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[comp.os.386bsd] BNR/2 derived BSD for PCs FAQ (Part 5 of 10)

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Dave Burgess

Feb 27, 1995, 2:00:32 AM2/27/95
Posted-By: auto-faq
Archive-name: 386bsd-faq/part5

Section 4. (System Additions)

Thanks go to Marc Wandschneider ( for putting this
section of the FAQ together..

Important note: Most of these 'kernel patches' are to the original
386bsd 0.1. The really useful ones have been added to the kernel
of both NetBSD and FreeBSD.

4.0 Introduction

If you have written some addition to the kernel or some other
part of the system, or know of one that feel should be mentioned,
send mail to Dave Burgess ( with all
the relevant information, and it will be added for the next

4.1 Common Kernel-related problems

4.1.1 Where are the commands "rpcinfo" and "rpcgen"?

Chris Flatters ( informs us in the following
posting excerpt where we can find them:

The sources for the Sun OS 4.0 RPC are on (I don't
have the inet number handy) in directory sun-sources. You will have
to pick up all the shell archives and unpack them to get at rpcgen.

These sources are also included in NetBSD and FreeBSD as part of the
normal installation.

4.1.2 Where can I get a working "netstat"?

When netstat was released, it came out as a binary patch and
source patch in the patchkit for 386bsd 0.1. The program has
been included in both NetBSD and FreeBSD.

4.1.3 How can I fix NFS to work with my NE2000 board?

Ken Raeburn ( has both identified the
problem (in 386bsd 0.1) and provided us with a work around:

I reported previously that I was seeing problems reading files over
NFS using the ne2000 driver; timeouts would eventually be reported, no
data would be read. Listing files and directories (small ones
anyways) were not a problem.

After playing with etherfind and kernel printfs, I've come to this
conclusion: Fragmented 8K UDP packets from the NFS server are not
reaching the UDP layer in 386bsd. The Sun is sending them (according
to another Sun spying on the network), but the UDP input routine is
never called. I don't know if the bug here is on the 386bsd or Sun
side, and won't have time to look into it in the next couple of days.

In the meantime, mounting NFS file systems with "rsize=1024" does get
rid of this problem.

(It does nothing about TCP being slow, though.)

Hopefully, the real solution (a UDP fix) will be forthcoming so
that the slow TCP problem is fixed as well.

See also: Section "I am getting lousy performance
out of my network card. What are some of the other

Recent work in FreeBSD and NetBSD may have deprecated this problem.
There is a new network card driver called the ed0 driver. This
replaces the original NE1000/NE2000 drivers, as well as replacing
the we0 driver. By combining the two, a more flexible driver has
been developed and most of these types of problems have been fixed.
Once again, upgrading to FreeBSD or NetBSD seems to be the answer.

4.1.4 How can I get "ps" and "w" to work?

The patch-kit contains a fix for /src/lib/libutil/kvm.c, which,
last we heard, was due to the work of Jim Paradis
( New versions of the kernel should
have this problem fixed.

In order for users to be able to use certain flags with ps and
the w/uptime commands, the kernel must have permissions 755.

Also, in order to save space on the distribution, the 386bsd 0.1
kernel is 'stripped' of all its labels. Programs that rely on
those labels will not work. There are several in this category,
including ps, w, and uptime. Either ftp an un-stripped kernel,
or recompile.

Also, when the internal structure of the kernel changes (as
with the changes to NetBSD and FreeBSD that change fundamental
parts of the kernel) a new ps, w, and uptime must usually be
recompiled. If you are having trouble with your ps and have
recently upgraded/rebuilt your kernel, you will probably have
to rebuild ps etal.

4.1.5 Where are re_comp and re_exec?

These two functions are currently not in libc.a. However, there
are two related functions that seem to work exactly the same in
all cases we've heard of---These are regcomp() and regexec().

Thus, a pretty ugly fix for the problem would be to always compile
as follows:

$(CC) -Dre_comp=regcomp -Dre_exec=regexec ....

There is a slightly nicer fix available for this, listed in 4.2

4.1.6 What about the termio, termios, and termcap stuff? Where are stty() and gtty()?

These functions were missing from libc.a in the original 386bsd 0.1.
To fix, add the following #defines to your program:

#define stty(f, m) ioctl((f), TIOCSETP, (m))
#define gtty(f, m) ioctl((f), TIOCGETP, (m))

A more elegant solution is to apply the patchkit. These routines
are included in there. Sometimes I have trouble with my system resetting the terminal
to seven bit mode. Isn't 386BSD eight bit clean?

The answer is "sort of". The problem seems to come from the
fact that the <sgtty.h> interface is not guaranteed to be eight
bit clean. The <termios.h> interface is better, and should be
eight bit clean in all cases. If you find an application that
uses the <sgtty.h> interface, you should either contact the
author and try and get them to use the termios interface or port
the code yourself.

4.1.7 The system hangs with the HD light on after intense disk usage.
The system hangs when trying to fsck -p both of my IDE hard drives
at boot-up.

Brett Lymn ( Provides us with a
description of the problem and the steps that he had to take
to fix it:

It seems that, on some disk subsystems, the controller and the
hard disk get out of synchronization when they are being used
intensively. The result of this is that the disk completes a
command but the controller still believes the disk not to have
completed the command, so the controller status register
indicates the disk is busy when it is not really. The standard
wd drivers are too trusting of the hardware and expect it to do
the right thing all the time. There are a few while loops in
the wd drivers that loop on a status change from the disk
controller, however; if the problem I have described takes place
then the wd driver will be stuck looping waiting for the disk to
not be busy - which never happens, so you lock the machine because
this is a kernel level wait. To fix this problem I put a timeout
into the while loops so that after a specified time the wd driver
will give up waiting for the drive to become ready, reset the
controller and retry the command. In my experience the retry
always succeeds.

Ed.Note: The retry doesn't ALWAYS work, but it IS better than
just waiting for the drive to wake back up (which it never does).

It has been recently noted that, from time to time, a SCSI disk
subsystem will behave exactly the same way. It is usually because
of bad/out-of-tolerance cables. It is not a common problem, but it
is one that you, the reader, may need to take into account when
you are trouble-shooting your drives.

Dan Yergeau (yer...@gloworm.Stanford.EDU) provides us with more
insight into this problem. The README accompanying the original
sources used as a base for the NetBSD driver indicates that

> There's also another problem still bothering me: There's some
sort of timing/reentrancy error still lurking in here, that was
there in the original 0.1 wd driver as well. The symptom is that,
on *some* controllers, doing the initial wdopen() (which will
then call the readdisklabel() function) for two or more disks at
the same time (so that wdopen() gets called again while it's
already being executed), the controller gets hung. I'm still
looking for this, meanwhile I specify in my config file that I
have swap on all disks. This causes the kernel to wdopen() the
drives nicely in order -- and once it's been done for each disk,
the problem will, of course, not occur. Without the "swap on ...
and ... and ..." stuff, my wd1, wd2 and wd3 would be opened
simultaneously by "fsck -p" forks, which would nicely hang up
everything... I note a "sleep(10)" in fsck, but it obviously
doesn't do that.

So, changing the appropriate config line to

config "386bsd" root on wd0 swap on wd0 and wd1
may get around the problem. I don't run NetBSD, but I do use a
variation of the barsoom/NetBSD driver. This works for me.
Please let the NetBSD people know if it works for you.

#include <std.disclaimer>

[Ed. again] Other methods for fixing this problem include doing a
dd if=/dev/wd1d of=/dev/null count=1 before the initial 'fsck -p'.
This method is considered brute force. It works by making sure
that the drive is properly initialized before the disklabel is
read in the fsck.

Another method involves using the '-l1' (little L) flag to make sure
that the fsck doesn't try to open both unopened hard drives at the
same time. This method is a little better (from a purely brute
viewpoint) but does caused your startup to run longer, since the
purpose of this option is to have each of your fsck passes run
one after another.

4.1.8 How do you implement quotas on Net/2 derived BSD systems?

From: (Mark Tinguely)

maybe you did not complete the setup, here is a step-by-step
instructions to get them to work:

1) make a kernel with "options QUOTA" installed

2) edit /etc/fstab and include the kinds of quotas you want,
below I used "userquota", you could also add "groupquota".

/dev/wd0h /usr ufs rw,userquota 1 2

3) for each filesystem that is in /etc/fstab that uses quota,
create the file "quota.user" (and " if appropriate).
Above I have user quotas in the /usr filesystem, so I would:

# touch /usr/quota.user

4) scan filesystem for files ownership (and/or group ownership).

# quotacheck -a

5) now you can add individual quota limits, if you want to add
the same quotas to the many people, then make a template and
replicate the template. If they change for each user, then
edit seperately.

# edquota tinguely

(an editor is kicked up and says something like:

Quotas for user tinguely:
/usr: blocks in use: 11876, limits (soft = 0, hard = 0)
inodes in use: 891, limits (soft = 0, hard = 0)

a limit of 0 means "unlimited". Change these to the appropriate
number of blocks. A soft limit generates a warning, and can be
exceed for period of time (7 days?), after which time a soft limit
is treated like a hard limit. A hard limit denies new writes.

to replicate a template (for this example let us assume "tinguely"
is the template):

# edquota -p tinguely user1 user2 user3 ... userN

6) turn quotas on (usually done in the /etc/rc file, but turn it
on manually so you do not have to reboot right now:

# quotaon

that should take care of setting up quotas. You can look at the
status of use of files with repquota, the -a option lists all
filesystems with quotas.

4.2 Available kernel add-ons

4.2.1 The Patch-Kit

Perhaps the most famous of all additions to the kernel, the Patch-Kit,
coordinated by Rodney Grimes ( contained
numerous bug fixes, Julian's SCSI drivers, as well as fixes
for other parts of the system.

It is highly recommended that all users with space for the source code
apply the patch-kits as many things that seem broken in 0.1 suddenly
start working with the patch-kits.

Of course, there is no such thing as a patch kit for NetBSD or FreeBSD.
The update method for these systems is different, and covered in the
section about the System Update Protocol (sup) updates.

4.2.2 Shared Libraries

A basic and experimental implementation of shared libraries exists
for 386bsd. According to the author (Dr. Joerg Lohse,, features are as follows:

-No kernel extension is necessary
-Shared libraries use the approach used in SysV.

Others are also working on different implementations of shared

Bill and Lynne have adopted a shared-library implementation based
on Dr. Lohse's original work. It will be included in Version 0.2
of 386bsd.

For NetBSD and FreeBSD users, two seperate and different shared
library systems have been developed. This feature is included in
the '-current' tree of both systems, and will be included in the
next major release of eiter or both.

The shared libs have, in general, been very well behaved. The
closest thing to a FAQ that has been introduced is the

I installed FreeBSD-1.1-BETA a few weeks ago but can't get
dynamically linked programs to run for some reason. Every time
I try to run a dynamically linked program, I get a message that
says "No"...

The answer is:

# chmod 755 /usr/* /usr/share/misc

4.2.3 Sound Blaster Drivers

A driver for the Sound Blaster card has been written by Steve
Haehnichen ( for BSD. Steve Gerakines has
provided us with the information necessary to get this driver
working under 386bsd.

Most features of the SB family of cards are supported save some
stereo portions of the SBPro cards.

NetBSD and FreeBSD have also adapted soundblaster drivers. They
are included in either the -current tree or in the most recent
release (depending on when you read this).

For a fact, the following sound cards are supported in FreeBSD:

1 Yamaha FM Synth
2 Soundblaster/Soundblaster Pro DSP
3 PAS PCM and Midi
4 Gravis UltraSound
5 MPU-401

In the release notes I have, there is some doubt as to the
operational status of the MPU-401 sound card driver. If you have
one of these cards and want to try the driver out, you should
contact Jordan Hubbard ( when you are
finished installing it and let him know how it is working.

The docs for the FreeBSD driver are in

4.2.4 Bus Mouse Drivers

Fred Cawthorne ( wrote a busmouse
driver for 386bsd. He recently wrote a short letter with this

This is taken from the INDEX in the mice

"We currently have four bus mouse drivers for 386bsd available by
anonymous ftp on in pub/XFree86/mice:


Sandi Donno's <> port of
Erik Forsberg's Microsoft bus mouse driver to 386bsd.


Fred Cawthorne's <> second version
of a logitech Bus Mouse driver.


Eugene Stark's port of Rick Macklem's driver to the
Microsoft bus mouse. Rick's driver supports the
Logitech and ATI Inport Bus mice with 386bsd. It's also
available by e-mail to and by anon.
ftp on in pub/386BSD/busmouse.tar.Z.


Johan Solhed <> ported the
Linux PS/2 mouse driver to 386BSD. It includes a PS/2
to Microsoft protocol converter in the driver so XFree86
understands the mouse events.

In addition we have busmouse.v3.z which is Erik Forsberg's original
post of his device driver for BSDI/386 and Microsoft (and
compatible) bus mice using the Microsoft InPort chip as well as a
device driver for Logitech bus mice. "

Most of these busmouse drivers are now included in the current
releases of NetBSD and FreeBSD. There is some question about
how well they work (especially the psm driver), but they are
all there.

Additional information about configuring the psm device is
included below to help make the psm driver work reliably.

Add the following entries to your config file:

device psm0 at isa? port "IO_KBD" tty irq 12 vector psmintr

Duplicate the options and device lines into your own kernel
configuration file, making sure to obey the proviso given about
following your pc0/sc0 devices, recompile it, install it, and
you should be off. The the LINT configuration file for more

4.2.5 PPP Support

PPP support is included in NetBSD and FreeBSD. With the demise
of agate's support for 386BSD, there is no way to add ppp
support to 386BSD. You must upgrade to wither FreeBSD or

4.2.6 re_comp and re_exec library functions

As mentioned in section 4.1, re_comp and related functions, such
as re_exec, are currently not in the library libc.a. Apart from
using the rather crude fix listed above, there is another option.

Kim Anderson ( has provided a patch that will add these
to libc.a. You can probably obtain this patch from the author, or
you can ftp it from in pub/386bsd.

These functions are (I think) included in the libcompat.a that
comes with both NetBSD and FreeBSD.

4.2.7 Intel i82586 Ethernet Controller driver

Garrett A. Wollman has written a 386bsd 0.1 driver for the
Intel i83586 Ethernet Controller. The author's e-mail address
is listed as

4.2.8 PC Speaker driver for Nethack

Andrew A. Chernov has ported the Nethack PC Speaker driver to
386bsd. It allows the speaker to be controlled by applications.

Unfortunately, we are not aware of a site that distributes this,
but this patch has been posted a couple of times to the various
comp.os.386bsd groups, and the author can be contacted at

The patch that is included in the NetBSD and FreeBSD source trees
is one written by Soerne Schmitt. It appears to use the Sun-style
/dev/audio interface and is different in goals and implementation
from Andrew Chernov's speaker driver. The source for this package
is included in the source trees for both, but is not included in
the distribution kernels.

4.3 Other program building type problems.

4.3.1 Greetings from Mars. I am building a program that requires access
to the crypt library. Either I have it and it isn't getting copied
into the executable, or I don't have it; why?

This is actually two separate questions, but they are close enough
to the same that I can answer them here. The first problem that
anyone building a 'crypt' aware program needs to remember is that
the crypt library is a separate library and requires a '-lcrypt'
to be added at the end of the link line. The other half of the
problem is the 'US Non Export' policy for DES encryption. There
are several good sources (about one per country) for non-US
crypt libraries. IF you are outside the US and need one, look
around on some of the NetBSD/FreeBSD/386BSD FTP sites in the
'local area'.

4.3.2 I am having trouble with long file names in my libraries. It
seems like there is a 16 character limit in the library

There is a 16 character limit, sort of. The most likely symptom
for this is that the header for the file _after_ the long file
name will be mangled. It turns out that there is a "T" option
that may not be documented very well that provides the correct
functionality for long filename support in ar.

4.4 Where is the 'adduser' program?


# This is a shell archive.
# remove everything above the "#!/bin/sh" line
# and feed to /bin/sh
# Use -c option to overwrite existing files
# Contents:
# packed by: <> on Sun Aug 21 10:25:30 EST 1994
PATH=/bin:/usr/bin:/usr/ucb ; export PATH
if test -f -a x$1 != x-c ; then
echo shar: Will not over-write existing file \"\"
echo shar: Extracting \"\" \(6443 characters\)
sed 's/^X//' > << '!EOF'
X# - portable add user script
X# [-G "Group"] [-H "Homes"] [-S "Shell"] [-u "uid"] \\
X# [-p "encrypted"] [-P "cleartext"] [-l]
X# Simply adds users and their home directory. It prompts for a
X# "username" and "fullname" which become part of the passwd file
X# entry for the new user. It adds "username" to "Group"
X# (creating it if necessary) and uses "uid" or the 'gid' of
X# "Group" as a starting point for its search for an unused
X# 'uid'. By default it will prompt for a passwd after adding
X# each user, but '-p' can be used to set a pre-encrypted password
X# or '-P' can be used to give a clear text password which the
X# script will encrypt and then use for each new "username".
X# Most of the variables used are obvious. "Homes" is the parent
X# directory of new users home directories.
X# The '-l' option causes the script to show the default values
X# for the variables that it uses. Most if not all can be set on
X# a per machine basis by creating a file '.adduserrc' in the
X# super users home directory or in the directory where
X# '' is found. If "Homes"/.adduserrc exists it will
X# be processed after any others, so can be used to set defaults
X# on a per project basis.
X# The script handles shadow password files on Solaris 2.3, other
X# machines may break. It has been tested on NetBSD, SunOS,
X# Solaris and HP-UX.
X# Simon J. Gerraty <>
X# RCSid:
X# $Id:,v 1.2 1994/05/08 22:54:04 sjg Exp sjg $
X# @(#) Copyright (c) 1993 Simon J. Gerraty
X# This file is provided in the hope that it will
X# be of use. There is absolutely NO WARRANTY.
X# Permission to copy, redistribute or otherwise
X# use this file is hereby granted provided that
X# the above copyright notice and this notice are
X# left intact.
X# Please send copies of changes and bug-fixes to:
XMyname=`basename $0 .sh`
XMydir=`dirname $0`
Xcase $Mydir in
X.) Mydir=`pwd`;;
X# for testing only
X#VIPW="ed $ETC/passwd"
X# thinks that the rc file may override.
Xhost=`hostname 2>/dev/null`
XHomes=/home/${host:-`uname -n`}
X[ -x /bin/ksh ] && Shell=/bin/ksh
X# look for an rc file
Xfor d in $HOME $Mydir
X [ -s $d/.${Myname}rc ] && { . $d/.${Myname}rc; break; }
Xcase `echo -n .` in
X-n*) N=;C="\c";;
X*) N=-n;C=;;
XOS=`uname -s`
Xadd_path () { [ -d $1 ] && eval ${2:-PATH}="\$${2:-PATH}:$1"; }
X file=$1
X name=$2
X min=${3:-1000}
X max=`expr $min + ${4:-999}`
X > $EXF
X id=`grep "^$name:" $file | cut -d: -f3`
X case "$id" in
X "")
X # missing, must add it
X i=$min
X while [ $i -lt $max ]
X do
X n=`cut -d: -f1,3 $file | grep ":$i\$"`
X case "$n" in
X "")
X # an empty slot - use it
X id=$i
X break;;
X esac
X i=`expr $i + 1`
X done
X ;;
X *)
X echo $id > $EXF;;
X esac
X echo $id
X case $1 in
X /*) pp=/;;
X *) pp=;;
X esac
X for p in `echo $1 | tr / " "`
X do
X case "$pp" in
X "") pp=$p;;
X /) pp=/$p;;
X *) pp=$pp/$p;;
X esac
X [ -d $pp ] || mkdir $pp || exit 1
X done
X echo "adding $1:*:$2: to $ETC/group"
X echo "$1:*:$2:" >> $ETC/group
X [ "$mygroup" ] || mygroup=`grep "^$1:" /etc/group | cut -d: -f4`
X case ",$mygroup," in
X ",,") # empty
X add=$2;;
X *,$2,*) # already there
X add=;;
X *) # missing
X add=,$2;;
X esac
X [ "$add" ] && sed "/^$1:/s/\$/$add/" $ETC/group > $ETC/group.$$ &&
X mv $ETC/group.$$ $ETC/group
X didit=
X echo "adding $1:$2:$3:$4:$5:$6:$7 to $ETC/passwd"
X case "$OS" in
X SunOS)
X if test -f /etc/shadow; then
X # we are assuming its Solaris
X echo "$1:x:$3:$4:$5:$6:$7" > $TF
X echo "$1:$2:6445::::::" > $TF2
X didit=yes
X fi
X ;;
X *BSD) # NetBSD at least
X echo "$1:$2:$3:$4::0:0:$5:$6:$7" > $TF
X didit=yes
X ;;
X esac
X # most OS's just want this.
X test "$didit" || echo "$1:$2:$3:$4:$5:$6:$7" > $TF
X line=`grep -n '^+:' $ETC/passwd | cut -d: -f1`
X ( sleep 1; echo ${line}-1r $TF; echo w; echo q;
X if test -f /etc/shadow && test "$OS" = SunOS
X then
X # this is a crok...
X sleep 5
X echo e
X sleep 5
X echo '$r' $TF2
X echo w
X echo q
X fi
X ) | ${VIPW:-vipw}
X group=$1; shift
X eval set -- `echo "'$*'" | sed "s/:/' '/g"`
X gid=`get_id $ETC/group $group $4 256`
X if [ "$gid" ]; then
X [ -s $EXF ] || add_group $group $gid
X uid=`get_id $ETC/passwd $1 $3 1024`
X if [ "$uid" ]; then
X [ -s $EXF ] || upd_passwd "$1" "$2" "$uid" "$gid" "$5" "$6" "$7"; upd_group $group $1
X [ -d $6 ] || { mkdirs $6 && chown $1 $6 && chgrp $group $6 && chmod 2775 $6; }
X else
X echo "can't add user $1" >&2; exit 1
X fi
X else
X echo "can't add group $group" >&2; exit 1
X fi
X ( echo /^$1:/d; echo w; echo q ) | ${VIPW:-vipw}
X# needs perl
Xencrypt() {
X for d in /usr/libexec /usr/lib
X do
X [ -x $d/makekey ] && { makekey=$d/makekey; break; }
X done
X perl -e "print pack('a8a2', '$1', '${2:-$$}')" | ${makekey:-makekey}
X# ok, time to get to work...
Xset -- `getopt H:S:G:u:p:P:l $*`
Xadd_path /sbin
Xadd_path /usr/sbin
Xadd_path /usr/ucb
Xadd_path /usr/etc
Xfor i in $*
X case "$i" in
X --) shift; break;;
X -H) Homes=$2; shift 2;
X # pick up group defaults...
X test -s $Homes/.${Myname}rc && . $Homes/.${Myname}rc
X ;;
X -S) Shell=$2; shift 2;;
X -G) Group=$2; shift 2;;
X -u) uid=$2; shift 2;;
X -p) Passwd="$2"; shift 2;;
X -P) Passwd=`encrypt $2`; shift 2;;
X -l) list=yes;;
X esac
Xgid=`get_id $ETC/group $Group 100 1000`
X[ "$uid" ] || uid=$gid
Xcase "$Passwd" in
X""|none) Passwd=;;
Xnologin) Passwd='*';;
Xif [ "$list" = yes ]; then
X echo "Defaults:"
X for v in Group Homes Shell
X do
X eval echo "\ $v=\$$v"
X done
X [ "x$Passwd" = "x*" ] && echo " Passwd=prompt" || echo " Passwd=$Passwd"
X [ "$uid" ] && echo " Initial uid=$uid"
X echo
Xecho Enter username and fullname - spaces in fullname are ok, no quotes needed.
Xecho An empty line terminates input.
Xecho $N "username fullname: $C"
Xwhile read uname fname
X [ "$uname" ] || exit 0
X add_user $Group "$uname:$Passwd:$uid:$gid:$fname:$Homes/$uname:$Shell"
X [ "x$Passwd" = "x**" ] && passwd $uname
X echo $N "username fullname: $C"
if test 6443 -ne `wc -c <`; then
echo shar: \"\" unpacked with wrong size!
chmod +x
exit 0

TSgt Dave Burgess | Dave Burgess
Offutt AFB, NE |

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