floppies or a CD with required software (such
as NCU, NIE, etc.). All these software are available on UNNA (among other
things), especially in the apple directory: On UNNA:
Additionally, the Windows CD-ROMs are available online:
* MP2100 US CD-ROM (Windows)
+ On UNNA: <>
* eMate 300 CD-ROM (Windows) [dead link]
+ On NewtonMAD:
* MP2100-D CD-ROM (Windows) [dead link?]
+ On PDA LifeStyle: <>

C) Software problems

1) I have an error message on my Newton. What does it mean?

There are two kind of error codes that appears in a dialog slip (small
dialog with animated frame): positive numbers and negative numbers.

a) Negative numbers

These are standard Newton OS errors. The error number usually provides
information about the type of error and can be found in the Programmer's
Reference for NOS 2.0 or in a book for Newton written by Chris Frost
Victor Rehorst built a database of errors that may contain more errors
(especially from C++ headers). You'll find it at:
The -10061 error is the symptom of a known bug. (cf I've heard about the
nasty -10061 error...);

b) Positive numbers are usually bus errors.

Having such an error means a bad reference to a Newton Script object (any
strange use of Ref()?) or a bad error in a C++ code.
A bus error may also be triggered by a hardware problem, since the very
concept of it is that the processor tried to access data at a certain
address, and was answered that it was impossible.

2) My Newton is blocked by a software package (i.e. it crashes at every
startup). What can I do? (How can I deactivate packages?)

You can try to deactivate all packages by doing a soft reset of the Newton
while pressing your thumb nail down on the left side of the MP2k's screen.
A dialog should appear asking you if you want to activate the packages. Say
no (the small button). This allows you to eventually delete the guilty

3) Unsupported shareware

I like a particular shareware program, but it requests that I enter a code
to activate it. I tried to contact the author, but with no success. What
should I do?
As a Newton developer, I would suggest you work to find the author. Ask the
Newton community by a post in the newsgroups and mailing lists.

4) How can I help a developer to fix bugs I have found?

a) Using BugTrap - How can I make a log to send to developers?

You can install BugTrap <> from Tactile.
It will make a new note everytime an error occurs (basically when you get
the message "Sorry an error occured"), which you can send to the developer.

b) Using TrashPak - How can I get the list of the installed softwares?

TrashPak from Atomic Software <> does
several things including a very useful feature for developers: it generates
the list of all the packages that are installed on your Newton.

D) Internet

1) How can I connect to the Internet on my Newton?

a) What do I need?

First, be warned that Internet access requires NOS 2.x
Mail and newsgroups downloading speed is limited rather by the modem than
Newton itself, hence using these services on MP120 or MP130 is doable (many
Newtoneers do), although it requires a lot of memory (for NIE and internet
programs). Web browsing can be painfully slow of these Newtons.
Sean Luke said (in response to "Newtscape is slow on my MP 130"):
An MP130 contains an ARM 610 running at 16MHz [Sean meant 20 MHz, thanks
Jacek to correct that] with no pipelining, no superscalar architecture, no
L2 cache, and a bytecode-interpreted programming language. When was the
last time you surfed the web on a Mac Plus? A PC/AT? You should be amazed
that Newt's Cape runs at all on an MP130!
You also need an internet access, a compatible modem and NIE - Newton
Internet Enabler. This software was provided on the floppies that came with
your Newton.

b) What's the differences between NIE 1.1 and NIE 2.0?

Some bugs were fixed. And support for additional cards, e.g., ethernet was
MP120 2.0/MP130 can only use NIE 1.1.
NIE 2.0 only works with NOS 2.1. (eMates & MP2x00s).

c) How can my Newton share a desktop computer's Internet connection?

According to Tom Sheppard, while you can provide MacIP connections to a
Mac, it doesn't work with Newtons. So the only way to share an Internet
connection is to do that via Ethernet.
To do so, you need a router software on your desktop computer. On MacOS,
there are IPNetRouter (shareware, $90) and Vicom's SoftRouter.

2) What software is needed?

Steve Weyer maintains a list of internet related applications (e.g.,
categories mentioned, plus weather, HTML editors, etc.):

a) Email software

* SimpleMail by Simon Bell
Simon continues to actively support SimpleMail, earning him the gratitude
of the entire Newton community. Great program!
* EnRoute was available in the MP2x00 CD/Floppies. Latest beta (1.4.3b1)
and latest final (1.4.2) is available from NetStrategy website:
* Eudora Pro (QualComm) <>
* Eudora Light 1.0fc1 which allows to read e-mail from any MessagePad via a
Macintosh or a Windows machine:
+ Mac version:
+ Windows version:
* LunaSuite, LunaMail (LunaTech)
* GoFetch, Unimail (Enfour)

b) Web & WAP browsers

There are three html browsers available:
* Steve Weyer's Newt's Cape <>
Newt's Cape is also actively supported by Steve. Great program!
* AllPen (now OpenTv) discontinued NetHopper, supported today by SEI (at
least that's what LandWare technical support says) Used to be there:
<> But now,
you can only find it on UNNA:
* Discontinued LunaSuite <>
Eric M. Schneck wrote a Wireless Application Protocol Browser running on
the MP130 and 2x00. It can be found at:

c) Newsgroup readers

* InkSpot from DejaVu <>
* Paperboy from Standalone <>
* Newt's Paper from Serg Koren
* NewsReader by T. Kuwabara, <>

d) Other protocols

* ICQ & similar protocols:
+ the software NewtCQ is being designed by Justin Streufert
+ there is another ICQ project (NCQ) by Pablo Resines (currently at beta
stage) at <>
+ there is NewtJab by Eric Schneck at
* FTP:
+ NewtFTP <>
+ LunaSuite <>
* Telnet: use PT100 available from Scrawlsoft at:
* Other terminal softwares: cf question <IIIB3e>
* NewtVNC by Steve Weyer (implements both server and client sides):

e) Can I use my Newton as a Web Server?

Yes, there is software called Newton Personal Data Sharing (NPDS) that does
that: <>
You can even visit Newtons which are docked to the Internet at Matthew's
Newton Tracker at <>
You can also use a NotesWeb by T. Kuwabara,

3) How can I read my mail from AOL or Compuserve?

Aloha AOL (email-only) 2.x client from Catamount <>
(The 1.x client used to work until AOL changed the protocol)

4) Is there a Sherlock equivalent for the Newton?

Yes, it's called Hemlock. It works together with the most recent version of
Newt's Cape and allows you to do searches as in original Sherlock, and it
has some extra capabilities which his big brother doesn't have
(import/export of plug-ins, etc.). This is a freeware program written by
Sean Luke and you can get it at <>

E) Newton Fonts

1) Where do I get roman fonts for the Newton?

Freeware fonts:
* <>
* <>
* <>
Minico: (freeware, tiny Monaco, great for terminal emulators)
* <>
Commercial fonts:
* TypeSet module in LandWare's WriteStuff adds 9 fonts:
* <>

2) How do I make a Newton Font?

There are two ways to make a Newton font from an Apple TrueType font or
from bitmaps.
* You can use the Newton Font tool at
<>, which is the easy
* Or for more sophisticated fonts, you can use traditional tools, following
Apple's Newton Font instructions at
Sean Luke gives good font source code for Postscript fonts at his font page
found at <>.
Apple gives some simple font source code at

3) My font doesn't print (or prints poorly) to my printer. Why?

The printing facilities in the Newton aren't very sophisticated. When
printing to a PostScript printer, the Newton expects the printer to already
have all the necessary fonts built-in. If they're not, blank space is
printed, or the font is rendered in Courier or Helvetica (whatever the
default font is for your printer).
When printing to a non-PostScript printer, the Newton renders its internal
fonts as best it can. However, due to space restrictions the internal
fonts are stored mostly for screen resolutions, not printer resolutions; so
they'll come out blocky when printed.

F)Internationalized Software

1) Where do I find fonts, input systems, locales, encodings, and
dictionaries for foreign languages/countries?

You can go to the NEWTtools font page for a more exhaustive list of links:
* Czech: various programs by Michael Vacik:
+ <>
* Chinese:
+ <>
+ <>
+ <> (seems down: cfIVA3)
* Japanese:
+ <>
* Cyrillic:
+ <>
+ <>
+ SimpleMail (<>) also lists
some Cyrillic fonts
* French: Dictionary & locale by Paul Guyot from Kallisys website:
* Dutch: Dictionary by Jeroen Goolouze and Paul Guyot:
+ From Jeroen's website:
+ From Kallisys website: <>
* Italian: Dictionary by Paolo Matteucci and Paul Guyot from Kallisys
website: <>
* German: a Locale for US MPs by Nick Mueller:

2) Is there a web browser which supports non-Roman encodings?
Yes. Newt's Cape (<>) supports Chinese,
Japanese, and Cyrillic (in addition to English, French, and German).

Paul Guyot

Oct 1, 2002, 12:00:28 AM10/1/02
Archive-name: palmtops/newton/faq/books
Posting-Frequency: monthly
Last-modified: 2002/10/01

Version: This is the October 2002 update
Maintainer: Steve Weyer <>,
Peter Rand <>,
Sean Luke <> and Paul Guyot <>

PART VI: Newton Books

* A) Using and finding books
+ 1) How can I view NewtonBooks on the Newton?
+ 2) How can I tell my Newton to read NewtonBooks out loud using
+ 3) Where can I find NewtonBooks?
+ 4) Can I read PilotDOC books on the Newton?
* B) Creating NewtonBooks
+ 1) What Apple software is available?
+ 2) Is it possible for me to create a NewtonBook directly on my Newton?
+ 3) How can I view PDF files on the Newton?

A) Using and finding books

1) How can I view books on the Newton?

The book viewer is already built-in (in Newton ROM). See your Newton User
Guide for help to turn pages, view TOC, annotate, set bookmarks, etc.

2) How can I tell my Newton to read books out loud using Macintalk?

There is a separate application called Bookreader (Bernie Bernstone's
reader) that allows you to do that:
You can also read books using the books routing menu (action button) if you
have the HTMList extension installed: <>
(this also allows you email a specified range of book pages)

3) Where can I find books?

* The Newtonberg project produced many books for Newton: [Dead link?]
* AMUG has a complete set of books, including Sherlock Holmes novels by Sir
A. Conan Doyle:
* J. Farmer compiled many books (mostly Paul Bowles books) [Dead link]
* Newton's Library <>
* UNNA Book Section <>
* Alex Catalogue automatically generates Newton Books on demand:
* Terry Fischer's website: <>
* [Any other reference?]

4) Can I read PilotDOC books on the Newton?

With Steve Weyer's PilotDOC plugin for Newt's Cape, you can read PilotDOC
books. Please see <> for more details.

B) Creating NewtonBooks

1) What Apple software available?

You can use Apple's software to design books from RTF files or any other
XTND format (Newton Press) or from files with a special format (with Newton
Links are under Press and Development Software (VB2).

2) Is it possible to create NewtonBooks directly on the Newton?

Yes, Steve Weyer's Newt's Cape can create books directly on the Newton from
HTML pages: <>

3) How can I view PDF files on Newton?

There is no PDF viewer on Newton yet (and probably there will never be
one). However, you can use Adobe PDF->HTML conversion from
<>, and then view the result into your favorite
browser. Besides Newt's Cape by Steve Weyer allow you to save the result as
a Book package (this will compress the data).

Paul Guyot

Oct 1, 2002, 12:00:30 AM10/1/02
Archive-name: palmtops/newton/faq/development
Posting-Frequency: monthly
Last-modified: 2002/10/01

Version: This is the October 2002 update
Maintainer: Steve Weyer <>,
Peter Rand <>,
Sean Luke <> and Paul Guyot <>

PART VII: Development

* A) Environments
+ 1) What are Apple's Tools to develop software on the Newton, and where
can I find them?
x a) Apple NTK: The Newton Toolkit.
x b) Apple NCT: The Newton C/C++ Toolkit.
+ 2) What are the solutions to develop directly on my Newton?
x a) software on Newton OS: NDE by Steve Weyer
x b) software on Newton OS: nsScribe by Prism Research
x c) A powerful tool: View Frame by Jason Harper
+ 3) Are there any languages other than NS/C++ with NCT?
x a) NS Basic
x b) Lisp
x c) Assembler
x d) Is Java available on the Newton?
x e) C/C++ on other platforms
+ 4) Are there any other tool to develop Newton Packages?
* B) Documentation
+ 1) Where can I find documentation?
x a) Apple standard manuals
x b) Apple additional docs
x c) Articles and additional documentation
x d) The Newton Bowels Project
+ 2) Wow, that's a huge list! Where do I start?
* C) Sample Code
+ 1) Sources for Apple's Sample Code modules
+ 2) The list of Apple's Sample Code modules

A) Environments

1) What are Apple's Tools to develop software on the Newton, and where can
I find them?

a) Apple NTK: The Newton Toolkit.

Allows you to develop programs in NewtonScript on MacOS or Windows and to
install them (that's cross development). There is a cross debugger for
Newton Script programs.
You can find it on Apple's FTP site:
It was also on Planet Newton and it's now on the mirror on UNNA:
It's also included into NewtonDev, an archive of essential development
tools and documentation for MacOS (and Basilisk II) which is on UNNA:
NTK and MacOS X 10.1. NTK might work on MacOS X under classic if it cannot
find a serial port. To fix this problem or to use NTK over EtherTalk under
MacOS X (this is the only way), you might need to create/define a serial
To do this, you can use PortShare Demo
* Install "PortShare Demo"
* Boot under 9.x. Open PortShare Demo control panel and create a new port.
* Start NTK and select this port
* Boot under X. NTK does work (under Classic).
Or you can use TCPSerial (which is freeware) and can be found here:

b) Apple NCT: The Newton C++ Toolbox.

The Newton C++ Toolbox is divided into several parts available at various
places on the internet:
The core archive was avaible at Planet Newton, it's now at the mirror on
You can find additional SDK to design drivers (DDK) on Apple's FTP site:
There is the Lantern DDK. It is the DDK for Ethernet cards drivers. It
includes Hammer and Newtsbug, the low level debuggers. It can be found on
UNNA: <>.
NCT requires MPW which only runs on MacOS:
_Images/MPW-PR.img.bin> (August 1999 distribution is 18.5 megs).
You can find all that without MPW and a Basilisk II image with MPW into
NewtonDev which is on UNNA:
<>. NewtonDev includes
additions and bug fixes of the NCT. It also includes NTK, other tools and
the most important documentation.

2) What are the solutions to develop directly on my Newton?

a) NDE by Steve Weyer

There is Steve Weyer's Newton Dev Environment:
<>. It allows you to build packages
directly on the Newton.
Here is a comparison between NTK and NDE I made. It only involves my [PG]
* NDE:
+ pros:
x develop directly on your Newt
x save applications as packages
x play with the turtle
x easier to incorporate help books (typically created with Newt's Cape)
x continued support from Steve
+ cons:
x no graphical interface to develop your pro GUI, but VisualNewt (from
Serg Koren) provides a graphical layout editor.
x direct text input for frames
x no way to compile C++ code on your Newton (but you can import
x no way to compile "native" Newton Script (but you can import such)
x no debugger (but you can use viewframe)
+ purpose: all software that does not require resources (you must import
them) and too complex GUI. But you can also use Newt's Cape to write
form-based applications.
* NTK:
+ pros:
x graphical interface (like RAD) allow C++ code with NCT.
x allow native functions.
x debugger (with breakpoints and steps) is available (for Newton Script
code only)
+ cons:
x cross development (i.e. develop on your Mac or your Windows device)
x discontinued software
x can be exported from MacOS to Windows only
+ purpose: all software, including these that require big resources and
complex GUI.

b) software on Newton OS: nsScribe by Prism Research

Many software programs allow you to execute NewtonScript. One which is the
easiest to use is nsScribe: it allows you to execute code from the Notepad,
the Assistant or Works.

c) A powerful tool: View Frame by Jason Harper

View Frame is a very powerful tool for debugging directly on the Newton,
inspect the Newton environment. However, it does not allow you to set
breakpoints or to step.

3) Are there any other languages than NS?

a) NS Basic Softwares

<>NS Basic/Newton is a complete implementation of the
BASIC programming language, with extensions to take advantage of the rich
Newton OS. The product is commercial and fully supported, with many
thousand users worldwide. (George Henne)NewtCard is a hypercard-like
environment for the Newton. It allows you to manage text and pictures as a
collection of cards. It's easy to add text fields, check boxes, buttons and
lots more to the cards. Buttons can be scripted using NS Basic/Newton.
NewtCard is also commercial and fully supported. (George Henne)
Try the demo: <>

b) Lisp

* LittleLisp by David Benn

* Lisp by by Jonathan Millen <>
[any homepage?]

c) Assembler

* Roger Milne <> succeeded in writing programs
(such as his MOD Player) in Assembly language on his PC with a GNU
He made a page explaining how he proceeded:
See the warning about C/C++ on other platforms below. (VIIA3e)
* There is also the Compiler-Formerly-Known-As-ChARM (CFKAC) by Prism
Research <> It allows to compile and
disassemble code directly on the Newton using nsScribe.

d) Is Java available on the Newton?

Sean Luke and Steve Weyer implemented Waba which is a subset of Java.
Currently, the software is in alpha release. You can find the binaries and
the sources on Sean's website: <>

e) C/C++ on other platforms

C++ and other compiled languages can basically be used in two ways: as
native functions and for P-Classes which are used in drivers. The Newton
C++ Toolbox is more than a compiler and a linker. It also includes tools to
use this C++ code, either to convert a link output to a Native Module, a
file used by NTK or to generate and pack a P-Class.
All the documentation required to make a tool to convert from link output
to NTK is available, but no such tool exists. Therefore, with a C/C++
suite, you will have to use NCT anyway. The other solution is to use Roger
Milne's tool. <>.
The format of the P-Class encapsulated programs is unknown.
Finally, the low level debuggers (Newtsbug and Hammer) only run on MacOS.
Apparently, they are based on RDI, but nobody succeeded to write a
compatible low level debugger.
There are several C/C++ compilers for ARM, here are just the most common
* The ARM SDT from arm: <>
* GNU C/C++ compiler for Intel based computers (apparently, the Sparc tools
archive is corrupted) <>
BTW, you can use NCT on Basilisk II which you'll find at
<>. It's a Mac 68K emulator
for Win NT, BeOS, UNIX with X11 and AmigaOS.

4) Are there any other tool to develop Newton Packages?

Yes, there is Pinehill AppGen that can be found on UNNA:
It lets you create simple data collection applications on your Newton and
export the data to a PC (using PineHill Mover).

B) Documentation

1) Where can I find documentation?

a) Apple standard manuals

Apple published a book called findinfo.pdf
I reproduce here the content of this book with added links. I removed
comments about the CD where this book was originally. DV=DocViewer for
MacOS. You need both the file and the index.
There are several sources of information on the Newton Platform APIs and
how to use them. Although the Newton Programmers Guide is the first source,
it is not necessarily the most complete or up to date. There are a number
of additional places you can search for information on the Newton Platform
Below is a list of where to look. The order of items is also a rough order
of searching, i.e., check the NPG, then the OS 2.1 documentation, then the
Q&A's, and so on.
* Newton Programmers Guide 2.0 & Newton Programmers Reference 2.0
This is the primary source of information. Start here when searching. All
the other sources of documentation supplement this guide.
+ Programmers Guide:
x [DV-idx, 2545 Kb]
x [DV, 4269 Kb]
x [PDF, ZIP, 2844 Kb]
+ Programmers Reference:
x [PDF, ZIP, 3369 Kb]
* Newton Programmers Guide 2.1
This is a supplement to the Newton Programmers Guide/Reference. It is the
main source for the new APIs in Newton OS 2.1. Like NPG, this is a primary
source of information.
+ [PDF, Mac, 1392 Kb]
* NewtonScript Reference
This is the primary reference for the NewtonScript language and related
support functions.
+ Newton Script Reference (nscriptref): [What's the difference between
them? - I only have one]
x [DV-idx, 449 Kb]
x [DV, 1295 Kb]
x [PDF, ZIP, 763 Kb],
+ Newton Script Reference (nsref):
x [DV-idx, 442 Kb]
x [DV, 1275 Kb]
x [PDF, ZIP, 872 Kb]
* Q&A's (Q_AND_AS)
New and updated information on APIs and extra explanation. This is one of
the best sources of information apart from the Newton Programmers Guide.
They can be found on UNNA:
* Platform File Functions (PLATFUNC)
This contains documentation on APIs that are included as part of the
Platform File. The APIs are either new APIs or replacements for ones
already in the ROM.
* Sample Code (SAMPCODE)
In addition to showing you how to use particular features, some pieces of
sample code contain interim documentation.
* NTK 1.6 User's Guide (WINNTK16.PDF)
In addition to documenting Newton Toolkit, this guide also contains
valuable information on both debugging your application and performance

b) Additional Apple docs

Apple published additional books. These can be found on Newton Gurus'
* Newton Formats (1.1) describes the format of packages and stream objects.
It can be found on David Arnold site:
<> And
on UNNA:
* Newton Toolkit 1.6.x File Formats describes the format of NTK files for
both MacOS and Windows.
It can also be found on David Arnold site:
* Newton Interconnect Port Hardware Specification for the MessagePad.

It can be found on UNNA


* Newton OS 2.1 Engineering Documents
+ [PDF, 559 Kb]
* Newton Toolkit Enhancements
* Newton OS 2.1 Miscellaneous
* Newton 2.0 User Interface Guidelines
+ [DV-idx, 604 Kb]
+ [DV, 1828 Kb]
+ [PDF, 1340 Kb]
+ [PDF, 1761 Kb]
* User Interface Guidelines for Newton OS 2.1 Keyboard Enhancements
+ [PDF, ZIP, 327 Kb]
+ [PDF, ZIP, 277 Kb]

c) Articles and additional documentation

There were a lot of articles written by Apple and third party developers.
They were published in the Newton Technology Journal, in the PIE Developers
and other journals.
* The Newton Technology Journal was a review for both general and developer
information. Issues from February 1995 (I,1) to March 1997 (III,2) were
published. They can be found on UNNA:
rnal/> David Arnold has also them all:
* Some articles by the Newton ToolBox Group can be also found. These were
published in various places. They can be found on UNNA:
David Arnold has also them all:
* You can also look into develop issues, on Apple's website:

* You can also look into Handheld Systems Magazine. Some articles were
published there. The issues used to be found on UNNA, they might be back in
some time. They used to be on cdpubs website, but they finally decided to
charge for it. Note that all these articles can be found elsewhere. Some
were archived by

* There is the articles "Ask Dr. Llama" in the form of Q&As
David Arnold has them all (thanks David, once again)
* If you're interested in articles explaining how the NewtonOS or the
NewtonScript language works, you can go to Walter Smith's website
<>. Walter Smith is the father of
NewtonScript and is responsible for other great parts of the NewtonOS.
* Finally, there are all the programming hints from the newton developer
[I'm sorry I haven't them]
You can also consult the documentation concerning the processor (ARMs).
Please note that this is useless to the NewtonScript developer. It is only
useful for assembly development and sometimes C++ development.
* The ARM Architecture Reference Manual by D.Jaggar. You can order the
paper version from any good (internet) library. You can get the electronic
version by ordering a free evaluation copy of the ARM Development Suite at
You'll find in this book a (simple) diagram of the Runt based Message Pads.
There are other reference manuals for the ARM such as the ARM
System-on-Chip Architecture by S.Furber and The ARM RISC Chip, A
Programmer's Guide by A. van Someron & C. Atack.
* The ARM SDT Reference Manual. This manual isn't a manual to the processor
but a manual to the ARM SDT which the Newton C++ Toolbox is a MPW port of.
The SDT changed a lot, but it's there that you'll find informations about
the compiler's behavior (e.g. data size).
* You can find additional documentation on ARM's website. They are not very
interesting for Newton development, though, except the Quick reference
guide. <>.
* Intel has several application notes and technical documents about the
StrongARM, including one on the memory management (one of the sources about
the ARM MMU). They can be downloaded from the Intel's developer website:

d) The Newton Bowels Project

The Newton Internals are not documented. But several developers made
discoveries when digging the system to interface with it. There is a
repository for these documents and thrill seekers tools, called The Newton
Bowels Project. It can be found on Kallisys website:

2) Wow, that's a huge list! Where do I start?

My advice is to start with the examples. Try the examples that comes with
NDE or those on Apple's FTP site.
You can also try the interactive tutorial book NewtATut to create a simple
app: <>

C) Sample Code

1) Sources for Apple's Sample Code modules

Most of them, in their latest version, can be found on UNNA at:

2) The list of Apple's Sample Code modules

There is a list on Rochester FTP. It has the advantage to include keywords
and description.
* By category:
* By name:
However, it is not complete, with latest versions. Here is a more complete
* Application Design
+ Altered States-6
+ ChezDTS-2
+ DeletionScript-2
+ ExtensionTap-1
+ protoFSM-7
+ True Grid-5
* Controls and Other Protos
+ Gauges-2
+ Glancing-2
+ NouveauScroll-2
+ protoVertSlider-1
+ RadioCluster-3
* Data Storage
+ SoupTour-4
* Desktop Connectivity
+ CompNRun-1
+ DILette-Mac-2
+ DILette-Windows-2
+ Mini-MetaData-1
+ SoupDrink-Mac-4
+ SoupDrink-Newton-4
+ SoupDrink-Windows-3
+ SuiteP-Mac-2
+ SuiteP-Windows-2
* Developer Tools
+ MonacoTest-5
+ MooUnit-1
* Digital Books
+ Beyond Help-5
+ Book Maker Examples-1
+ BookSample-4
* Drawing and Graphics
+ Bitmap-2
+ Dot2Dot-3
+ Drawing-4
+ Photo Album-1
+ Up In Smoke-33&2/3
* Endpoints
+ Basic LlamaTalk-1
+ Basic Modem-2
+ Basic Serial-2
+ Comms FSM-6
+ Thumb-8
+ Tool Time-2
* Localization
+ CreatingALocale-2
* Modem Setup
+ Modem Setup-2
* NewtApp
+ Checkbook-8
+ newtLabelPicker-1
* NewtonScript
+ Inspector Gadget-4
* Pickers, Popups, and Overviews
+ ListPickerSamples-2
+ PictIndex-1
+ protoNumberPicker_TDS-1
+ protoOverview-2
+ protoSlimPicker-1
+ WhereInTheWorld-1
* Recognition
+ CharEdit-2
+ WordArray-2
* Routing
+ AutoRoute-4
+ CustomRoute-2
+ MultiRoute-1
+ VariRoute-1
* Sound
+ Bitchin' Piano-3
+ Serenade-1
+ Sound Advice-3
+ Sound Tricks-4
+ SoundStudio-2
* Stationery
+ WhoOwesWhom-5
* System Data and Built-in Apps
+ Cardfile Extensions-1
+ Extra Change-3
+ HandWrite-1
+ Party Time-1
+ PeoplePicker-1
+ Sketch-1
+ Stamps&Patterns-1
* System Services
+ PeriodicElements-1
* Text Input
+ InkForm-1
+ InkTranslate-1
+ Keyboardin-1
+ Keys-4
+ TXWord-2
* Transports
+ ArchiveTransport-4
+ MinMail-3
+ StatusReport-1
* User Interface
+ AdjustoButton-1
+ PreeferMadnessTNG-1
* Views
+ Clock-2
+ DatePick-2
+ DragonDrop-1
+ Paragraph Scroll-4
+ SyncScroll-1
+ TabsNStyles-3
+ Thumbnail-1
+ ViewScripts-3

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