Risks Digest 33.12

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RISKS-LIST: Risks-Forum Digest Friday 1 April 2022 Volume 33 : Issue 12

ACM FORUM ON RISKS TO THE PUBLIC IN COMPUTERS AND RELATED SYSTEMS (comp.risks)
Peter G. Neumann, founder and still moderator

***** See last item for further information, disclaimers, caveats, etc. *****
This issue is archived at <http://www.risks.org> as
<http://catless.ncl.ac.uk/Risks/33.12>
The current issue can also be found at
<http://www.csl.sri.com/users/risko/risks.txt>

Contents:
This year there are apparently too many fools in the world. (PGN)
CPAP murder mystery (Charles C. Mann)
NYC Skyscraper's Elevator Breakdowns Strand Tenants (NYTimes)
The never-stopping car (Geoff Kuenning)
Please hold on to the handrails while entering or exiting the escalator
(Brian Roemmele via PGN)
Hackers Steal About $600 Million in One of the Biggest Crypto Heists
(Blomberg)
Cryptocurrency Cryptotheft (Reuters via Stephen J. Greenwald)
A Sinister Way to Beat Multifactor Authentication Is on the Rise (WiReD)
AI-Influenced Weapons Need Better Regulation (Scientific American)
Waymo to Send Driverless Cars Through San Francisco (WSJ)
Hackers who crippled Viasat modems in Ukraine are still active --
company official (Reuters)
Apple & Meta Gave User Data to Hackers Who Used Forged Legal Requests
(Bloomberg)
Election officials targeted by phishing, according to FBI (A.J. Vicens)
Hackers gaining subpoena power via fake emergency requests (Krebsonsecurity)
Corporate Media Wants Copyright Law to Rewrite the Internet (EFF)
Climate change: Wind and solar reach milestone as demand surges
(Ember-climate)
The Milky Way's 'thick disk' is 2 billion years older than scientists
thought (Live Science)
You're eating a credit card's worth of plastic every week, and it's altering
your gut makeup (GutNews)
Re: One problem with permanent daylight saving time: Geography (Henry Baker)
Re: URL problem on the Doug Jones op-ed (Mark Brader)
Abridged info on RISKS (comp.risks)

----------------------------------------------------------------------

Date: Fri, 1 Apr 2022 12:58:06 PDT
From: Peter Neumann <neu...@csl.sri.com>
Subject: This year there are apparently too many fools in the world.

As a consequence, I am declaring a moratorium on April Fools' Day pranks for
this year's 1 April issue of RISKS. We don't need any more misleading
messages to confuse people who might already be confused, or alternatively
spreading and amplifying false information. Perhaps 2023 will have fewer
people who are already fooled.

------------------------------

Date: Wed, 30 Mar 2022 15:58:11 -0400 (EDT)
From: "Charles C. Mann" <ccm...@comcast.net>
Subject: CPAP murder mystery

Recently a friend told me he was looking for a CPAP machine. For those who
don't know, CPAP machines are vaguely snorkel-like gizmos that people with
sleep apnea put on their faces at night to help them breathe properly and
thus sleep properly. I don't know much about them, so I looked them up.

>From what I could tell, there seem to be two new technologies that are
coming up in the CPAP world. The first is remotely programmable CPAP
machines. This both allows doctors to adjust the way they work and insurance
companies to monitor whether the users are deploying them properly.
Presumably the latter is because the machines are expensive.

The second is a CPAP machine that is small and implantable. It goes into
your body right above the breathing tube. For obvious reasons, the
implantable version has been a hit with patients--you don't have to put this
monstrous thing on your face at night.

There are, of course, CPAP bulletin boards. I looked at one, and almost the
first post I saw was somebody wishing his implantable CPAP machine could be
remotely monitored, so that he wouldn't have to go to the doctor's office to
have it adjusted. I assume this will soon happen, and that as a result there
will be thousands of Americans who have their breathing directly connected
to the Internet. The murder-mystery possibilities present themselves
immediately.

[This seems like a new area of badness for the Internet of Things. I hope
to heaven that my assumption that the implantable devices will soon be
net-enabled is incorrect. CCM]

------------------------------

Date: Tue, 29 Mar 2022 00:10:01 -0400
From: Gabe Goldberg <ga...@gabegold.com>
Subject: NYC Skyscraper's Elevator Breakdowns Strand Tenants (NYTimes)

High-Rise_Hell

A luxury residential building in the financial district with more than 750
apartments has been experiencing lengthy elevator outages since the fall.

The building's owners, DTH Capital, say that Con Edison must step in to
resolve the problems, which they maintain are likely related to electrical
surges from Con Edison equipment. The owners say they have hired teams with
elevator, electrical and engineering expertise to get to the bottom of the
problem, which is affecting eight elevators. `

``These experts have so far been unable to determine the source of the
surges and believe that we will not be able to do so without the full
collaboration and 24/7 support of Con Edison,'' DTH Capital said in a
statement.

Con Edison, in turn, says it has conducted extensive testing at the building
and found “no indication that our power supply is deficient or compromised.

https://www.nytimes.com/2022/03/28/nyregion/nyc-elevator-outage-20-exchange-place.html

I guess there's not really a problem, then. GG

------------------------------

Date: Mon, 28 Mar 2022 16:58:45 -0700
From: Geoff Kuenning <ge...@cs.hmc.edu>
Subject: The never-stopping car

I use a car-sharing service (Zipcar) from time to time. Today I rented a
2020 Hyundai Elantra to go to some appointments on a rainy day. When I got
to the first destination, the car wouldn't lock because the engine was still
running. Odd...obviously I must have accidentally left the key in the
ignition.

But no; the key wasn't in the ignition. I tried many experiments without
success and finally went to both appointments while leaving the car in
public parking lots, running, just hoping that since the engine was quiet
nobody would notice how easy it was to steal.

When I returned the car I called the support line; in the end they couldn't
shut it off either but at least they were able to remotely lock the doors.
I guess that if they didn't get a service technician to it soon, it would
eventually run out of gas.

Clearly the Hyndai designers decided to dispense with the old system of
having the ignition key actually cut power to the engine system, and instead
let the in-car computer do that. And this failure clearly demonstrates why
it's critical to have hardware failsafes for important systems. I'm just
glad I wasn't in a Prius with a stuck accelerator. GK

------------------------------

Date: Wed, 30 Mar 2022 19:50:12 -0700
From: Peter G Neumann <Neu...@CSL.SRI.COM>
Subject: Please hold on to the handrails while entering or exiting the
escalator (Brian Roemmele via PGN)

https://twitter.com/BrianRoemmele/status/1508888318745800707

The robo-suitcase on the escalator probably lacked physical and software
requirements for the robot, lacked a suitabke system architecture, and was
poorly programmed. Also, the escalator was not ready for it.

Dan Eakins replied to my sharing this fiasco with him:

I think with these devices that rely on computer vision systems have
to programmed (robots, cars, self-propelled things) not do more than
they are programmed to do. So you have to train it to recognize
situations after it fails - maybe it was intended to go down an
escalator - but seems like it should have been constrained from that
altogether.

Every time I see those little delivery carts in downtown Mountain View
trying to cross an intersection, I think hmm. Maybe it isn't programmed
for someone who could intercept it an intersection, break it open, and eat
what is inside. But maybe it would have a cameras that would be able to
track me down.

In Oakland CA, those delivery robots wouldn't last long at all.

PGN's reaction:

Typically the designer and the programmer never think along those lines.
Reliable? perhaps. Secure? probably not.

I suspect hijacking the robocarts for meals will quickly become a new
micro-industry.

------------------------------

Date: Wed, 30 Mar 2022 12:10:22 +0900
From: David Farber <far...@keio.jp>
Subject: Hackers Steal About $600 Million in One of the Biggest Crypto
Heists (Blomberg)

https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2022-03-29/hackers-steal-590-million-from-ronin-in-latest-bridge-attack

* Ronin Network says thieves took Ether, USDC tokens on 23 Mar 2022.
* Bridge hacks can threaten the ecosystem of decentralized apps

Funds can be moved out of the bridge if five of the nine validators approve
it. The hacker managed to get hold of the private cryptographic keys
belonging to five of the validators -- so that was enough to steal the
crypto assets.

[Anyone who believes that 5 out of 9 is sufficiently secure when all the
nine of the systems involved may be inadequately secure (possibly all with
the same exploitable flaw) is not reading RISKS. The same is true with
Byzantine agreement where completely arbitrary malicious behaviour of at
most k out of 3k+1 can be tolerated -- which is misguided if more than k
of the systems are hackable. PGN]

[Incidentally, I received a copy of the full text from Gabe Goldberg, but
for some reason it came in as rampant gibberish, so I decided not to try
to unscramble the rest of it after what I hav added here. PGN]

------------------------------

Date: Wed, 30 Mar 2022 09:50:52 -0400
From: "Steven J. Greenwald" <greenwa...@gmail.com>
Subject: Cryptocurrency Cryptotheft

https://www.reuters.com/breakingviews/hackers-turn-cryptos-strength-into-achilles-heel-2022-03-30/

------------------------------

Date: Fri, 1 Apr 2022 01:06:59 -0400
From: Gabe Goldberg <ga...@gabegold.com>
Subject: A Sinister Way to Beat Multifactor Authentication Is on the Rise
(WiReD)

Lapsus$ and the group behind the SolarWinds hack have utilized prompt
bombing to defeat weaker MFA protections in recent months.

Enter MFA Prompt Bombing

The strongest forms of MFA are based on a framework called FIDO2, which was
developed by a consortium of companies to balance security and simplicity of
use. It gives users the option of using fingerprint readers or cameras built
into their devices or dedicated security keys to confirm that they are
authorized to access an account. FIDO2 forms of MFA are relatively new, so
many services for both consumers and large organizations have yet to adopt
them.

That's where older, weaker forms of MFA come in. They include one-time
passwords sent through SMS or generated by mobile apps like Google
Authenticator or push prompts sent to a mobile device. When someone is
logging in with a valid password, they also must either enter the one-time
password into a field on the sign-in screen or push a button displayed on
the screen of their phone.

It's this last form of authentication that recent reports say is being
bypassed. One group using this technique, according to security firm
Mandiant, is Cozy Bear, a band of elite hackers working for Russia's Foreign
Intelligence Service. The group also goes under the names Nobelium, APT29,
and the Dukes.

``Many MFA providers allow for users to accept a phone app push notification
or to receive a phone call and press a key as a second factor. The
[Nobelium] threat actor took advantage of this and issued multiple MFA
requests to the end-user's legitimate device until the user accepted the
authentication, allowing the threat actor to eventually gain access to the
account.''

https://www.wired.com/story/multifactor-authentication-prompt-bombing-on-the-rise/

------------------------------

Date: Thu, 31 Mar 2022 20:29:59 +0800
From: Richard Stein <rms...@ieee.org>
Subject: AI-Influenced Weapons Need Better Regulation (Scientific American)

https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/ai-influenced-weapons-need-better-regulation/

"The technology behind some of these weapons systems is immature and
error-prone, and there is little clarity on how the systems function and
make decisions. Some of these weapons will invariably hit the wrong targets,
and competitive pressures might result in deployment of more systems that
are not ready for the battlefield."

Read that paragraph, and substitute 'weapons' for a popular AI-based product
(driverless vehicles) and then substitute 'battlefield' with marketplace.

How does one specify a "Do not harm innocent civilians" rule that holds
creators and operators of AI systems accountable for errors and accidents?

------------------------------

Date: Wed, 30 Mar 2022 09:39:02 -1000
From: geoff goodfellow <ge...@iconia.com>
Subject: Waymo to Send Driverless Cars Through San Francisco (WSJ)

Waymo, Google's sister company, is sending fully autonomous vehicles
onto the streets of the city, marking its first attempt to send cars without
any human control into a major metropolitan area. [...]

https://www.wsj.com/articles/waymo-to-send-driverless-cars-through-san-francisco-11648648800

------------------------------

Date: Thu, 31 Mar 2022 10:18:49 -1000
From: geoff goodfellow <ge...@iconia.com>
Subject: Hackers who crippled Viasat modems in Ukraine are still active
-- company official (Reuters)

Hackers who crippled tens of thousands of satellite modems in Ukraine and
across Europe are still trying to hobble U.S. telecommunications company
Viasat as it works to bring its users back online, a company official told
Reuters.

Viasat Inc. has been working to recover after a cyberattack remotely
disabled satellite modems just as Russian forces pushed into Ukraine in the
early hours of Feb. 24. The official said a parallel attack was launched at
almost exactly the same time and used "high volumes of focused, malicious
traffic" to try and overwhelm Viasat's network and was still ongoing.

"We're still witnessing some deliberate attempts," the official said
Tuesday. He said that Viasat was so far resisting the hackers with
defensive measures but that "we've been seeing repeated attempts by this
attacker to alter that pattern to test those new mitigations and defenses."

The official -- who spoke on the condition that he not be identified --
briefed Reuters ahead of a report being published early Wednesday which
outlines how the hackers systematically sabotaged satellite modems across
Europe - and in Ukraine in particular - on the morning of Russia's invasion.
[...]

https://www.reuters.com/business/media-telecom/exclusive-hackers-who-crippled-viasat-modems-ukraine-are-still-active-company-2022-03-30/

------------------------------

Date: Wed, 30 Mar 2022 09:33:29 -1000
From: geoff goodfellow <ge...@iconia.com>
Subject: Apple & Meta Gave User Data to Hackers Who Used Forged Legal Requests
(Bloomberg)

Hackers compromised the emails of law enforcement agencies.
Data was used to enable harassment, may aid financial fraud.

Apple Inc. and Meta Platforms Inc., the parent company of Facebook, provided
customer data to hackers who masqueraded as law enforcement officials,
according to three people with knowledge of the matter.

Apple and Meta provided basic subscriber details, such as a customer's
address, phone number and IP address, in mid-2021 in response to the forged
emergency data requests. Normally, such requests are only provided with a
search warrant or subpoena signed by a judge, according to the people.
However, the emergency requests don't require a court order.

Snap Inc. received a forged legal request from the same hackers, but it
isn't known whether the company provided data in response. It's also not
clear how many times the companies provided data prompted by forged legal
requests. [...]

https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2022-03-30/apple-meta-gave-user-data-to-hackers-who-forged-legal-requests
https://ca.finance.yahoo.com/news/apple-meta-gave-user-data-175918825.html

------------------------------

Date: Wed, 30 Mar 2022 10:35:11 PDT
From: Peter Neumann <neu...@csl.sri.com>
Subject: Election officials targeted by phishing, according to FBI

https://www.cyberscoop.com/election-officials-phishing-email-2022-midterms-fbi/

A.J. Vicens, CYBERSCOOP, 29 Mar 2022

An invoice-themed phishing campaign targeted elections officials in at least
nine states in October 2021, according to a warning the FBI issued Tuesday.
The attackers sought to steal login credentials and could have had sustained
and undetected access to election administrators' systems. Batches with
common attachments send over three days with compromised email addresses.
suggesting a concerted effort to target US election officials. [PGN-ed]

------------------------------

Date: Tue, 29 Mar 2022 11:02:10 PDT
From: Peter Neumann <neu...@csl.sri.com>
Subject: Hackers gaining subpoena power via fake emergency requests

Another example of the escalating spiral of defense running behind offense?

https://krebsonsecurity.com/2022/03/hackers-gaining-power-of-subpoena-via-fake-emergency-data-requests/

------------------------------

Date: Wed, 30 Mar 2022 16:34:14 +0000
From: "EFFector List" <edi...@eff.org>
Subject: Corporate Media Wants Copyright Law to Rewrite the Internet (EFF)

The New Filter Mandate Bill Is An Unmitigated Disaster

Industry groups are pushing a new bill, the SMART Copyright Act that would
give the Copyright Office the power to set the rules for Internet technology
and services to address copyright infringement, with precious little
opportunity for appeal. Remaking the Internet to serve the entertainment
industry was a bad idea ten years ago and it's a bad idea today.

Read more: https://www.eff.org/deeplinks/2022/03/new-filter-mandate-bill-unmitigated-disaster

EFFector Vol. 34, No. 2 Wednesday, March 30, 2022 edi...@eff.org
A Publication of the Electronic Frontier Foundation, ISSN 1062-9424
[effector: n, Computer Sci. A device for producing a desired change.]

------------------------------

Date: Wed, 30 Mar 2022 09:46:47 -1000
From: geoff goodfellow <ge...@iconia.com>
Subject: Climate change: Wind and solar reach milestone as demand surges
(Ember-climate)

Wind and solar generated 10% of global electricity for the first time in
2021, a new analysis shows. Fifty countries get more than a tenth of their
power from wind and solar sources, according to research from Ember.

<https://ember-climate.org/insights/research/global-electricity-review-2022/>,
a climate and energy think tank.

As the world's economies rebounded from the Covid-19 pandemic in 2021,
demand for energy soared.

Demand for electricity grew at a record pace. This saw a surge in coal
power, rising at the fastest rate since 1985. [...]

https://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-60917445

------------------------------

Date: Wed, 30 Mar 2022 09:49:00 -1000
From: geoff goodfellow <ge...@iconia.com>
Subject: The Milky Way's 'thick disk' is 2 billion years older than
scientists thought (Live Science)

Misjudging someone's age can be awkward -- especially when you're off by a
few billion years. The thick disk began forming stars just 0.8 billion
years after the Big Bang. [...]

https://www.livescience.com/milky-way-thick-disc-age

------------------------------

Date: Wed, 30 Mar 2022 09:26:58 -1000
From: geoff goodfellow <ge...@iconia.com>
Subject: You're eating a credit card's worth of plastic every week, and it's
altering your gut makeup (GutNews)

How much plastic is sitting on your gut? If you think the answer is zero,
think again. A recent review suggests people consume about five grams of
plastic particles per week — the equivalent of the weight of a credit card.

Nanoplastics are any plastics less than 0.001 millimeters in size.
Microplastics, on the other hand, are 0.001 to 5 millimeters and on some
occasions still visible to the naked eye. Most microplastic and
nanoplastics find their way to the human food chain from packaging waste.

Plastic particles <https://www.gutnews.com/microplastics-ibd-cause/> can
enter the body through seafood, sea salt, or drinking water. One study
referenced in the review found people who drank the recommended 1.5 to 2
liters of water a day from plastic bottles takes in 90,000 plastic
particles per year from this way alone. People who opt for tap water reduce
their ingested amount to about 40,000 plastic particles.

Research exploring the number of micro-and nanoplastic particles in the
gastrointestinal tract has shown its presence is changing the gut microbiome
<https://gutnews.com/category/gut-biome> composition. The changes it’s
making are linked to the emergence of metabolic diseases such as diabetes,
obesity, or chronic liver disease.

Not only are the changes in the gut microbiome apparent, but scientists
have also broken ground on the molecular mechanisms behind the uptake of
micro- and nanoplastic particles into gut tissue. Both microplastic and
nanoplastic particles potentially activate mechanisms involved in local
inflammation <https://gutnews.com/tag/inflammation> and immune response.
Evidence has shown that nanoplastics, in particular, trigger chemical
pathways involved in the formation of cancer. [...]

https://www.gutnews.com/microplastics-food-gut-health/

[Why is this relevant to RISKS? Realistically, this is symptomatic of the
type of problem that risk models tend to overlook, which should be another
lesson for holistic thinkers. PGN]

------------------------------

Date: Tue, 29 Mar 2022 03:49:22 +0000
From: Henry Baker <hba...@pipeline.com>
Subject: Re: One problem with permanent daylight saving time: Geography

(A timely posting about timezones...)

Only One Time Zone in China

China has one official time zone, China Standard Time (CST), which is 8
hours ahead of UTC (https://www.timeanddate.com/time/aboututc.html
(https://www.timeanddate.com/time/china/one-time-zone.html)). In China, the
time zone is known as Beijing Time.

In Xinjiang, China's westernmost region, the Uyghur population unofficially
uses a different local time known as Xinjiang Time or Ürümqi Time, which is
2 hours behind CST.

(Which is probably why the Uyghurs are being 're-educated' by the millions --
because they're 'behind' ....)

------------------------------

Date: Mon, 28 Mar 2022 21:07:49 -0500
From: m...@vex.net (Mark Brader)
Subject: Re: URL problem on the Doug Jones op-ed (Brader, RISKS-33.11)

I wrote:

> When I tried to open this [msn.com] URL in Firefox, I got a blank
> page. ...

A week later, when I saw this in Risks, it occurred to me that in the
meantime I had downloaded an update to NoScript. So I checked the
original URL again, and if I enable JavaScript for msn.com, I can
now open the page.

------------------------------

Date: Mon, 1 Aug 2020 11:11:11 -0800
From: RISKS-...@csl.sri.com
Subject: Abridged info on RISKS (comp.risks)

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End of RISKS-FORUM Digest 33.12
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