Fortran FAQ

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Keith Bierman QED

Jan 3, 1997, 3:00:00 AM1/3/97

Last-Modified: 97/01/03

Fortran FAQ

Here are some answers to frequently asked questions. The "author", as is
the custom, has appropriated posted responses as seemed apt. I have tried
to leave attributions in, as correctly as possible. To anyone who has been
offended by omission or otherwise, my apologies. I shall give priority to
corrections regarding attribution.

No one takes responsibility for any of this text, neither the employer of
the "author", the "author", friends of the "author", pets of the "author"
nor anyone else.

Your mileage WILL vary.

A good place to look for FAQ's is:

directory: /pub/usenet

If you have comments/suggestions/edit proposals please send them to me
( I do not promise to accept 'em. I encourage
others to make better FAQ lists, so I can retire this one.

The structure of the current list has been modified from previous versions
in an attempt to group related questions according to their topic, and to
maintain consistency with the new order. Let the author know if any
inconsistencies have been introduced by the revision. <William B. Clodius
contributed the reorganization> A more recent reorganization, and htmlization
(which is what this ascii text is derived from) thanks to Abraham Agay.

;; ;;
;; Numbering convention: ;;
;; ''''''''''''''''''''' ;;
;; l) General Category: ;;
;; l.m) Topic: ;;
;; l.m.n) Question: ;;
;; ;;


C 1.2.4 Added
C 2. Updated
C + misc other updates (bad bookkeeping)

1.2.1 Updated



1.1) The language and its development

1.1.0) How should one spell FORTRAN/Fortran?

1.1.1) Where can I learn more about the history of Fortran?

1.1.2) How does Fortran 90 relate to FORTRAN '77 and what is Fortran 90?

1.1.3) Is Fortran 90 a Standard? Where can I get a copy of the Fortran 90
Standard? How about electronic copies? (getting other standards)

1.1.4) Who creates these silly standards anyway?

See also:

2.1.5) Tell me about Parallel Fortran dialects, what are they, etc.

1.2) Learning Fortran and its style

1.2.1) What are good books on Fortran?

1.2.2) Where can I find a f90 tutorial or course?

1.2.3) What constitutes good FORTRAN style?

1.2.4) What is a good subset of Fortran?

1.3) General Fortran (particularly Fortran 90) resources

1.3.1) f90.faq from Michel Olagnon

1.3.2) f90 "market" announcement from walt brainerd


2.1) Compilers

2.1.1) Where can I get a free (FORTRAN 77) compiler?

2.1.2) What is the best (FORTRAN 77) compiler for a PC?

2.1.3) What is the best Fortran for...

2.1.4) What Fortran 90/95 compilers/translators are available?

2.1.5) Tell me about Parallel Fortran dialects, what are they, etc.

See also:

2.2.6) What is preprocessing, how can it help? How can it hurt?

3.1.4) For whatever reasons, I want to translate my Fortran into C.
What tools are available?

2.2) Other tools (pretty printers, lints, converters, etc.)

2.2.1) I have heard of fortran "lints"; what are they, and where can
I get one?

2.2.2) Are there pretty printers for FORTRAN? Flowchart generators?

2.2.3) Is there a WEB for Fortran (and what is WEB anyway)?

2.2.4) Fortran text editors?

2.2.5) How can I convert an existing FORTRAN 77 program
to the free form source of Fortran 90?

2.2.6) What is preprocessing, how can it help? How can it hurt?

2.3) Fortran Packages and libraries

2.3.1) Where can I get "foo" (some random package), older posts
to comp.lang.fortran etc

2.3.2) Where can I find coded BLAS (and what are coded BLAS?)

2.3.3) Where can I get mathematical software?

2.3.4) What Interval Arithmetic packages are avaliable?

2.3.5) FLIB announcement


3.1) Fortran and other languages (essentially C)

3.1.1) "Why do people use FORTRAN? C is so much better"

3.1.2) Why are there aimless debates?

3.1.3) How do I call f77 from C (and visa versa)

3.1.4) For whatever reasons, I want to translate my Fortran into
C. What tools are available?

3.1.5) For whatever reasons, I want to translate my existing C code
into Fortran. What tools are available?

3.2) System differences

3.2.1) My compiler is mis-behaving; who enforces the standard?

3.2.2) My F77 program compiled ok on a <system1>, but gives me heaps
of syntax errors on a <system2>. What's wrong?

3.2.3) My F77 program ran ok on a <system1>, but on a <system2>
it just gives me strange results. What's wrong?

3.2.4) How can I read my VAX binary data somewhere else?

3.3) Language extensions

3.3.1) How common is DO ... END DO?

3.3.2) What are ENCODE and DECODE statements, and how are they translated
to standard Fortran? How can I convert numbers to character strings
(and vice-versa)?

3.4) .......

3.4.1) What is involved in parsing Fortran?


4.1.1) WWW and Fortran

Start of contents


1.1) The language(s) and its(their) development

1.1.0) How should one spell FORTRAN/Fortran?

FORTRAN is generally the preferred spelling for discussions
of versions of the language prior to the current one ("90").
Fortran is the spelling chosen by X3J3 and WG5.
In this document a feeble effort has been made to capitalize
accordingly (e.g. vast existing software ... FORTRAN vs.
generic Fortran to mean all versions of the standard,
and specifically the modern dialect, ISO 1539:1991).

~From: (Walt Brainerd)

There was an effort to "standardize" on spelling of programming
languages just after F77 became a standard. The rule: if you say
the letters, it is all caps (APL); if you pronounce it as a word,
it is not (Cobol, Fortran, Ada). See, for example the definitive
article describing Fortran 77 in the Oct 1978 issue of the Comm.
of the ACM. The timing was such that FORTRAN got put on the
standard itself, though many always after that have referred to
it as Fortran 77. Of course, there are those who think it is
not truly Fortran if not written with all caps.

<ed note>

ISO 1539:1991 and its ANSI counterpart X3.198-1992 consistently
employ the spelling "Fortran" to refer to the language being
defined. Reference(s) to the older version employ "small caps"
for the "ORTRAN" characters.


1.1.1) Where can I learn more about the history of Fortran?

~From: (Michael Metcalf )

The history of Fortran is documented in:

Annals of History of Computing,
6, 1, January, 1984 (whole issue)

Programming Systems and Languages
(S. Rosen ed.),
McGraw Hill, 1967,
pp 29-47 (this is Backus's original paper)

History of Prorammining Languages
(R.L. Wexelblat ed.),
Academic Press, 1981,
pp 25-74

A summary appears in:

Encyclopedia of Science and Technology,
Academic Press, 1986,
vol. 5, under 'Fortran'

and in:

Fortran 90 Explained
(Oxford, 1990).
Chapter 1 of


1.1.2) How does Fortran 90 relate to FORTRAN '77?

With a few minor exceptions, Fortran 90 is a superset of
X3.9-1978 FORTRAN.

But this does not mean that all "77" codes will port sans changes.
Many (if not most) programmers employed constructs beyond the '77
standard, or rely on unspecified behavior (say, assuming that an
OPEN of an existing file will position the file pointer to just
past the last record already written) which has changed (that is
to say, has become specified).

This leads to the obvious question, what is new in Fortran 90?

A complete answer would require considerable text.
Some of the most obvious additions are:

1) array notation (operators, etc.)
2) dynamic memory allocation
3) derived types and operator overloading
4) keyword argument passing, INTENT (in, out, inout)
5) modules
6) modern control structures
7) free format source code form
8) other stuff

While it is always tricky to characterize the motives of
a large group of people, I <khb> am inclined to try
as follows:

'90 incorporates two sets of improvements:

(1) relatively minor fixups that *could* have been
done earlier

(2) relatively major changes to enable better software
engineering practices.

Sometimes a "minor" fixup has major effect, such as addition
of free form source form combined with canonization of the

I further go off on a limb and assert that it was the goal
of the *committee* to evolve Fortran in a fashion to enable
it to continue to be the premier language for scientific


1.1.3) Is it a Standard? Where can I get a copy of the Fortran 90
Standard? How about electronic copies?

Fortran 90 was adopted as an International Standard by ISO
in July, 1991. It was published by them as ISO/IEC 1539:1991,
and is obtainable directly for 185 Swiss francs from:

ISO Publications
1 rue de Varembe
Case postale 56
CH-1211 Geneva 20
Fax: + 41 22 734 10 79

or from:

American National Standards Institute
Attn: Customer Service
11 West 42nd Street
New York, NY 10036
Phone: (212)642-4900 8:45-4:45 (EST)
Fax: (212)302-1286

2 Park Street
London W1A 2BS

Burggrafenstrasse 6
Postfach 1107
D-1000 Berlin 30

Tour Europe
Cedex 7
92049 Paris La Defence

1200-45 O'Connor
Ontario K1P 6N7

You can obtain copies for $225 through:

Global Engineering Documents
2805 McGaw Ave.
Irvine, CA. 92714
(714) 261-1455
(800) 854-7179

In accordance with an official agreement with the International
Standards Organization, Unicomp is now able to distribute
electronic versions of the Fortran 90 standard:

ISO/IEC 1539 : 1991,
Information technology--Programming languages--Fortran

The money received from this effort will go partly to fund ISO
activities and partly to recover the costs incurred by Unicomp
in preparing and typesetting the standard document.
The prices are set by ISO.

The document can be obtained in three versions:

1. An ASCII version suitable for viewing on a computer
terminal using any kind of editor. Cost: USD 125.

2. A PostScript version with a license allowing the
purchaser to print n paper copies. Cost: USD 125 + 10n.

3. Complete source in ditroff with macros and software to
extract and create the annexes. The source constitutes
a fairly high level marked-up document; for example,
each program beginning and ending is marked and there
are few low-level typographic commands such as size
and font changes. Cost USD 1000.

I am quite enthused especially about version (2). If you want
to have 10 copies for your organization, and it costs $10 to
make a printed copy, then the cost to make the 10 copies would
be $125 + $200, or just $32.50 per copy, which is a substantial
savings over purchasing paper copies.

Versions (1) and (3) will be accompanied by a license restricting
use to one CPU and prohibiting copying, except for backup purposes,
etc. The version (2) license will prohibit distributing any of the
printed copies outside of the purchasing organization.

If you have special requirements, such as wanting to distribute
a copy with each version of your compiler or using the source
as a part of your documentation, we can make special arrangements,
subject to the approval of the ISO. Please advise me of your
requirements and we can work up a proposal together.

ISO and Unicomp think this will provide the oft requested access
to the standard in electronic form. This is the first time this
is being tried, so we hope that organizations will be careful to
observe the rules and encourage the continued availability of
this and other standards in electronic form.

Payment can be made by Visa or MasterCard, or with a check on
a US Bank in US funds. We <unicomp> will accept a purchase
order only if the amount is $500 or more.

Walter S. Brainerd; Unicomp;
phone: 505-275-0800.
email: Walt Brainerd <>

;;; Additional note.

X3J3 working papers are often available via
ftp from:

directory: x3j3

rpc wrote:

It has been a few years since I last ordered a MIL-STD, so my
information might be out-of-date. At that time, the address
to write for MIL-STDs was:

Naval Publications and Forms Center, Code 3015
5801 Tabor Ave
Philadelphia, PA 19120

Phone: 1-(215)-697-4834

Use form DD1425, if possible (they will send you a copy with
your first order).

MIL-STD 1753 is a short document (about 10 pages).

And finally, note that the FORTRAN 77 standard is online at
the Fortran Market:


1.1.4) Who creates these silly standards anyway?

Typically X3J3. X3J3 is an ANSI subcommittee dedicated to Fortran.
WG5 is the ISO counterpart. WG5 owns responsibility for Fortran
on an international basis. WG5 has previously tasked X3J3 to do
the work. This arrangement continues.

WG5 is composed of Fortran users, vendors, and academics
from several ISO supporting nations. Delegates represent
*their*countries* not their companies; so several delegates
from a single company is permitted.

ANSI rules prohibit multiple voting delegates from the same company.
X3J3 is composed of users (aerospace, government labs, military,
DECUS, railroads, oil to name a few), vendors (IBM, CRI, Sun,
Convex, DEC, UNISYS, to name a few) and the odd academic
(oxford, yale, liverpool, to name a couple).
Members need not be US citizens nor must their company be US
domiciled. Being a member of a standards group is typically
involves non-trivial work.
To be effective, one should plan on at least 8 weeks of time
per year (those who are really doing the hard work do far more).
This time commitment is typically far more expensive than the
travel and membership costs.

X3J3 meetings are open to the public. There are typically 4
meetings a year, typically 3 are in the US and 1 *may* be
overseas (to precede or follow the WG5 plenary session).
Membership fees are levied by ANSI, and are on the near order
of $600 ($300ish cast as an ISO "tax", but mandatory for all).
In addition, attendees to a particular X3J3 meeting pay a
"meeting fee" which covers reproduction costs, snacks and etc.
The meeting fee has been about $100 for the last several meetings.

WG5 has established various goals and targets for future work.
Roughly speaking 5yrs rather than 13years are the targets for
future work.

Current work projects include cleanup and interpretations
of Fortran (90), features for future versions of the standard
(e.g. parallel processing, "object-oriented" technologies, etc.).
In addition to work done directly by X3J3, there is work on
standardized modules, and OS bindings taking place in other
organizations. X3J3 would like to keep track of such efforts,
those involved are invited to inform X3J3 early in their
development efforts if possible. X3J3 is currently working
with X3H5, DIN (varying string character) and tracking the
efforts of HPFF.

New members are always welcome. Visitors are also; though it
is very hard to get a good grip on things in only one meeting!

Contact the X3J3 chair for more information:

email: (chair)

Upcoming meeting is: 5 Feb - 9 Feb Las Vegas

papers are often available via ftp from:

directory: x3j3


B) Learning Fortran

1.2.1) What are good books on Fortran?

Don't know if they are good. Inclusion in the list
is not endorsement.

On Fortran 90:


Fortran 90
Pitman, 1991,
ISBN 0-273-03073-6.

Fortran 90 Explained
Metcalf and Reid,
Oxford University Press, 1990,
ISBN 0-19-853772-7,
about $30.

This book is a complete, audited description of the language
in a more readable style than the standard itself.
It is kept up-to-date on each printing with X3J3 and WG5's
latest interpretations.
It has seven Appendices, including an extended example program
that is available by ftp, and a comprehensive Index.

Fortran 90/95 Explained
Michael Metcalf and John Reid,
Oxford University Press, Oxford and New York, 1996,
ISBN 0 19 851888 9
(about $US33 or 16.95 pounds sterling).

Sequel to 90 explained.

Fortran 90 for Scientists and Engineers
Brian D. Hahn, Edward Arnold, 1994,
ISBN 0-340-60034-9.

Fortran 90 Handbook
Adams, Brainerd, Martin, Smith and Wagener,
McGraw-Hill, 1992,
ISBN 0-07-000406-4.

Fortran 90 Language Guide
Springer, London, 1995,
ISBN 3-540-19926-8

Fortran 95 Language Guide
Springer, London, 1996,
ISBN 3-540-76062-8

RRZN, 1993

Fortran 90 Programming
Ellis, Philips, Lahey,
Addison Wesley, Wokingham, 1994,
ISBN 0-201-54446-6.

Migrating to Fortran 90
James F. Kerrigan,
O'Reilly Associates,
1993, ISBN 1-56592-049-X.

Programmer's Guide to Fortran 90, second edition
Brainerd, Goldberg and Adams,
Unicomp, 1994.

Programming in Fortran 90
Morgan and Schonfelder,
Alfred Waller, Oxfordshire, 1993,
ISBN 1-872474-06-3.

Programming in Fortran 90
I.M. Smith,
ISBN 0471-94185-9.

Fortran 90,
Loren P. Meissner (U. of San Francisco) (c) 1995,
PWS Publishing Co.,
ISBN 0-534-93372-6

Fortran 90: A Reference Guide
Luc Chamberland,
Prentice-Hall, 1995,
ISBN 0-13-397332-8

Introducing Fortran 90
Ian Chivers and Jane Sleightholme
Springer Verlag,
ISBN 3-540-19940-3


Programming Language FORTRAN 90
He Xingui, Xu zuyuan, Wu gingbao and Chen mingyuan,
China Railway Publishing House, Beijing,
ISBN 7-113-01788-6/TP.187, 1994.


Fortran 90
W.S. Brainerd, Ch.H. Goldberg, and J.C. Adams,
translated by J.M. den Haan,
Academic Service, 1991,
ISBN 90 6233 722 8.


Fortran 90; Approche par la Pratique
Se'rie Informatique E'ditions, Menton, 1993,
ISBN 2-090615-01-4.

Fortran 90. Les concepts fondamentaux,
the translation of "Fortran 90 Explained" M. Metcalf, J. Reid,
translated by M. Caillet and B. Pichon,
AFNOR, Paris,
ISBN 2-12-486513-7.

Fortran 90; Initiation a` partir du Fortran 77
Se'rie Informatique E'ditions, Menton, 1992,
ISBN 2-090615-00-6.

Les specificites du Fortran 90,
editions Technip, 1993.
ISBN 2-7108-0652-5

Manuel complet du langage Fortran 90, et guide d'application,
S.I. editions, Jan. 1995.
ISBN 2-909615-02-2

Programmer en Fortran 90,
Eyrolles, 1992.
ISBN 2-212-08723-3

Savez-vous parler Fortran,
AIN, M.,
Bibliotheque des universites (de Boeck), 1994.
ISBN 2-8041-1755-3

Support de cours Fortran 90 IDRIS
Corde, P. & Delouis, H.
anonymous ftp from:

directory: pub/ifremer/fortran90/

Traitement de donnees numeriques avec Fortran 90,
Olagnon, M.
Masson, 1996.
ISBN 2-225-85259-6

was just published this week. Though it is in French,
the example programs

are in Fortran 90. One of them, CVIBM, deals with
conversions between IEEE and former IBM format,
and may be of some use to you.
Anonymous ftp from:

directory: pub/ifremer/ditigo/fortran90/livremo/
file: cvibfl.f90


Fortran 90
B.Wojcieszynski and R.Wojcieszynski,
Addison-Wesley, 1993,
ISBN 3-89319-600-5.

Fortran 90: eine informelle Einf"hrung
BI-Wissenschaftsverlag, 1991,
ISBN 3-411153-21-0.

Fortran 90, Lehr- und Arbeitsbuch fuer das erfolgreiche Programmieren
W.S. Brainerd, C.H. Goldberg, and J.C. Adams,
translated by Peter Thomas and Klaus G. Paul,
R. Olbenbourg Verlag, Muenchen, 1994,
ISBN 3-486-22102-7.

Fortran 90 Lehr- und Handbuch
T. Michel,
BI-Wissenschaftsverlag, 1994.

Fortran 90 Referenz-Handbuch: der neue Fortran-Standard
Carl Hansen Verlag, 1991,
ISBN 3-446163-21-2.

Programmierung in Fortran 90
Oldenburg, 1991.

Software Entwicklung in Fortran 90
U"berhuber and Meditz,
Springer Verlag, 1993,
ISBN 0-387-82450-2.


Fortran 90 Explained
Metcalf and Reid,
translated by H. Nisimura, H. Wada, K. Nishimura, M. Takata,
Kyoritsu Shuppan Co., Ltd., 1993,
ISSN 0385-6984.

On Fortran in general:

Author Title Year
------ ----------------------------- ----
Kruger Efficient Fortran Programming 1990
Mojena/Ageloff FORTRAN 77 1990
Boyle FORTRAN 77 PDQ 1989
Bezner FORTRAN 77 1989
Gregory A. Moses Engineering Applications Software Develop.. 1988
Gehrke PC-FORTRAN-Handbuch 1988
Gehrke FORTRAN-77-Handbuch 1987
Ratzer FORTRAN 77 COURSE 1986
Metcalf FORTRAN Optimization 1985
Chivers/Clark FORTRAN 77: A HANDS ON APPROACH 1984
Marateck FORTRAN 77 1983
Lehmnkuhl FORTRAN 77 1983
Katzan FORTRAN 77 1982
Durgin FORTRAN 77 1982
Gehrke FORTRAN-77-Sprachumfang 1981
Wagener FORTRAN 77 ?

A free Fortran 77 book

This excellent book is offered to the public by the

Clive G. Page,
Professional Programmer's Guide to Fortran 77
Pitman, 1988
122 pages (including index)

It can be found at the anonymous FTP site:

Directory: /pub/fortran/

There is also a Latex version available.

~From: (Zebedee Mason)

Jeffrey Templon ( wrote:
: Hi,
: I just discovered this one and don't remember seeing it pointed
: to here. It's a PS copy of an out-of-print book by Clive Page,
: "Professional Programmer's Guide to Fortran 77" and what I've
: seen of it looks real good.
: JT

I bought it when it was in print, never needed to buy another
one since. Why can't all programming books be this short and
to the point?


Another free Fortran 77 book

Interactive Fortran 77: A Hands on Approach (second edition)
Ian D Chivers and Jane Sleightholme
Ellis Horwood, 1990
Series in Computers and their Applications
ISBN: 0-13-466764-6

Copyright (C) Ian D Chivers and Jane Sleightholme.

Legal comments:

Unless otherwise specified, Ian D Chivers and Jane Sleightholme
hold all rights, including copyright and retains such rights.
This work may be distributed in its entirety provided the work
is distributed as a whole with this copyright notice intact.

This work may not be distributed in hard copy or other machine
readable form, redistributed, transmitted or translated without
prior written authorization from Ian D Chivers and Jane Sleightholme.

Commercial use can only be allowed by specific license agreements.
The accuracy of this document cannot be guaranteed. Ian D Chivers
and Jane Sleighthome make no warranty, either express or implied,
with respect to the use of any information and assumes no liabilities
for loss or damage, whether such loss or damage is caused by error
or omission.

If this electronic book is made available anywhere other than the
original system, Ian Chivers or Jane Sleigtholme must be notified
in writing (email is acceptable) and the copyright notice must
retain intact.

PDF version:

Unix compressed postscript version:

PC pkzip postscript version:


1.2.2) Where can I find a f90 tutorial or course?

Copyright but freely available course material is available
from Manchester Computer Centre on the World Wide Web with
the URL:

The ftp address is:

directory: /pub/mantec/Fortran90

A complete Tutorial is available under WWW with
the URL:

or via anonymous ftp from:

directory: cnl.200

An ASCII copy of this material as a set of slides for a
six-hour course is available from:

Courses are available from:

Walt Brainerd, a member of X3J3,
also on HPF

PSR (see above);

CETech, Inc. (also on HPF)
8196 SW Hall Blvd., Ste. 304,
Beaverton, Oregon 97008, USA.
Phone: (503)644-6106
Fax: (503)643-8425

Some European companies offering courses and conversion
consultancy are:

IT Independent Training Limited,
113 Liscombe, Birch Hill,
Bracknell, Berkshire, RG12 7DE, UK
tel: +44 344 860172
fax: +44 344 867992

Simulog, attn. Mr. E.Plestan,
1 rue James Joule,
F-78286 Guyancourt Cedex, France
tel: +33 1 30 12 27 00
fax: +33 1 30 12 27 27

Prinz-Otto Str. 7c,
D-85521 Ottobrunn , Germany
tel: +49-89-6083758
fax: +49-89-6083758


1.2.3) What constitutes good FORTRAN style?

One rendition of a FORTRAN 77 style guide is available through
anonymous ftp from ( To retrieve
(please note that it's not really "anonymous", that's just
the Name that you'll be using):

% ftp
anonymous <enter your e-mail address at Password: prompt>
cd pub/levine
get F77_Style_Guide

If you can't access this site directly, please send an e-mail
request to:

BITNET: levine@uci
UUCP: ...!uunet!ucivax!levine


1.2.4) What are good Subsets of Fortran?

One is F:

Announcing the first book on the F programming language

"The F programming Language", by Michael Metcalf and John Reid,
Oxford University Press, Oxford and New York, 1996,
ISBN 0-19-850026-2, (about $US30 or 16.95 pounds sterling).

The F programming language is a dramatic new development in
scientific programming. Building on the well-established strengths
of the Fortran family of languages, it is carefully crafted to be
both safe and regular, whilst retaining the enormously powerful
numerical capabilities of its parent language, Fortran 90, as well
as its data abstraction capability. Thus, an array syntax becomes
available as part of a medium-size, widely-available language for
the first time. In this respect, the language is clearly superior
to older ones such as Pascal, C, and Basic.

F is ideally suited for teaching as a first programming language,
and provides a smooth path into both Fortran 90 and High Performance
Fortran (it is a subset of both).

In the absence of a formal standard for F, this book is the defining
document for the language, setting out the complete syntax and
semantics of the language in a readable but thorough way.
It is essential reading for all F practitioners.

Compilers for F are available from Imagine1 for Windows 95, Linux
and some Unix platforms, with Windows NT, Macintosh PowerPC and 68K
families coming shortly. The compilers are based on technology from
Absoft, Fujitsu, and NAG. For details see: or contact

Table of Contents:
1. Why F? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
2. Language elements . . . . . . . . . 7
3. Expressions and assignments . . . . 29
4. Control constructs . . . . . . . . 49
5. Program units and procedures . . . 61
6. Array features . . . . . . . . . . 89
7. Specification statements . . . . . 113
8. Intrinsic procedures . . . . . . . 131
9. Data transfer . . . . . . . . . . . 151
10. Operations on external files . . . 175
Appendix A. Intrinsic procedures . . . 185
Appendix B. The statements of F . . . . 191
Appendix C. Diffences from Fortran 90 . 195
Appendix D. Pointer example . . . . . 201
Appendix E. The terms of F . . . . . . 211
Appendix F. Solutions to exercises . . 221
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233

Michael Metcalf works at CERN, Geneva. He is the author of a
range of publications, including the books "Effective Fortran 77"
and "Fortran 90/95 Explained" (with John Reid) (Oxford University
Press), and "Fortran Optimization" (Academic Press).
He was Editor of the Fortran 90 standard.

John Reid works for the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory and
is well known as a numerical analyst; he is a co-author of
"Direct Methods for Sparse Matrices" and "Fortran 90/95 Explained"
(Oxford University Press). He served as Secretary of X3J3 and
played a leading role in the development of Fortran 90.

Ordering information:

1) N. America: Order Department, Monday-Friday, 8:15am-5:00pm (EST)

Phone: 1-800-451-7556
Fax: 1-919-677-1303
Post: Order Department
Oxford University Press
2001 Evans Road
Cary, NC 27513

2) UK: send order and payment to:

CWO Department, OUP,
FREEPOST NH 4051, Corby, Northants
NN18 9BR - no stamp required

Phone: with a credit card, the 24-hour credit
card hotline is: +44 (0)1536 454534

Postage and packing for UK orders:
- under #20 - add #2.06,
over #20 - add #3.53,
over #50 - add #4.70.


3) Eire, Europe, and the rest of the world,
send order and payment to:

CWO Dept, OUP,
Saxon Way West, Corby,
Northants NN18 9ES, UK

Fax: credit card sales: +44 1536 746337

Postage and packing for non-UK orders:
add 10% of the total price of the books.

4) Imagine1
11930 Menaul NE, Suite 106
Albuquerque, NM 87112
Toll free phone number: 1 888 323 1758.
See also Imagine1's e-mail address and WWW URL above.

Demos available (and free for linux)

login as anonymous and give e-mail address as password
cd ~ftp/pub/walt/Fbin
get f_linux.tar.Z (or f_solaris1.tar.Z or f_solaris2.tar.Z)

Please send problems or questions to

Another subset is ELF,

Lahey has a native LF90 compiler for Windows and DOS:

It is particularly well optimized on the Pentium.

Also on offer is elf90, a subset language that does not have old
features like storage association, is designed for teaching, and is
very cheap. Also "Prof. Loren Meissner" <>
can provide information, and possibly a textbook on this dialect.
But in a nutshell, elf90 is said to be f90 sans What's not in Elf90

To promote a more efficient and modern programming language the
Fortran statements listed below are not supported by the Elf90
language. If you use a Fortran 90 feature that is not supported, an
on-screen error message is provided.


DIMENSION, and SAVE attributes are declared in type declaration

<khb note: elf90 is, as I understand it, available on Intel
processors only. F is said to be (or soon to be) available on a
variety of processors, including Intel, SPARC and Macintosh.>


1.3) General Fortran (particularly Fortran 90) resources

1.3.1) f90.faq

Michel Olagnon's Fortran 90 List

F90 FAN's : Fortran 90 Frequently Asked about News.
A Fortran 90 addition to the Fortran FAQ.

Michel Olagnon - October 1st, 1993.
Last updated - November 29th, 1996.

Send flames and suggestions for improvement to:


The current updated version of this FAQ is available

It can be found on WWW at URLs:
(thanks to Bernd Eggen),
(thanks to Ian Chivers),
(thanks to Mark Dalton),
(thanks to Michael Hennecke),

Contents :

1. Fortran 90 and Fortran 77
2. Available in Fortran 90:

2.1. Compilers
2.2. Code re-structurers and converters
2.3. Libraries and utilities
2.4. Tests and Benchmarks
2.5. Examples and repositories
2.6. Courses and Consultancy

3. Documentation:

3.1. Standards
3.2. Glossary
3.3. Journals
3.4. Tutorials and other documents
3.5. Books
3.6. Articles
3.7. WWW-Mosaic pages

4. Fortran 90 Benchmarking
5. Announced, foreseen, and rumours
6. Workshops, seminars, conferences
7. Developments, related languages

7.1. Standard
7.2. HPF
7.3. PVM
7.4. MPI
7.5. Parallel Programming

8. Addresses

1.0 Fortran 90 and Fortran 77:

Fortran 90 is, with very few exceptions, a superset of Fortran 77.
The FAQ of the Usenet group Comp.lang.fortran deals with both
standards, and may be obtained, like any FAQ, via anonymous ftp

directory: pub/usenet/comp.lang.fortran
file: Fortran_FAQ

It is also available on the WWW:

The present document is an attempt to supplement that FAQ with
some specific Fortran 90 information.

Anyone interested is also invited to join the mailbase list
comp-fortran-90, by sending an e-mail message to:

containing the only line:

join comp-fortran-90 firstname lastname

more info on URL:

The main extensions of Fortran 90 over Fortran 77 are:

o array notation (for instance, X(1:N)=R(1:N)*COS(A(1:N)))
o dynamic memory allocation (ALLOCATE, DEALLOCATE, ...)
o derived types and operator overloading
o better declarations, and prototyping possible
o MODULES, allowing users to create ``storage pools'',
or to define environment
o more of modern control structures (SELECT CASE, EXIT, ...)
o more of useful intrinsics (date, precision, arrays, ...)
o free format source code form

``Pure'' Fortran 77 is F90 compatible. Yet, it is better to convert
it to a ``mixed'' format, acceptable both as free and fixed source
form Fortran 90, which only requires replacing C by ! as the comment
character, to use & as the continuation line character, and to
append it to the continued line, to remove blanks embedded inside
constants or identifiers, and to check some intrinsics usage. Most
of this can be done automatically.

Fortran 90 allows the Fortran 77 programmer to write code faster,
to make it more legible, and to avoid many bugs. For a newcomer to
programming, it is an opportunity to learn a modern language, with
most recommended features, and yet to be in line with scientific
and industrial engineering communities where Fortran is and is
going to remain for a good while THE favourite language.

2.0 Available in Fortran 90:

2.1 Compilers

There is presently no free full F90 compiler. However, some
compilers restricted to modern subsets of the language are free.
These are:

ELF90 from Lahey
for DOS 3.3 or higher, Windows 95, or Windows NT:"

F from Imagine1 for Linux:

Compilers for these subsets are also available for other
platforms, but presently not for free.

Absoft's version of CF90
for: Power Mac

ACE f90 and HPF
for: Parsytec PowerPC-based machines

Apogee - highly optimizing Apogee-Fortran 90, C-DAC Fortran 90
(comes with debugger).
Both compilers are for SPARC architectures.

APR xHPF 2.1 - HPF compiler
[Dec Alpha]3000/900 275Mhz,
[SGI Power Challenge]MIPS R8000,
[Sun SPARC]2000 40Mhz)

for: Crays YMP and YMP-C90,
Superserver 6400
Sparc Solaris 2.3
plans for HP, SGI

DEC Fortran 90 V2.0
for: Digital UNIX Alpha
OpenVMS Alpha,
UNIX version including full HPF support, Digital Parallel
Software Environment (PSE), companion product on UNIX for
HPF programming.

EPC Fortran 90
for: Sparc Solaris 1.X and 2.X,
IBM RS/6000,
Intel 3/486 (SVR3&4, Solaris 2.x),
Motorola 88000/100/100 (SVR3&4),

Fujitsu full compiler
for: Sparc Solaris 1.1 and 2.x
next: Sun Sparc (MP) 3Q/95,
SGI 4Q/95,
Windows 1Q/96

HP, HP Fortran 90 - full compiler
for: HP-UX 10.20,

IBM XLF V3 full compiler
for: RISC System/6000 + KAP preprocessor
from KAI, for AIX V3.2 and V4.1

Imagine1 F - educational subset
(dusty features removed, for inexpensive F90 learning)

Lahey LF90
for: DOS,
Windows including Pentium optimizations and
Interacter Kit.

Lahey ELF90 - educational subset
(dusty features removed, for inexpensive F90 learning)

Microsoft Fortran Powerstation V4.0
for: Windows NT 3.5
Windows 95

for: DOS,

NA Software F90+
for: OS/2,
Windows NT,
Inmos T800
PC Linux, also HPF for Linux.
Cost-effective personal version for Windows95

NAG/ACE Optimizing f90 - release 1.0
for: Sparc Solaris 2.

NAGWare f90
uses C as intermediate language, now at rel:2.2,
includes HPF extensions and exists in Linux version.

for its supercomputer SX series.

Pacific Sierra VAST/f90
uses F77 as intermediate language,
for: Unix

uses F77 as intermediate language

PGI f90/HPF compiler,
for: SGI,

Salford FTN90
PC implementation of NAG f90, direct generation
of object code.

under IRIX 6.1 on R8000 machines:
Power Challenge,
Power Indigo 2,
Power Onyx

SPARCompiler Fortran 90
Sun's Cray-compatible compiler.

Stern C. S. CF90
Cray-compatible for DEC OSF/1 (Digital UNIX).

NOTE: Some vendors, such as Convex on their machines, offer
a number of F90 extensions, for instance array syntax
or ALLOCATE instruction.

Code re-structurers and converters

Pacific-Sierra VAST/77to90
(see article by JKP in Fortran Journal 5/4)

LOFT90, by NA Software
(available also under Linux)

GUI based High Performance Global Analysis,
F77->F90 conversion, and parallelization.

FORGE Explorer 2.0
Distributed and shared memory Parallelizer,
Applied Parallel Research, Inc.

NAGWare f90 tools
declarations standardiser,
precision standardiser,
names changer.

CONVERT, conversion to F90 free format
proposed by Mike Metcalf via anonymous ftp
host: (
directory: pub/MandR/
file: convert.f90

minimal F77 -> F90 conversion.

F90 pre-processor similar to cpp.

FLECS to F90 translator.

HPF mapper
for PVM or Parmacs,
on Sun clusters: NA software.

Libraries and utilities

*Emacs* package free-format f90-mode
Among the options one finds automatic matching and completion
of all end-blocks (for example, indenting a line starting with
end, finds the corresponding if/do/module... and checks/fills
in the right kind of block and a possible name), it has an
automatic fill-function which breaks a line and inserts
&-signs (two if inside a string) when a line gets too long,
different coloring for different features which is updated
with every indent of a line.
The most common commands are available via a menu.

Performance Library
optimized for SPARC (Sun Performance Workshop).

graphics library for Lahey LF90 and Salford FTN90,
on 386/486/pentium + DOS Extenders (Int. Soft. Serv.).

Lahey has F90 components (manual, array intrinsics, front end,...)
that they would like to license to others.

NAG fl90, numerical and statistical library,
Sun 4, Sgi, DECstation, and IBM RISC System/6000.

NAG tool components
(parser, semantic analyser, tree modification library
and tree flattener).

Numerical recipes
(Others give caveats: !)

Cray LibSci(tm),
numerical library for Crays and Sparc Solaris 2.3

(Multiple Precision Floating Point Computation Package)
by David W. Bailey, for Cray CF-90.

MSL library (Visual Numerics)

Syntax verifier extracted from NAG compiler,
put into public domain by NAG for Sun 3, Sun 4, Sgi.
Interactive checking of user's code over www at:

ISF and PKF modules
shareware from Garnatz and Grovender, Inc
ISAM/VSAM/btree file structure, and Positional Key file structure

XLIB interface
from Garnatz and Grovender also.

by professeur Vignes from Universite Pierre et Marie Curie,
implements stochastic arithmetic in Fortran 90, and
enables monitoring of precision loss and/or numerical
instabilities during execution. (Control of Accuracy
and Debugging for Numerical Aplications in Fortran)
More information available from AERO (see also articles
by J. Vignes), or Pr. Chesneaux (

ISO/IEC 1539-2 (Auxiliary standard)
Variable length character strings in Fortran
(with a demonstration of implementation at URL:

(minimaly) translated by myself (M.O.), successfully
passed all its tests with NAg-f90 2.0.
I aggressively translated single precision Blas, and
intend to do the same with other Blas as soon as I
have time.
Steve Moulton works on LAPACK conversion.

Measurement of execution times by W.F Mitchell

F90 makedepend
perl script by Kate Hedstrom

Automatic differentiation with Fortran programs

Tests and Benchmarks

Lahey Test suite
F77 & F90 (license agreement)

NAGware Test suite
tests for compilers (same as U_F90_TS)

U_F90_TS Test suite
from Dr. Brian Smith (University of New Mexico),
marketed by Unicomp and NAG.

SHAPE Test suite
3400 tests of array instructions,
from Spackman & Hendrickson, Inc.

Parasoft Test suite
1500 tests for compilers

Quetzal Benchmark
from John K. Prentice.

Benchmark of Syracuse University
via anonymous ftp on:
directory: old_pub

Channel benchmark
by John D. McCalpin, via anonymous ftp on:
directory: bench/channel.

Examples and repositories

Nag has set up a repository for contributed code:

The Fortran Market has established itself on the World Wide Web.
"ONE place to find all information, products,
and services related to Fortran"

Lahey Computer Systems
downloadable F90 public domain code.

11,000 lines offered by Richard Maine via anonymous ftp on:
directory: pub/fdas/f90sample/
file: fdas.tar.Z

Many of the example codes and problem solutions from:
A computational approach, by John R. Dormand
have been coded in F.

STEJOI, statistical package for joint occurrence events,
on Sun, including source code and everything,
via anonymous ftp on:
directory: ifremer/ditigo/fortran90/
file: f90dvl.tar.Z

Module unsigned_32
for definition and use of unsigned 32 bits integers,
also via anonymous ftp on:
directory: ifremer/ditigo/fortran90/
file: unsi32.f90.Z

f90split, experimental version,
similar to Unix BSD fsplit, but for free source form,
also via anonymous ftp on:
directory: ifremer/ditigo/fortran90/
file: f90split.f90.gz

Algorithm 999 by A.G. Buckley
for unconstrained nonlinear minimization,
via anonymous ftp on:
directory: pub/software/bbuckley/alg999/
file: source

Courses and Consultancy

IT Independent Training Limited, UK

CTS, Germany

Unicomp, USA

Pacific-Sierra Research Corp., USA

CETech, Inc., USA

3.0 Documentation:


ISO/IEC 1539:1991 (E) International Standard
Information technology - Programming langages - Fortran
Somewhat expensive (CHF 210 ~ US$ 140 !) for instance, at ISO.
Surprisingly enough, the identical, save for foreword and
acknowledgements, ANSI standard X3.198-1992 is even more expensive.

Walter S. Brainerd, Unicomp., offers:

o for 125 US$, an electronic ascii monouser version,
o for 125 + 10n US$, an electronic PostScript version,
and the right to make n paper copies,
o or for 1000 US$, an electronic ditroff monouser version.


A version with French glossary is available as European norm
NF EN 21539.


Fortran terminology glossary
by Ken Hawick


Fortran Journal
ISSN 1060-0221
Enquiries: Walt Brainerd (email:
Subscriptions: Fortran Users Group
P.O. Box 4201
Fullerton, CA 92634
(about $30/year individual, $100/year company,
~$50/$150 outside the USA, call 1 (714) 441 2022)

Fortran Forum
edited by Loren Meissner (email:
Subscriptions: ACM membership services
10$ members, 20$ non members
More info:

Tutorials and other documents

University of Liverpool on-line tutorial

P. Corde and H. Delouis
``Support de cours Fortran 90 IDRIS''.
This is a very complete reference (224 pp.), in French,
for which the authors have agreed to give free access.

Prof. Loren Meissner has written an ELF subset
(Essential Lahey Fortran) textbook, from his PWS book,
and offers it on a royalty basis of $1.00 per copy,
with advance royalty payment for 100 copies

Copyright but freely available course material
is available from Manchester Computer Centre.

Bo Einarsson and Yurij Shokin
have written a tutorial on the transition from
Fortran 77 to Fortran 90, with the title:
"Fortran 90 for the Fortran 77 programmer"

Michel Goossens has now installed a Fortran 90 tutorial
on the World Wide Web (WWW), with the title:
"F90 Tutorial/Overview"
There is no copyright on this material.

There is a Fortran (90) tutorial on the net that might
be of some use (from the University of New Mexico).

See also:



Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC)

Computational Science Education Project (CSEP)
Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)


The University of Liverpool


Univ. of New Mexico

Syracuse Univ.

Pacific-Sierra Research mini-tutorial about converting
Fortran 77 programs to High Performance Fortran

EPCC Writing Data parallel programs with High Performance Fortran



* in English,

Adams, Brainerd, Martin, Smith.
Fortran Top 90 - Ninety Key Features of Fortran 90,
Unicomp, Sept. 1994.

Adams, Brainerd, Martin, Smith, Wagener.
Fortran 90 Handbook,
McGraw-Hill, 1992.
ISBN 0-07-000406-4

Brainerd, W., Goldberg, and Adams.
Programmer's guide to Fortran 90,
2nd edition, Unicomp, 1994.
ISBN 0-07-000248-7

Chamberland, Luc.
Fortran 90 : A Reference Guide,
Prentice Hall.
ISBN 0-13-397332-8.

Chivers, I. and Sleightholme, J.
Introducing Fortran 90,
Springer-Verlag, Sept. 1995.
ISBN 3-540-19940-3

Fortran 90,
Pitman, 1991.
ISBN 0-273-03073-6

Einarsson, B., Shokins, Y.
Fortran 90 for the Fortran 77 programmer

Ellis, T.M.R, Lahey, T. and Philips, I.
Fortran 90 Programming,
Addison Wesley, 1994,
ISBN 0-201-54446-6
With examples in URL:

Gehrke, W.
Fortran 95 Language Guide,
Springer-Verlag, 1996.
ISBN 3-540-76062-8 (Softcover)

Hahn, B.D., Edward Arnold.
Fortran 90 for Scientists and Engineers,
ISBN 0-340-60034-9

Kerrigan, J.
Migrating to Fortran 90,
O'Reilly and Associates, 1993 (2nd ed. Sept.94),
ISBN 1-56592-049-X
With examples in URL:

Charles H. Koelbel, David B. Loveman, Robert S. Schreiber,
Guy L. Stelle Jr., Mary E. Zosel
High Performance Fortran Handbook,
MIT Press, 349 pages, 1994.
ISBN 0-262-61094-9 $24.95 in paper back
ISBN 0-262-11185-3 $45 for hard cover

Mayo, W.E. and Cwiakala, M.
Schaum's Outline of Theory and Praxis
-- Programming in Fortran 90,
Mc Graw Hill, 1996.
ISBN 0-07-041156-5

Meissner, L.
PWS Kent, Boston, 1995.
ISBN 0-534-93372-6

Metcalf, M. and Reid, J.
Fortran 90/95 Explained,
Oxford University Press, 1996.
ISBN 0-19-851888-9

Metcalf, M. and Reid, J.
The F programming Language,
Oxford University Press, 1996.
ISBN 0-19-850026-2

Morgan and Schonfelder,
Programming in Fortran 90,
Alfred Waller Ltd., 1993.
ISBN 1-872474-06-3

Redwine, C.,
Upgrading to Fortran 90,
Springer, 1995
ISBN 0-387-97995-6

Schick W., Silverman Gordon,
Fortran90 and engineering computations,
John Wiley and sons, 1995
ISBN 0-471-58512-2

Smith, I.M.
Programming in Fortran 90,
ISBN 0-471-94185-9
With examples in URL:

Vowels, R.
Introduction to Fortran 90/95, Algorithms and
Structured Programming
ISBN 0-9596384-8-2

* in French,

Aberti, C.
Fortran 90: Initiation a partir du Fortran 77,
S.I. E'ditions, 1992.
ISBN 2-909615-00-6

Ain, M.
Savez-vous parler Fortran,
Bibliotheque des universites (de Boeck), 1994.
ISBN 2-8041-1755-3

Delannoy, C.
Programmer en Fortran 90,
Eyrolles, 1992.
ISBN 2-212-08723-3

Dubesset, M. et Vignes, J.
Les spe'cificites du Fortran 90,
E'ditions Technip, 1993.
ISBN 2-7108-0652-5

Lignelet, P.
Fortran 90: Approche par la Pratique,
S.I. E'ditions, 1993.
ISBN 2-909615-01-4

Lignelet, P.
Manuel complet du langage Fortran 90 et Fortran 95,
Calcul intensif et ge'nie logiciel,
Masson, 1996.
ISBN 2-225-85229-4

Lignelet, P.
Structures de Donne'es (et leurs algorithmes) en Fortran 90/95
Masson, 1996.
ISBN 2-225-85373-8

Metcalf, M. et Reid, J.
(translated by M. Caillet and B. Pichon)
Fortran 90: Les concepts fondamentaux,
AFNOR Editions, 1993.
ISBN 2-12-486513-7

Olagnon, M.
Traitement de donne'es nume'riques avec Fortran 90
Masson, 1996.
ISBN 2-225-85259-6

* in Chinese,

He Xingui, Xu Zuyuan, Wu Gingbao and Chen Mingyuan
Programming Language FORTRAN 90,
China Railway Publishing House, Beijing, 1994.
ISBN 7-113-01788-6/TP.187

* in German,

Brainerd, W.S., Goldberg Ch.H., Adams J.C.,
(translated by Peter Thomas and Klaus G. Paul)
Fortran 90, Lehr- und Arbeitsbuch fuer das erfolgreiche Programmieren
R. Olbenbourg Verlag, Muenchen, 1994,
ISBN 3-486-22102-7

Fortran 90 Referenz-Handbuch,
Carl Hansen Verlag, 1991.
ISBN 3-446163-21-2

Fortran 90: Eine Informelle Einfuehrung,
BI-Wissenschaftsverlag, 1991.
ISBN 3-411153-21-0

Programmieren in Fortran,
Springer Verlag, 1993.
ISBN 0-387-82446-4

Michel, T.
Fortran 90 Lehr- und Handbuch,
BI-Wissenschaftsverlag, 1994.

Schobert, Oldenburg.
Programmierung in Fortran 90,

Ueberhuber, C., Meditz, P.
Software-Entwicklung in Fortran 90,
Springer Verlag, 1993.
ISBN 3-211-82450-2

Wojcieszynski, B, Wojcieszynski, R.
Fortran 90 Programmieren mit dem neuen Standard,
Addison-Wesley, 1993.
ISBN 3-89319-600-5

* in Dutch,

Brainerd, W.S., Goldberg Ch.H., Adams J.C.,
(transl. by J.M. den Haan)
Fortran 90,
Academic Service, 1991.
ISBN 90-6233-722-8

* in Swedish,

Blom, K.
Fortran90 - en introduktion
Studentlitteratur, Lund, 1994.
ISN 91-44-47881-X

Einarsson, B., Shokins, Y.
Fortran 90 for the Fortran 77 programmer

* in Russian,

Einarsson, B., Shokins, Y.
Fortran 90 for the Fortran 77 programmer
Printed book.

Metcalf, Reid
(translated by P.Gorbounov)
Fortran 90 Explained.
Mir Publishers, Moscow, 1995.
ISBN 5-03-001426-8
Russian customers: Mr. A.S.Popov, E-mail
European residents:

* in Japanese

Metcalf, Reid
(translated by H.Nisimura, H.Wada, K.Nishimura, M.Takata)
Fortran 90 Explained,
Kyoritsu Shuppan Co., Ltd., 1993
ISSN 0385-6984.


Appleby, D.,
FORTRAN First in a six-part series on languages
that have stood the test of time
-- BYTE, Sep. 1991, 147-150

Baker, S.,
Complying with Fortran90; How does the current crop
of Fortran90 compilers measure up to the standard?
-- Dr. Doff's Journal (Jan. 1995) p68-76

Bernheim, M.,
Fortran Mode d'emploi - Fortran 90
-- Intereditions (1991) 163-176

Brankin, R.W., Gladwell, I.,
A Fortran 90 Version of RKSUITE: An ODE Initial Value Solver,
-- Annals of Numerical Mathematics, Vol 1, 1994, in press.

Buckley, A. G.,
Conversion to Fortran 90: A Case Study
-- ACM TOMS Vol20 n 3 Sept.1994 308-353

Buckley, Albert G.,
Algorithm 999: A Fortran 90 code for unconstrained
non linear minimisation
-- ACM TOMS Vol20 n 3 Sept.1994 354-372

Chesneaux, J.M.,
Description d'utilisation du logiciel CADNA_F
-- MASI 92.32 (1992) Institut Blaise Pascal, Paris

Corde, P., Girou, D.,
Fortran 90: la nouvelle norme
-- Tribunix Dossiers calculateurs, Vol 8. No. 41 (1992) 12-17

Craig, C., Slishman G.,
Variants of Matrix Multiplication for Fortran90
-- SIGNUM Newsletter Vol 29 N 2 Apr. 1994 4-6

Delves L.M, Schonfelder J.L, Craven P.
Fortran90; an Overview
-- Oct.1993 IASC

Delves M,
N.A Performance of Fortran90 Compilers
-- Nov. 1994

Digital Corporation,
Evolving from Fortran77 towards Fortran90,
-- Fall Decus 1993, San Francisco

Dodson Z.,
A Fortran90 Tutorial
-- Nov.1993

Dongarra, J., Du Croz J., Hammarling S., Wasniewski J., Zemla A.,
LAPACK90 The Fortran90 Interface for LAPACK,
-- PARA95, Copenhagen 1995
Lecture Notes Springer Verlag, to be published.

Du Croz, Jeremy J.,
Building Libraries with Fortran 90
-- Fortran Journal 4/5, Sep./Oct 1992

Du Croz, J.
The Nag Fortran90 library
-- Nagua 14 april 1994 Oxford

Gehrke, Wilhelm
Fachwoerterliste Englisch-Deutsch fuer Fortran 90
-- SPR.F90 2, RRZN, 18 pp., 1995

Gehrke, Wilhelm
Fortran 90-Syntax: Eisenbahnschienen-Diagramme
-- SPR.F90 3, RRZN, 48 pp., 1994

Gehrke, Wilhelm
Fachwoerterliste Englisch-Deutsch fuer Fortran 95
-- SPR.F95 2, RRZN, 19 pp., 1995

Gehrke, Wilhelm
Fortran 95-Syntax: Eisenbahnschienen-Diagramme
-- SPR.F95 3, RRZN, 50 pp., 1995

Glassy, L.,
Tiny-Ninety: A subset of F90 for beginning programmers
-- Fortran Journal 4/3, May/Jun. 1992, 2-6

Hanson, R.J.,
A design of high-performance Fortran 90 Libraries
-- IMSL technical report series No. 9201 (1992)

Hanson, R.J.,
Operator and Function Modules with FORTRAN90
-- VNI Technical Report series No 9305

Hanson, R.J.,
Matrix multiplication in Fortran 90 using Strassen's algorithm
-- Fortran Journal 4/3, May/Jun. 1992, 6-7

Hennecke, M.,
A Fortran 90 interface to random Number Generation
-- Computer Physics Communications, in press

Iles, Robert,
Fortran 90: The First Two Years
-- Unicom Seminar on Fortran and C in Scientific Computing, 1993.

Iles, R., Palant, L.,
Fortran 90: 2 ans deja
-- Tribunix No. 49 Mai/Juin 1993, 32-37.

Hann, R.
Nagware Fortran90 tools
-- Nagua 14 april 1994 Oxford

Hill J.M.D
The high performance Fortran library in Fortran90: sorting
-- Technical Report LPA7/TR02.9408 The London parallel
applications center August 1994 (revise 9/1/1995)

Joubert, A.W
The high performance Fortran library in Fortran90: prefix
and suffix scans
-- Technical Report LPA7/TR01.9408 The London parallel
applications center August 1994

Kearfott, R.B
Algorithm 737: INTLIB: A Portable Fortran77 Interval
Standard-Function Library
-- ACM TOMS Vol20 n% 4, Dec. 1994 447-459

Kearfott, R.B
A Fortran 90 environment for research and prototyping of
enclosure algorithms for canstrained and unconstrained
non linear equations
-- ACM TOMS Vol 21, 1 , Juin 1995 63-78

Lahey, T.,
Fortran 90 is coming !
-- Programmer's Journal, Mar/Apr 1991.

Lignelet, P.,
Fortran -- Les Techniques de l'ingenieur,
-- H2120, Dec 1993.

Mc Calpin, John D.
Optimization of Fortran90 array notation : A Case Study
-- Internal report College of Marine Studies, Univ. of
Delaware submitted to "Scientific Programming" Jan. 1995
URL: ftp://(

Maine, R.,
Review of NAG Fortran 90 translator
-- Fortran Journal 3/6, Nov/dec 1991.

Comparison between Sun, EPC and NAg Fortran 90 Compilers
-- The University of Liverpool (Dec. 1996).

Fortran 90 derived types, User defined operators, Modules
and Object Oriented Facilities
-- The University of Liverpool BCS seminar 1994
(12 Sep. 1992), 30-33

Metcalf, M.,
Recent progress in Fortran standardization
-- Computer Physics Communications 57 (1989) 78-83.

Metcalf, M.,
Fortran 90 - A summary
-- Int. Journal of modern Physics C, Vol. 1,
Nos. 2&3 (1990) 193-206.

Metcalf, M.,
A derived data type for data analysis
-- Computers in Physics, Nov/Dec 1991, 599-604.

Metcalf, M.,
A first encounter with Fortran 90
-- Fortran Journal 4/1, Jan/Feb 1992, 2-7.

Metcalf, M.,
An encounter with F90
-- Particle World 3/3 (1993), 130-134.

Metcalf, M.,
Fortran 90 Tutorial
-- CERN Computer Newsletter,
Nos. 206/207/208/209/210/211 (1992-1993).

Metcalf, M.,
Using the f90 compiler as a software tool
-- CERN Computer Newsletter, No. 209 (1992).

Metcalf, M.,
Still programming after these years
-- New Scientist, (12 Sep. 1992), 30-33

Morgan, S.,
Fortran90 An outline of the ISO standard
-- BCS seminar 1994

Olagnon, M.,
Experience with NagWare f90
-- Fortran Journal 4/6, Nov/dec 1992, 2-5.

Olagnon, M.,
f90ppr A Fortran90 Pre-processor A Fortran 90 Pretty- printer,
-- Fortran Journal Vol 7 n2 Mar/Apr 1995 pp8-14

de Polignac, Christian,
Du Fortran VAX au Fortran 90
-- Decus, Paris, 7 Avril 1993.

de Polignac, Christian,
Interfacing a Fortran77 multiple precision package
using Fortran90
-- Nagua, Oxford, 14 april 1994.

Prentice, John K.,
Fortran 90 benchmark results
-- Fortran Journal 5/3, May/June 1993.

Prentice, John K.,
Performance benchmarks for Fortran90 compilers
-- Mathematech Vol1 n1 1994, 66-73

Prentice, John K., Ameko, A.K.,
Performance benchmarks for selected Fortran90 compilers
(to appear in Fortran Journal)

Reid, John,
The Fortran 90 Standard -- Programming environments for
high level scientific problem solving,
-- Gaffney ed., IEEE Trans., North-Holland (1992), 343-348.

Reid, John,
Fortran 90, the language for scientific computing in
the 1990s
-- Unicom Seminar on Fortran and C in Scientific Computing, 1992

Reid, John,
The advantages of Fortran 90
-- Computing 48, 219-238.

Reid, John.
Fortran90: the future
-- Nagua 14 april 1994 Oxford

de Roeck, Yann-Herve, Plessix, Rene-Edouard,
Combining F90 and PVM to construct synthetic seismograms
by ray-tracing
-- proc. IEEE Oceans 94.

Robin, F.,
Fortran 90 et High Performance Fortran,
-- Bulletin technique CEA, Oct. 1992, 3-7.

Sawyer, M.,
A summary of Fortran 90
-- EPCC-TN92-04, Univ. of Edinburgh, (1992).

Schonfelder, J.L.,
Semantic extension possibilities in the proposed
new Fortran
-- Software practice and experience, Vol.19, (1989), 529-551.

Schonfelder, J.L., Morgan, J.S.,
Dynamic strings in Fortran 90
-- Software practice and experience, Vol.20(12), (1990), 1259-1271.

Schonfelder, J.L.
High Performance Fortran and Fortran95
-- University of Liverpool Nov. 1994

Scott, Kilpatrick and Maley
The formal specification of abstract data types and their
implementation in Fortran 90
-- Computer Physics Communications 84 (1994) 201-225.

Sipelstein, J.M., Blelloch, G.E.,
Collection-oriented languages
-- Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 79, No. 4, (1991), 504-530.

Vignes, Jean,
Vers un calcul scientifique fiable : l'arithmetique stochastique
-- La Vie des Sciences, Comptes rendus, serie generale,
tome 10, 1993, No 2, 81-101.

Vignes, Jean,
A stochastic arithmetic for reliable scientific computation
-- MATCOM 940 - Mathematics and Computers in Simulation
35 (1993) 233-261.

Walker, D.W.,
A Fortran 90 code for magnetohydrodynamics.
Part I: banded convolution
-- Oak Ridge National Lab. report TM-12032 (1992).

Walter, W.,
Fortran 90: Was bringt der neue Fortran-Standard fuer das
numerische Programmieren ?
-- Jahrbuch Ueberblicke Mathematik Vieweg, (1991) 151-174.

Walter W.V
Fortran XSC: A portable Fortran90 module library for accurate
and reliable scientific computing
-- Computing Supplementum 9, 265-286

Wampler, K. Dean,
The Object-Oriented programming Paradigm and Fortran programs
-- Computers in Physics, Jul/Aug 1990, 385-394.

Ward, T.
The world's first Fortran90 compiler.
-- PROGRAM NOW March 1992, 67-69

Willhoft, Robert G.,
Comparison of the functional Power of APL2 and Fortran 90
-- APL Quote Quad, 1991

Fortran90 at NAS: Perceptions and plans
-- RND-93-001

3.6 - Other places for Help on Fortran 90

Fortran 90 Tutorials:

Programmer's Guide to Fortran 90:

Fortran Market:

Karlsruhe University:

King's College London:

Fortran FAQ:

Fortran90 interface modules for INTLIB interval computations:

FTP-able fortran90 Tutorial from

Free Software:

How to get Fortran 90 Standard documentation:

Free Code - At Lahey:

Free Compilers/tools List - At Cern:

Programming Languages research - At Indiana University:

Other languages - At CMU:

- At UNM:

- The F programming language:

4.0 - Fortran 90 Benchmarking

An interesting article by John K. Prentice appeared in the
May/June 93 issue of Fortran Journal.
He also gave a new one in the Nov/Dec 94 issue.

I made some tests myself with LAPACK, and got a ratio of 10
between Sun f77 and Nag f90 2.0 when no source change was performed.
With an aggressive rewriting, especially using array instructions
and intrinsics, the ratio gets down to 2, which is also that of a
f77 [sd]axpy to a C one.

On actual applications, this ratio seems to be much closer to 1,
and even sometimes in favor of Fortran 90.
On Sept. 7th, 1993, John wrote "I think there is in fact beginning
to be a quite large body of evidence to suggest that most of the
efficiency fears about F90 are unfounded."

For Nag f90 on workstations, the effect of the underlying C
compiler (gcc, vendor, etc...) seems very limited (less than 4%).

With more recent F90 compilers, performance seems at least as good
and often better than with the corresponding F77 compiler, for old
F77 code. For instance, Lahey reports improvement from 8.5 to 14.1
Mflops with linpack on a pentium between EM/32 and their F90 compiler.

5.0 Announced, foreseen, and rumours

F: a carefully crafted subset of Fortran 90, meant for both
teachers and professional programmers, by Imagine1 Inc.,
NAG Inc., Fujitsu Limited, and Absoft Corp.
F will be available on Unix and Linux platforms, the 68k
or PowerPC Macintosh, and PCs running either Windows 95
or Windows NT.

FORTNER Research (formerly Laguage Systems Corp) expects to
deliver f90 for Macintoshes in 1996.

Digital Windows NT (Alpha) compiler

MATLAB compatibility with PowerStationFortran 90 (1st quarter 96)

6.0 Workshops, seminars, conferences

the London and South-East centre for High Performance Computing

NAG Seminars:

7.0 - Developments, related languages

7.1 - Standard

Work did not stop with the publication of the Fortran 90 standard.
A new release is scheduled for 1996 (called 95), mainly devoted to
clarifications, corrections and interpretations. It is currently
being circulated as a draft for comments. A more important
revision is scheduled for 2000 (or 2001 ? called F2k though C.Burley's
F00 is a pleasant alternative).

Some interim features are to be processed as "technical reports" and
incorporated in the next major upgrade, now known as "Fortran 2000"
and planned for release around the year 2000. The features for which
interim technical reports have been proposed are the following:

o Floating-point exception handling
o Interoperability with C
o Parammeterized derived types and allocatable components

However, the last of these lacks support in some quarters.

The ISO working group devoted to the evolution of Fortran is WG5.


Inputs are received from the National bodies (X3J3 in the USA).
Documents related to the work of X3J3 can be found via anonymous
ftp on, directory x3j3.

7.2 - HPF

High Performance Fortran (HPF) is a language for programming
massively parallel architectures. It lets the user insert
directives for code and data distribution among the processors
in the (Fortran 90) code.


Electronic copies of HPF draft specification are available by
anonymous FTP from the following sources:

Machine name File name
--------------------- ---------------------------------------- public/HPFF/draft/hpf-v10-final.tar public/HPFF/draft/hpf-v10-final.tar.Z public/HPFF/draft/ public/HPFF/draft/ public/HPFF/ hpf-europe/ pub/ public/hpf-v10-final.tar.Z

on-line tutorial from University of Liverpool:

course on HPF is freely available from Edinburgh:

Other sources of information:

Karlsruhe University:

Liverpool University:

7.3 - PVM

Parallel Virtual Machine consists of a library and a run-time
environment which allow the distribution of a program over a network
of (even heterogeneous) computers. It works with Fortran 77,
C and to some extent Fortran 90. One can refer to the article
by Y-H de Roeck and R-E Plessix, and a set of example wrapper
routines for the PVM calls is available as:


There is a usenet comp.parallel.pvm group, and the FAQ for it
can be found via anonymous ftp on:

directory: /pub/usenet/comp.parallel.pvm

7.4 - MPI

MPI (Message Passing Interface) is the standard for multicomputer
and cluster message passing introduced by the Message Passing
Interface Forum in April 1994.


7.5 - Parallel Programming

An interesting report can be obtained via anonymous ftp on:

directory: pub/

for a large review of products related to parallel systems

8.0 - Addresses

104, rue Castagnary,
F-75015 Paris, France
tel: +33 1 48 56 23 33,
fax: +33 1 48 56 23 44

2781 Bond Street Rochester Hills,
MI 48309 USA
tel: (810) 853-0050 ,
Fax: (810) 853-0108

Van Eeghenstraat 100,
1071 Gl Amsterdam, Netherlands
tel: +31 20 6646416,
fax: +31 20 6750389

AERO, Mr. Berthon,
3 av. de l'opera. F-75001 Paris,
tel: +33 1 44 55 30 80,
fax: +33 1 40 15 95 54

Tour Europe,
Cedex 7,
F-92049 Paris la Defense,
tel: +33 1 42 91 55 55

Apogee Software Inc.,
1901 S.Bascom Ave.,
Suite 325,
CA 95008-2207, USA
tel: (408) 369-9001,
fax: (408) 369-9018,

Applied Parallel Research, Inc.,
550 Main St.,
CA 95667
tel: (916) 621-1600,
fax: (916) 621-0593,

CETech, Inc.,
8196 SW Hall Blvd.,
Ste. 304, Beaverton,
Oregon 97008, USA.
tel: (503) 644-6106,
fax: (503) 643-8425,

Cray Research,Inc.,
655 Lone Oak Drive,
Eagan, MN 55121

Prinz-Otto Str. 7c,
D-85521 Ottobrunn,
tel: +49 89 6083758,
fax: +49 89 6083758

DEC (Digital Equipment Corporation)

DEC Fortran 90 home page:

17 Alva St. Edinburgh,
EH2 4PH, United Kingdom
tel: +44-31-225-6262,
fax: +44-31-225-6644,

20 Victor Square,
Scotts Valley,
California 95066
tel: (408) 438-1851,
fax: (408) 438-3510,

Fortran Journal,
P.O. Box 4201,
CA 92634, USA
fax: (714) 441-2022

Fujitsu Open Systems Solutions, Inc.,
3055 Orchard Drive,
San Jose,
CA 95134 USA
tel: (408) 456-7809,
fax: (408) 456-7050,

Garnatz et Grovender Inc.,
5301 26th Avenue South,
Mineapolis MN 55417-1923 USA
tel: (612) 722-3094,



27 rue Linne,
F-75005 Paris,
tel: +33 1 43 37 02 02

B.P. 167,
F-91403 Orsay Cedex,

11930 Menaul Blvd. NE,
Suite #106, Albuquerque,
NM 87112, USA
fax: (505) 323-1759,
tel: (505) 323-1758,

1 rue de Varembe,
Case postale 56,
CH-1211 Geneve 20,
fax: +41 22 734 10 79

Interactive Software Services Ltd.,
25 St Michaels Close,
Stafford ST19 5AD, UK
tel: +44 1785 715588,
fax: +44 1785 714913,

IT Independent Training Limited,
113 Liscombe,
Birch Hill, Bracknell,
Berkshire, RG12 7DE, UK
tel: +44 344 860172,
fax: +44 344 867992

KAI (Kuck & Associates),
Champaign, IL USA
tel: (217) 356-2288,
fax: (217) 356-5199,

Lahey Computer Systems, Inc.,
865 Tahoe Blvd.,
P.O. Box 6091,
Incline Village,
NV 89450, USA
tel: (702) 831-2500,
fax: (702) 831-8123,


Research Park, Box 79,
Kingston, MA 02364, USA
tel: (508) 746-7341,
fax: (508) 746-4678,

NA Software Ltd,
Roscoe House,
62 Roscoe St.,
Liverpool L1 9DW, UK
tel: +44 51 7094738,
fax: +44 51 7095645,

NAG Ltd.,
Wilkinson House,
Jordan Hill Road,
Oxford, OX2 8DR, UK
tel: +44 1865 311744,
fax: +44 1865 311755,

NAG Inc.,
1400 Opus Place,
Suite 200, Downers Grove,
IL 60515-5702, USA
tel: (708) 971-2345,
fax: (708) 971-2346,

NAG GmbH.,
Schleissheimerstr. 5,
D-85748 Garching, Germany
tel: +49 89 3207395,
fax: +49 89 3207396

NAG Office,
Espace III,
62 Boulevard Frederic Arnaud,
09200 Saint Girons
(Toulouse, France)

NAG Users Association,
PO Box 426,
Oxford, OX2 8SD, UK
tel: +44 1865 311102,
fax: +44 1865 310139,

Pacific-Sierra Research Corp.,
2901 28th Street,
Santa Monica, CA 90405
tel: (310) 314-2300,
fax: (310) 314-2323,

ParaSoft Corporation,
2500 E. Foothill Blvd,
Pasadena, CA 91107, USA
tel: (818) 792-9941,

PGI, The Portland Group,
9150 S.W Pioneer Ct.,
Suite H Wilsonville,
OR 97070 ,USA
tel: (503) 682-2806,
fax: (503) 682-2637

Quetzal Computational Associates,
3200 Carlisle N.E.,
NM 87110-1664, USA
tel: (505) 889-4543,
fax: (505) 889-4598,

Salford Software,
Adelphi House, Adelphi Street,
Salford M3 6EN, UK
tel: +44 161 8342148,
fax: +44 161 8342454,

S.I. editions,
9 av. Prince Hereditaire Albert,
MC-98000, Monaco
tel: +33 92 05 35 51,
fax: +33 92 05 35 04

1 rue James Joule,
F-78286 Guyancourt Cedex, France
tel: +33 1 30 12 27 00,
fax: +33 1 30 12 27 27,
email: (Mr. E. Plestan)

Spackman & Hendrickson, Inc.,
13708 Krestwood Drive,
MN 55337, USA
tel: (612) 892-5847,
fax: (612) 892-5844

Sun Micro Systems

Unicom Seminars Ltd.,
Brunel Science Park,
Cleveland Road, Uxbridge,
Middlesex, UB8 3PH, UK
tel: +44 895 256484,
fax: +44 895 813095,

Unicomp, Inc.,
1874 San Bernardino Ave NE,
Albuquerque, NM 87122, USA
tel: (505) 275-0800,
fax: (505) 856-1501,

Visual Numerics,

I am always pleased to receive informations.
Thanks to all those who sent some to me, and that I can not cite
all because I lost some of their names and addresses :-)


| Michel OLAGNON | email : |
| Centre de Brest - B.P. 70 | phone : +33 2 98 22 41 44 |
| F-29280 PLOUZANE - FRANCE | fax : +33 2 98 22 41 35 |
| WWW: |

IFREMER: Institut Francais de Recherches pour l'Exploitation de la Mer


De'partement Ge'nie Oce'anique


Cellule Oce'ano-Me'te'o



1.3.2) Fortran Market

~Subject: (SC22WG5.609) Fortran Market/WWW

I hope all of you will be pleased to learn that the Fortran Market
has established itself on the World Wide Web. Our goal is nothing
short of providing one place to find all information, products,
and services related to Fortran. The URLs are:

The Market is under construction (and probably always will be),
but there is already some free software available (just some
simple, but perhaps useful, things so far). There are pointers
to other locations containing relevant information, so you now
need to remember only one place to find it all. Much more
information, particularly about products and servies will be
available in the near future, but I thought you might want to
have a Sneak Preview of what things will look like.

Come visit the Market and let me know what you think of it.

Thanks. <walt>


2.1) Compilers and preprocessors

2.1.1) Where can I get a free (FORTRAN 77) compiler?

There are few such in wide distribution:

o f2c + any C compiler
o f2c combined with djgpp
o A combination of (f2cx + gcc + djgpp extender)
o GNU's g77
o BC-F77

;; One such is f2c:

~From: (Mark Maimone)

Since there have been several requests for a Fortran to C translator
in the past week, I'm reposting the announcement about f2c.
The short answer is you can get f2c by anonymous ftp

directory: dist/f2c.


Source for f2c, a Fortran 77 to C translator jointly developed by
folks from Bell Labs, Bellcore, and Carnegie Mellon, is now freely

F2c was derived from the original UNIX operating system's f77(1),
and the generated C follows f77's calling conventions; on some
machines, the resulting object files are interchangeable with
(and behave indistinguishably from) objects compiled by f77.

The main "advantage" of f2c is that it converts ANSI standard
Fortran 77 into C without manual intervention, at least when
invoked by a suitable script or makefile (that may need to
exercise an f2c option to ensure that COMMON blocks are defined
just once).

The main "problems" are that f2c does no code restructuring
(e.g., gotos are preserved) and that Fortran I/O gets converted
into a bunch of calls; thus the translated C code doesn't look
too pretty, and in general one would need to maintain the Fortran
rather than its translation into C. [F2c is not meant to displace
the services of commercial vendors whose business is to convert
Fortran into maintainable C.]

There is a plethora of options, many of which exist to support
different compilation environments for the translated C (e.g.,
ANSI C or C++ compatibility, different type sizes, separate files
for COMMON blocks to appease "smart" linkers).

So far f2c (and f2c-generated source) has compiled successfully
on many machines: Sun, Vax, IBMRT, Apollo, SGI, MIPS, and Cray
to name a few.

F2c has been under test by the net community for over a year and
has been verified on the NBS tests, several large math libraries,
floating point tests, even code for laying cable on the ocean floor!

To find out about f2c, send the following E-mail message
to netlib ( or research!netlib):

send index from f2c

Your message will be answered automatically (by a program --
see CACM vol. 30 #5 (May, 1987), pp. 403-407).

You will receive a reply explaining how to automatically acquire f2c
source (about 600K), f2c library source (130K), and supporting info
(man page, etc). Or you can anonymous-FTP to:

and look in directory dist/f2c at these files:

all.Z -- 250K compressed shar file for f2c -- 24 page tech report describing f2c
index -- general info about files
libf77.Z, libi77.Z -- compressed shar files for libraries

Careful! Anything free comes with no guarantee.

Mark Maimone phone: (412) 268 - 7698
Carnegie Mellon Computer Science email:

Notes: f2c accepts only fairly vanilla FORTRAN; vendor supplied
f77's usually produce better quality code, and accept a
wider variety of codes.

More about f2c from Judah Milgram

I recently asked about running f2c with djgpp. Turns out to be
easy and together they make a good Fortran compiler for PC's.
Here's a summary.

I started with f2c dated Nov. 1994 ( in netlib/f2c).
djgpp was v. 1.12 ( in pub/msdos/djgpp.)

Use the pre-compiled msdos f2c executable that comes with the
f2c release. Compile the libraries with djgpp, making the changes
listed below. They aren't necessarily the most sensible changes,
but they worked for me. Write if you have a better idea.

Thanks to all net people who helped, especially Dr. James Lupo.

Judah Milgram


change: CC = cc
to: CC = gcc
comment out: ld -r -x -o $*.xxx $*.o
mv $*.xxx $*.o


change: extern int getpid(void), isatty(int), pause(void);
to: extern int getpid(void), isatty(int);
#ifndef _djgpp_std_h
extern int pause(void);


change: CC = cc
to: CC = gcc
comment out: ld -r -x -o $*.xxx $*.o
mv $*.xxx $*.o


add to top of file: #ifdef abs
#undef abs


comment out entire block: #ifdef MSDOS
#include "io.h"
#define close _close
#define creat _creat
#define open _open
read _read
#define write _write

Easiest way to build libf2c.a is to go into
the f2c/ directory and do:

ar r libf2c.a libf77/*.o libi77/*.o
ranlib libf2c.a

(If you do it this way you can delete libf77/libf77.a
and libi77/libi77.a)

Then copy libf2c.a into djgpp/lib and copy f2c.h into djgpp/include
And remember to run the executable with 'go32 foo'.
Or, do 'coff2exe foo' to produce a .exe file which
you can run in the usual manner.

~From: Greg Lindahl <>

f2c is quite free.

A ready to use package (F2CX + GCC + DJGPP) from Clive Page:

I have packaged up a free Fortran77 system for MS-DOS into two
files which are each just under 1.4 MB (to fit on 2 floppy disks).

This isn't actually a compiler but relies on the F2CX translator
to convert Fortran77 into C, and then GNU's GCC compiler plus the
DOS-extender of DJGPP to get a flat 32-bit address space on MS-DOS.

This sounds awkward to use, but works surprisingly well on most
Fortran code that I have used. Warning: this is free software,
no warranties at all, but it works for me and some of my colleagues
also say it works for them.

The files are available by anonymous FTP from:

host: in
directory: pub/fortran
ff77.tex Instructions for installation and use,
Latex format (22k) Ditto, but in Postscript (99k)
ff77.000 First binary file (1.4 MB)
ff77.001 Second binary file (1.1 MB)
tar.exe DOS version of Unix TAR, needed to
extract s/w (52k)

Transfer the ff77.tex (or .ps) file in ASCII mode, the others
need BINARY mode.

In the same directory you will also find an electronic copy of
a Fortran77 book which I wrote some years ago. It's available
in Latex and Postscript form in compressed (gzip) files

prof77.tex.gz (113 kbytes) (224 kbytes)


;; gnu g77:

~From: (MUFTI)

The FSF has a f77 front end integrated with the gcc back end.

"A mailing list exists for those interested in the Fortran
front end for GCC. To subscribe, ask:

Or try:

finger -l

There is no FSF project to do a f90 front end. The author
of the g77 front end is willing, if anyone will fund it.

~From Bill Thorson <>

GNU Fortran (g77) Copyright (C) 1995 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

GNU Fortran (g77) Version 0.5.13 is now available to the
public for beta testing in the usual GNU locations.
The distribution is named:

g77-*.tar.gz. Where the '*' is the current version number.
g77 requires that you also have a recent distribution of gcc.
This compiler currently builds and installs it's own version
of the f2c libraries (libf2c.a).

See g77 documentation for list of features or bugs.

Most GNU software is packed using the GNU `gzip' compression
program. Source code is available on most sites distributing
GNU software.

For information on how to order GNU software on tape, floppy
or cd-rom, or printed GNU manuals, check the file etc/ORDERS
in the GNU Emacs distribution or in GNUinfo/ORDERS on prep,
or e-mail a request to:

;; gnu update on g77:

Sender: Michael....@Student.Uni-Magdeburg.DE


since I read question 2.1.1 at least once a week in this newsgroup,
I would like to refer the asking (usually students, who need
fortran for some kind of project, but do not want to spend a
lot of money) to your FAQ like others do.

Unfortunately I think that the info in this section is somewhat
rather old. I would encourage you to make additions regarding
the availibility of g77:

1. g77 is now at version 0.5.18, it should be used with
gcc-2.7.2, because of some improvements in both.
It works quite stable and allows (in difference to f2c/gcc)
the debugging at source code level (with gdb, newer versions).

2. There are binaries in many linux-distributions,
so you are not required to compile it yourself
(which is not too difficult, but some work)

3. Michael Holzapfel provided OS/2 binaries using the
emx-port of gcc. He wrote, that he will try to keep
them up-to-date for the next two years.
These can be found for instance at:

but many other os/2-mirrors carry them too,
one might use archie.

Because most students search a compiler for MS-DOS,
I want to emphasize, that these are running fine
under DOS and take advantage of all available memory.
With the additional rsx-package they run also
with win3.1, win/nt and win95.

4. I tried the recommended bcf for DOS some time ago and
was not able to run any fortran code. (maybe I'm stupid)
The system seems to be mainly for teaching fortran and
is rather limited.

Anyone who wants to compile and run real applications
should g77 give a try, it's worth every cent.


~from: Kurt Jaeger

Someone asked for a cheap MS-DOS Fortran compiler for students.
The bcf77 by Andreas Koesterli has a free student version.
The student version may not be used in a comercial enviroment
or to solve commerical problems.

It's a version that writes a non-standard object format
and requires 640KB. If all input is in UPPERCASE, it
supports the full Fortran 77 standard.

The site is:

the compiler can be found in:


It can be accessed via:

for those of you without ftp.

~From: (Troy Barbee)

In article <1991Dec1...@IASTATE.EDU>, cfra...@IASTATE.EDU
(Charles F Randall) writes:

|> Note that the .txt file for this NOT in English:
|> |> BC-FORTRAN77 Version.b besteht aus Compiler, Linker,
|> Modulbibliothek und einem residenten Laufzeitsystem, das
|> u.a. einen einfachen Debugger enthaelt. Diese Version
|> laeuft auf einem MS-DOS Rechner mit 640kB RAM. Eine
|> Festplatte ist nicht erforderlich. Hiermit soll in
|> einfacher Weise ein Compiler fuer Programmierkurse
|> zur Verfuegung stehen. Dem kommt entgegen, dass
|> entsprechende Compiler fuer ATARI ST und AMIGA existieren.
|> |> Anfragen nach Zusendung einer anderen oder neueren Version
|> werde ich nur noch beantworten, wenn DM 20.- (Schein oder
|> Scheck) Aufwandsentschaedigung (Diskette, Umschlag, Porto
|> und Zeit) beigefuegt sind. Ich versende ausschliesslich
|> 3 1/2 Zoll Disketten.
|> |> Anybody willing to translate?

Here's a quick and dirty translation (i.e., I didn't look in my
dictionary, so the sentences in [] are just rough translations)

BC-FORTRAN77 Version b consists of a compiler, linker,
module library, and a resident runtime system that contains
(among other things) a simple debugger.
This version runs on a MS-DOS computer with 640KB RAM.
A hard disk is not required.
[The intent is to provide a compiler for programming
courses in a simple manner. Similar compilers exist
for the ATARI ST and the AMIGA.]

Requests for another or a newer version will only be answered
if they are accompanied by DM 20.- (check or cash) to defray
costs (diskette, envelope, postage, and time).
I can only send 3 1/2 inch diskettes.

~From: (Pat Hayes)

"BC-FORTRAN 1.3b, is a FORTRAN compiler from Germany.
The documentation is in German. Sample source code is included.
The compiler generates big, inefficient EXE programs and is
offered only because there are no other pd/shareware
FORTRAN compilers available.
700K of disk space is required."

~From: PVT Joe Snuffy <DOY...@ROSEVC.Rose-Hulman.Edu>

I am sort of asking for your help here.

I translated the documentation for BC-F77 and am willing
to make it available to people. However, my newsreader
will not let me post with distribution wider than our local
site (or at least, that appears to be what is going on).

Could you do me a favor and post the text that follows?
You might also tell those others who write to you that
this translation is available.

Chris Doyle

Stuff to be posted starts below this line. Adjust
header/newsgroup/etc as appropriate. Thanks!


For those people who FTP this thing and want to be able to
read the documentation, I have translated the README file
into English and will let you have a copy of the translation
upon request. Translation is about 400 lines long.

BCF77 (FORTRAN 77 compiler, written by Andre Koestli) distribution.
This compiler/linker/run-time module and supporting files are
available via anonymous FTP from:

directory: /soft/pc/lang/fortran/compiler/

~From: al...@dmsmelb.mel.dms.CSIRO.AU Wed Jan 26 12:27:49 1994

BCF is available by ftp from many places.
For instance, it is in the directory fortran on simtel (see q3).
I did `archie bcf' and found it is also in directory:

directory: /usenet/comp.archives/languages/fortran

... There have been many complaints about bcf - but it is free.
I recommend Lahey's Personal Fortran PF77L to those who have been
disappointed with bcf. I believe it costs US$99.


2.1.2) What is the best (FORTRAN 77) compiler for a PC?

There are many products, some are quite good. Few are free.
f2c and gcc can be had for the PC environment.

Popular ones are:

Lahey (very fast compilation; excellent reputation for support)

Watcom (touted for good optimization)

MicroWay (support for odd floating point units)

LPI (multi-platform support)

MicroSoft (various good hooks into windows and such)

Absoft (multi-platform support)

It is beyond the scope of a faq to provide a commercial endorsement.


2.1.3) What is the best Fortran for...

Such recommendations are, at best, personal opinions.
I've <khb> tracked some of the discussions and it
would appear that:

a) For the mac, Language Systems

Language Systems Corp.
100 Carpenter Drive
Sterling, VA 20164

tel: 800-252-6479 (inside US and Canada)
fax: 703-689-9593
BBS: 703-709-0134

langsys (Applelink)
langsys (America Online) (Internet)

b) For the PC it is harder. Many like Lahey

Lahey Computer Systems, Inc.
865 Tahoe Blvd.
P.O. Box 6091
Incline Village, Nevada 89450

Phones: (800) 548-4778
(702) 831-2500
Fax: (702) 831-8123
BBS: (702) 831-8023.
UUNET: Sales
Tech support

Good code generation, good diagnostics, fast compilation,
and good support are often quoted as reasons why folks
liked LCS.


2.1.4) What Fortran 90/95 compilers/translators (math libs) are available?

A fortran 95 compiler

~From: David Vallance <>

(16 December 1996)


Salford Software Ltd announces FTN95, a full Fortran 95
compliant compiler for Extended DOS, Windows 3.1 and
Win32 (NT and 95). The compiler is delivered as a bundle
comprising a Win32 Edition and an Extended DOS/Windows 3.1
edition. FTN95 compilers are supplied with fully-featured
IDE, debugger, comprehensive compiler library (which
includes graphics, operating system access, low-level file
management, bit-manipulation, sorting, etc.), built-in 32
bit assembler, linker and Salford ClearWin+ (Salford's
Windows GUI development library and tools). Salford FTN95
will ship in Q1 1997.

Selected Salford-specific features

o Full support for REAL*10, COMPLEX*20

o Compatibility with Salford FTN77:

- Inline Mnemonic Assembler using CODE ... EDOC.

- Supports all 'deleted' Fortran 95 features (e.g. REAL
DO-loop indices).


Beta: early January 1997

First customer ship: Q1 1997

Beta Testers Wanted

Salford FTN95 will ship in Q1 1997 and will be available to
selected users for beta test from early January 1997.

If you would like to apply for a beta copy of FTN95 please
contact Ivan Lucas at:

stating your affiliation (e.g. WG5 member), full mailing
address and whether you would like to try either or both of
the Win32 or Extended DOS editions. The beta editions are
supplied on (a small number of) 3.5" diskettes.

FTN95 is a registered trademark of Salford Software Ltd.

David M Vallance

Salford Software Ltd Tel: +44 (0) 161 834 2454
Adelphi House Fax: +44 (0) 161 834 2148
Adelphi Street WWW:
Salford, M3 6EN

Fortran 90 compilers

compiler for SPARC architectures (
Used on the Meiko CS-2HA.

Useful tools, like FORGE90 are available (
A source form convertor, convert.f90, is obtainable by
ftp from:

directory: /pub/MandR.

Cray Research
has a native compiler that is being marketed by them
and Visual Numerics for workstations, starting with
Suns (solaris 2.3+) (
Absoft will market a PC version (486,Pentium and Macintosh PowerPC)

has been shipping a native compiler, including HPF,
from June 1994. It is for OSF/1 AXP, with probably
Windows NT AXP following. It has no plans for VAX systems.

Native compilers for Sun, RS/6000, SGI, MIPS and, soon,
x86 are available ( or

is marketing a native Fortran 90 Workbench for
Solaris 1.1 and 2.x.
Contact Unicomp ( or Fujitsu (

Fujitsu Fortran is fully compliant with the Fortran 90
(ISO/IEC = 1539:1991), the FORTRAN 77 (ANSI X3.9-1978),
and the FORTRAN 66 (ANSI X3.9-1966) standards.
Language extensions include support for Sun, Cray, VAX, and IBM.
Fujitsu Fortran delivers faster performing FORTRAN 77 code
while improving developer productivity of your Fortran 90 code.

SSL2 is a complete library of optimized mathematical routines.
Initially created for supercomputers and mainframes,
Fujitsu SSL2 delivers maximum performance to your workstation.
Through joint development with universities, these numerical
algorithms provide the accuracy and reliability you require
in your applications. For additional information please see:
<Todd, Office:, Home>

announced on Nov. 11, 1996 its full ISO Fortran 90 compiler,

o Front End by Edinburgh Portable Compilers (EPC)

o Industry standard language extensions: Cray pointers,
INTEGER*8, REAL*16 and DEC structures.

o Scalability - The same compiler runs on all
high-performance HP computers.

o Binary compatability with f77 - object modules compiled
with f77 and f90 can be mixed (same I/O libraries).

o Supports HP MPI (Message Passing Interface) for parallel
application development. Support for HPF through Portland
Group HPF package

o EUC and multibyte character support.

Comes with a preprocessor, graphical-task-oriented debugger
that can debug optimized code (except at the highest level),
performance analyzer and incremental linker (links only
modified modules).

User licenses are priced at $1,495 per user license.
The HP exemplar server user license is priced at $3,000.

Additional information on HP Fortran 90 is available at:

has been shipping its optimizing, native compiler for the
RS/6000, xlf Version 3, as of 31 December, 1993.

IMSL (now Visual Numerics,
are beginning to offer f90 versions of their maths libraries
that take full advantage of the language's library building

has been shipping a native LF90 compiler for DOS
since 29 August, 1994 (
It is particularly well optimized on the Pentium.

is working on a compiler, release date unknown, for
Windows NT 3.5 and Windows 95 (Chicago) (

NDP Fortran 90 for 386/486, Pentium and 860 is available
(tel. (508) 746-7341).

A compiler is available for most unix platforms, VMS and PCs
(including Linux) from NAG ( or
This was the first f90 compiler, released in 1991.
The current version is 2.1.
For more information see:

NAG are beginning to offer f90 versions of their maths libraries
that take full advantage of the language's library building
NAG contact info: NAG FL90 from,

NA Software
supplies Fortran 90 Plus on 386/486, SPARC and T800
and T9000 transputers (
They also supply a F77 to f90 convertor, LOFT90, and HPF.

VAST/f90 is a complete f90 compiler, including a vectorizer,
for unix, VMS and Convex (
PSR also supplies VAST/77to90 to convert FORTRAN 77 programs
into Fortran 90 syntax.

A compiler is available (

has released a subset Fortran 90/HPF compiler,
in particular for SGI (

Salford Software
A PC version of the NAG compiler is also available
from Salford Software (
A Windows NT version is planned.

has a licence to sell its own versions of
DEC's HPF/f90 compiler.

Stern Computing Systems
offers CF90, a Cray-compatible compiler for use
on DEC OSF/1 platforms (

Sun (to be precise, the Developer Products group of SunSoft)
has announced a native f90 compiler. It is available as the
"Performance Workshop for Fortran 90" and includes the first
release of the SPARCompiler Fortran 90 that is based on the
CF90 product from Cray.
Also included is SunSoft Performance Library (tuned versions
of BLAS[123], LAPACK, FFTPACK, VFFTPACK, licensed from DSS),
and the usual programming environment addons (debugger,
performance analyzer, group source code management etc.).
f77 and C compilers are also provided in the Performance Workshop.
30 day free demos are available. For more information see:

Linux compilers and related information:

Visual Analyzer
Visual Analyzer is a set of development tools to graphically
display source analysis of your Fortran and C code.
The Visual Analyzer includes the Source Analyzer and
Node Coverage tools to make code migration, performance
tuning and code maintenance simple.
And, Visual Analyzer can be used with other Fortran and
C compilers available for the Microsoft Windows 95/NT
and SPARC environment.

Visual Numerics
see IMSL


2.1.5) Tell me about Parallel Fortran dialects, what are they,etc.

~From: (Larry Meadows)
------------------------------------- (Steve Spencer) writes:

>We are trying to decide what parallel FORTRAN environment
>to port to a MIMD multiprocessor that we are building
>for ARPA. We are looking for information on the follwing
> HPF (High Performance FORTRAN from Rice U. I think)
> PVM (works with F77 to provide a parallel env.)

>Does anyone know where we can get information on the
>above programming environments or any others that may
>be appropriate?

Fortran90 is an ANSI and an ISO standard. The usual reference
is Fortran 90 Handbook, published by McGraw Hill. Several vendors
provide Fortran 90 translators and/or compilers.


High Performance Fortran (HPF) is a language for programming
massively parallel architectures. It lets the user insert directives
for code and data distribution among the processors in the (Fortran
90) code.

Electronic copies of HPF draft specification are available
by anonymous FTP from the following sources:

Machine name File name
----------------- ----------------------------------- public/HPFF/draft/hpf-v10-final.tar public/HPFF/draft/hpf-v10-final.tar.Z public/HPFF/draft/ public/HPFF/draft/ public/HPFF/ hpf-europe/ pub/ public/hpf-v10-final.tar.Z

Fortran D is a precursor to HPF; as a commercial product it
has been superceded by HPF, but several academic projects
still exist that target Fortran D.

PVM is a message passing library and run-time environment;
as such, it exists at a lower level than the previous items.
One might imagine an HPF processor that produced FORTRAN77
with calls to PVM.
There is a newsgroup on PVM. It is available through netlib,
and possibly from Oak Ridge as well.

Hope this
Larry Meadows The Portland Group

From: (Israel Gale)


Here is a suggestion for your "Parallel Fortran dialects"
question (Q30) (2.1.5) on your (very useful) Fortran FAQ.

Larry Meadows' information on HPF is largely correct (except
for his saying "massively" parallel -- massively parallel is
the one major parallel architecture for which HPF is not yet
available), but I thought I'd contribute a few words about
compiler availability:

High Performance Fortran (HPF) is an extended version of
Fortran 90 for parallel programming. It lets the user insert
directives into Fortran 90 code which specify the distribution
of data across processors.

Currently, most HPF products are not true compilers, but
source-to-source translators. Source-to-source translators
are pre-processors that translate HPF code so that it can be
compiled by a compiler without native HPF capability.
They typically output FORTRAN77 source code, with calls to
a message-passing library such as PVM or MPI.

Compilers, on the other hand, produce object modules containing
calls to either a standard message-passing library like PVM or MPI
(as in the PREPARE compiler currently under development in Europe),
or to a customized message-passing environment (as in Digital's
HPF compiler).

As of May, 1995, the following vendors offered HPF products:

Compilers Source-to-Source Translators
-------------------------------- -----------------------------
Applied Parallel Research
Kuck and Associates
NA Software
Pacific Sierra Research

The first versions of HPF offered a partial implementation known
as "Subset HPF". Beginning in 1995, a small number of vendors
began offering implementations of the full HPF specification.
Currently, only the vendors marked with an asterisk (*) offer
full HPF support; all the others support Subset HPF.

The runtime performance of HPF codes varies widely from vendor
to vendor. The best-performing HPF products achieve performance
comparable to hand-optimized PVM code.


2.2) Other tools (pretty printers, lints, etc.)

2.2.1) I have heard of fortran "lints" what are they, and where can
I get one?

A small "table of contents":

o What are Fortran "lints"?
o A partial list of "lints"
o More info on "lints"
o NAGWare f77 Tools
o NAGWare f90 Tools
o lgrind

What are Fortran "lints"?
Fortran compilers are not required (and most do not) to protect
users from themselves, that is to say:

call sub(1)
subroutine sub(i)

Is non-standard complying but the compiler need not tell you
about it. Arguably worse, the compiler can produce any result
it deems fit, up to and including the start of world war III
(assuming the right optional hardware has been installed).

Fortran lint programs focus on searching out programming errors
(or likely errors) and alerting the user.

There are a wide variety of commercial and pd products.

A partial list of Fortran "lints"

from Leiden University ND 31 71 276804

"Announcing: The demo of FORCHECK a Fortran development tool.
The MS-Windows (or WABI) based demo of FORCHECK, a Fortran
development tool, is now available at simtel as:

pub/msdos/fortran/ (SimTel Software Repository)

(primary site
(Note: directory names, such as SimTel, are case sensitive.)

If you are a Fortran programmer it will be a great asset
in developing portable and reliable code.

Leiden University
email: for...@Rullf2.LeidenUniv.NL
" end quote

Actually contrary to the posters claim, this isn't a demo,
its a hypertext file. Useful, helpful, but not a demo in
the usual sense of the word ;> <khb>

from quibus 719 527 1384.

FTNCHEK from netlib.
One may receive FTNCHEK by mailing
the following message: send ftnchek from fortran

Glenbrook House
1/11 Molesey Road
Surrey, KT12 4RH
Tel: 0932 88 80 80
Fax: 0932 88 80 81

provides a syntax checking facility with their
Fortran 77 product.

1096 East Meadow Circle,
Palo Alto, CA 94303,

from PRL Programming Research Ltd

provides a syntax checking facility (triggered by Xlist)
with their Fortran 77 product (3.0.1 and beyond).

. Other vendors (than HP and Sun) also provide .
. syntax checking facilities too, no doubt. .

More info on "lints"

~from: Ajay Shah, (213)749-8133,

You may want to mention f2c followed by an ANSI C compiler as
a great free fortran lint. I could not have survived writing
fortran if it were not for f2c. You need to know some C to
deal with the error messages, but that's not a bad price to pay.

~From: (Ata Etemadi)...

A very kind soul who wishes to remain anonymous sent
me the answer below. ...

1. There is a prettyprinter (called TIDY) available via
FTP from the SimTel Software Repository (primary site It's in the directory SimTel/msdos/fortran
(Note: the directory name SimTel is case sensitive.)

Capsule review:
does an ok job, sometimes has trouble with newer extensions
(and even some Fortran 77 standard features). Not too
bright about making good continuation-line break decisions.
Free, and available via FTP, so probably the quickest solution.
Includes source (in Fortran).

2. Greg Flint ( at Purdue distributes
a program called CLEAN77. Pretty good (higher quality than
#1 above), also free, but must be obtained from Purdue (not
available via FTP, not redistributable).
Available for assorted systems: PC, UNIX, etc.
In Fortran, comes with source.

3. There is an excellent prettyprinter in TOOLPACK - probably
has more options than any other. Has trouble with extensions,
such as long variable names.
Free, comes in source form, in Fortran.
TOOLPACK as a whole is pretty huge, and requires some work
to install, but it might be worth it if you stick to pretty
much standard Fortran. Distributed commercially for a fee
by NAG, who may have a new, improved version that is better
than the free one - I don't really know.
Available via ftp (see archie for locations)

4. SPAG, formerly sold by OTG Systems (about $1000 for MS-DOS,
more for Unix). Its main function is to restructure GOTOs
into IF-THEN-ELSEs, but it also prettyprints.
(I think they renamed this within the past year).

plusFORT : a suite of tools for FORTRAN programmers
: comprising SPAG, GXCHK, QMERGE, CMAKE and others.
Platforms : MS-DOS, Windows, Unix (various), VMS, NT
Pricing : Commercial - from 700 or $1000 :
: Educational 40% discount

Pretty-printer: Many options. Can insert declarations for
: implicitly typed symbols. Dead code & redundant
: variable removal. Symbol name-change option.
: Can use case to highlight symbol type.
: Also many F66F77F90 conversions.
Restructuring : Re-organises spaghetti code using block IF,
: DO WHILE etc.
: Moves code-blocks to minimise control jumps.
: Can duplicate code where this helps.
: Before & after complexity metrics.
Static Anal. : Comprehensive global COMMON block & argument
: checks. Identifies globally unused, used but
: not set & set but not used. System documentation
: & call-tree.
: Interactive access to static analysis database.
Dynamic Anal. : Insert probes in source code to detect the use
: of unassigned variables, array elements & char
: substrings at run-time.
Coverage Anal.: Inserts probes in source code to identify
: execution hot-spots, & untested code.
: Accumulates usage over a series of runs.
: Annotates source files.
CMAKE : A bit like make, but doesn't need a make-file.
: Automatically works out INCLUDE file dependencies.
QMERGE : Tool for dealing with system-dependent code.

Polyhedron Software Ltd.
Linden House
93 High St. Tel: +44(0)1865-300579
Standlake Fax: +44(0)1865-300232
WITNEY Compuserve: 100013,461
OX8 7RH Internet:
United Kingdom

5. FOR-STRUCT, sold by Cobalt Blue. Also a GOTO restructurer
that prettyprints. About $700 for MS-DOS. Available from
most of the big PC software dealers (Programmer's Paradise, etc...)

(They now have a "budget" version that costs about $250 but
has program-size limitations.)

6. PRETTY, sold by Quibus Enterprises, Inc. Restructures GOTOs,
also indents, relabels, moves Formats, etc. $149 for MS-DOS,
$500 for Unix workstations. Call (719) 527-1384 for more info.


~From: "John D. McCalpin" <>

Not too many people use it, but you might want to add TOOLPACK
to the list of FORTRAN "lint" packages. Here is the blurb that
I send to people who are interested:

TOOLPACK is a large set of utilities written in FORTRAN to do
FORTRAN code analysis and transformation.

TOOLPACK begins by actually parsing the program with a fully
FORTRAN- compliant parser and then does all the code transformations
on the parse and comment trees.

This means that you cannot confuse TOOLPACK by silly FORTRAN-isms
that can easily overwhelm more naive utilities (such as ftnchek).
For example, TOOLPACK correctly handles statements such as:

D O U B L E P R E C I S I O N A(100,100)
doubleprecision fred

DO I = 1.2
READ(I,J) = 10.

The usual interface to TOOLPACK is a set of 'csh' scripts that
run the various TOOLPACK utilities to do specific tasks.

The ones you will find most useful are: pol, polx, apt, dapt,
decs, getlst, and discard. These are the prettyprinter,
precision converter, declaration standardizer, and some
necessary utilities. See below for more details.

By aware that TOOLPACK is *very* rigorous about the FORTRAN-77
standard. You may or may not consider this an advantage.

The scripts are described by the 'scripts' script, which delivers
the following:
In the Toolpack script summaries below, the section numbers refer
to the Unix environment Users' Guide where more detailed information
can be found. To obtain on-line information about a script's usage,
type its name without any arguments.

FORTRAN Analysis Facilities

getlst Produce a listing showing statement and token numbers.
Report lexical scanning warnings and errors. (3.1.1)

syn Report errors and warnings detected by lexical scanning,
parsing, and examining a set of symbol attributes. (3.1.2)

sem Report errors and warnings detected by lexical scanning,
parsing, and examining an extended set of symbol attributes.

pfort Report errors and warnings detected by lexical scanning,
parsing, examining an extended set of symbol attributes,
checking for unsafe references, and checking conformance
to a portable subset of FORTRAN. (3.1.4)

statdoc In a user-supplied report template, place information
derived from static analysis to assist in documenting
the program. Examples of information the user may
request are COMMON block usage, symbol attributes,
and a graph of subprogram calls. (3.1.5)

inst Instrument a FORTRAN program so that the instrumented
program, when executed, produces information about
program execution. (3.2.1)

rundoc Execute a program instrumented by inst and, in a
user-supplied report template, place information
derived from dynamic analysis to assist in documenting
the program. For example, the user may determine the
frequency of execution of program segments. (3.2.2)

FORTRAN Transformation Facilities

pol Format a FORTRAN program under control of user-supplied
options in a Polish option file. (4.1.1)

polx Construct a Polish option file via a menu-driven editor.

decs Rebuild the declarative part of a FORTRAN program. (4.2.1)

apt Transform a single-precision version of a FORTRAN program
to double precision or vice versa. (4.3.1)

dapt Convert precision and rebuild the declarations, combining
the functions of apt and decs. (4.3.2)

cname Change the names in a FORTRAN program that satisfy
conditions derived from information in either the lexical
token stream or the symbol table or both. (4.4.1)

lname Transform a FORTRAN program containing long names to a
program with standard names. (4.4.2)

stf Rebuild the flow of control in a FORTRAN program to
standardized form. (4.5.1)

ucs Transform nests of DO loops matching certain paradigms
so that the transformed code executes more efficiently
on vector machines. (4.6.1)

Miscellaneous Facilities

fdiff Compare two FORTRAN programs at the lexical token
level. (5.1.1)

dac Compare two data files, neglecting certain formatting
differences and numerical differences smaller than a
given tolerance. (5.1.2)

vcon Create, edit, and retrieve versions of a file contained
in a version file. (5.2.1)

discard Remove unneeded files created by the above scripts. (5.3.1)

scripts Print this summary of the scripts. (5.4.1)


TOOLPACK can be obtained by anonymous ftp from:

directory: pub/Lang/Toolpack/

The UNIX version is in the file: toolpack.tar.Z

Serious hackers will want the versions in the Distrib directory.

The package is known to compile on Silicon Graphics and Sun
machines, though the Makefile is reasonably braindamaged.

You will need about 16 MB for the stripped executables on an
SGI machine. Figure on double that for compiling the package.....

Have fun!
John D. McCalpin
Assistant Professor
College of Marine Studies, U. Del.

NAGWare f77 Tools

The NAGWare f77 Tools are a development of Toolpack/1 that raises
it from a public domain distribution service to a fully supported
NAG product.

Large parts of the software have been completely rewritten and
considerable new functionality added, although all the old
functionality of the analysis and transformational tools is
still there.

First released in 1991, the current version,
Release 2 contains:

nag_apt - Arithmetic precision transformation.
nag_chname - Token based name changer.
nag_decs - Declaration standardiser (can generify intrinsics).
nag_fcalls - Call tree generator.
nag_fxref - Variable cross-referencer.
nag_libdoc - Interface lister.
nag_lvi - Local variable initialiser.
nag_metrics - Software metrics.
nag_pfort - Portability verifier.
nag_polish - Pretty printer.
nag_polopt - Polish option file editor.
nag_struct - Restructurer.
nag_profile - Profiler and report generator.

The tools are available for most Unix and VMS.

These are just some of the many improvements and enhancements that
we have made:

1. The US Military standard extensions (DO WHILE, ENDDO,
IMPLICIT NONE, INCLUDE etc.) have been added to the
familiar Toolpack/1 language definition, but analyser
tools still report all extensions to the ANSI standard.

2. The tools have been substantially rewritten to increase
the execution speed. Notably the lexer and parser have
been 100% rewritten to operate faster and give very much
better error messages and error recovery.

3. The user interfaces for the tools are integrated well with
the target operating systems. Access is via Unix scripts
(or VMS command language) that carry out complete tasks.

e.g. To invoke the Portability Verifier for a mixture of
Fortran and Attribute files, with lower case character
warnings suppressed:


nag_pfort -nolcwarn a*.f b*.atr


nag_pfort/nolcwarn a*.for,b*.atr

The script calls the semantic analyser for the Fortran
files and passes the Attribute files straight to the
Portability Verifier.

Or, to call the Precision Transform and Declaration
Standardise in one step:


nag_apt -decs file.f


nag_apt/decs file.for

4. User oriented documentation is based around the scripts.
A relatively slim volume provides all the necessary
information to run the tools. A step by step introduction
to each of the tools is provided, with small examples.

5. The portability verifier has switches that allow groups
of less serious messages to be suppressed. For example,
all warnings about use of non standard characters in strings
can be switched off.

6. The portability verifier can dump its internal tables to a
"library file" that can be loaded in a subsequent pfort run.
This can be used to provide a definition of argument passage
in a subroutine library to check a program that calls the
subroutine library. Library files are more compact and more
efficient than attribute files for this purpose.

7. Include files are dealt with sensibly by default, the lexer
knows about the MIL-STD INCLUDE statement and merges include
files. The polisher, by default, un-includes the included text.
Nag_decs, again by default, does not declare variables declared
in include files.

8. Tools are distributed in executable form only. The installation
task is therefore minimal.

We are developing a new option to the Portability Verifier to aid
in porting to Fortran 90 by allowing Mil. Std. extensions, names
up to 31 characters, etc, without the usual errors/warnings.

NAGWare f90 Tools

These tools make use of the front-end of the NAGWare f90 compiler.
Currently, only a small suite of tools is offered, but development
is on-going. Fixed format input is acceptable, but all output is
free format. Release 2.1 contents are:

- Pretty printer (polish)
- Declaration standardiser
- Precision standardiser (Standardises precision of
- Name changer
- Call Graph Generator
- Dependency Analyser (Generates Makefile dependencies)
- Interface Block Builder
- Use Statement Annotator (Adds an ONLY list to
USE statements listing imports)

Also a module builder and polish options editor are provided.

Release 2.1 has a full Graphical User Interface as well as a
command line interface.

Availability: Most Unix (now).

Best regards and many thanks, Ian.

Ian Hounam Tel: +44 (0)1865 511245
Software Engineering Group Fax: +44 (0)1865 311205
NAG Ltd.
Wilkinson House
Jordan Hill Road
Oxford OX2 8DR

NAG Ltd. NAG Inc.
Wilkinson House
1400 Opus Place
Jordan Hill Road
Suite 200
Oxford OX2 8DR Downers Grove
IL 60515-5702

Email: Email:
Tel: +44 1865 311744 Tel: +1 708 971 2337
Fax: +44 1865 311755 Fax: +1 708 971 2706

NAGWare Web page:


Aside from code reformatting, there is the other meaning
of pretty printing ...

~From: James F Hall <>

Second, on Q12 in the faq, about available pretty printers for
Fortran... Some time ago, I found a pretty printer called "lgrind",
which converted a Fortran program into LaTeX/TeX. This text could
be included in a larger LaTeX/TeX file, or processed immediately.
I chose not to use this because I found it was not the best use
of my quota, but others may find it useful.

Lgrind may be found using an archie search: archie lgrind ;;;;


2.2.2) Are there pretty printers for FORTRAN? Flowchart generators?


One such is SPAG: Authors are:

Polyhedron Software Ltd.
Linden House
93 High St.
United Kingdom

Tel: +44(0)1865-300579
Fax: +44(0)1865-300232
Compuserve: 100013,461

it's part of their plusFORT product. See above.

Another is Fortran development Tools from Quibus 714 527 1384

Also FOR_STRUCT from cobalt-blue:

Cobalt Blue, Inc.,
555 Sun Valley Drive,
Suite K-4,
Roswell, GA 30076

Tel: (770) 518-1116,
Fax: (770) 640-1182

These more than pretty print, they optionally restructure your
code (duplicating code as needed to tidy up strange GOTO lists,
turning them into IF-THEN chains, and etc.).

some more:

~From: dap...@grafted.UUCP (Dave Appel)
uucp: ..!uunet!grafted.UUCP!dappel
--------------------------------------- (Bill Gieske) writes:
> I have tons of old FORTRAN
> code, most of it in upper case, the majority of it not indented.
> Is there a code beautifier, either PD or $$ that I can run the
> code through to improve the readability, hence the main-tainability?
> Reply to me direct. I will summarize if appropriate.
> Bill Gieske AT&T Bell Laboratories

Call "The Connection at 800-336-1166" and ask for their
software catalog.

In their catalog that I have, Sprint 1992, there is an ad on
page 39 from AutoCASE Technology.
They have a product called "AutoFLOW-FORTRAN" that lists for $1,995.
It claims to automatically document your existing source code.
AutoCASE's number is 408-446-2273.

On page 93 is an ad from POWERLINE Software Inc. Their number
is 800-257-5773, 206-623-9204. They offer a product called
SOURCE PRINT+, which they call a code management tool with
"multi-style formatting with structured code blocking."

They have a Fortran/Basic version for $169, and a Delux
Multi-language version for $249. This program is for
DOS (MS-DOS presumably) Windows, and OS/2.

Hope this helps. Dave Appel

Hindsight/Fortran Summary:

Features include the ability to draw an interactive structure
chart and display coverage, software complexity and performance
information on the structure chart. There are also code tracing
features, for instance 3 logic diagrams are produced.
Common blocks can be traced through the structure charts,
including specific variables within common blocks.
Hindsight is excellent for documentation, code inspection,
and bringing new software engineers up to speed on new code.

For more information or a free demo copy, contact:

Rich Fienberg, National Account Manager
Advanced Software Automation, Inc.
3130A Coronado Dr
Santa Clara, 95054

Phone: 408 492-1668
Fax: 408 492-1669
Free Seminars Fridays 2-4pm

Alternative contact (if Dan cannot be reached:

Other tools:

Refine/FORTRAN ("re-engineering tool")

Reasoning Systems Inc
415 494 6201

* The Refine Language Tool[tm] Refine/Fortran[tm].

Customers use Refine/Fortran to analyze their large FORTRAN
applications and then to better understand these applications.
They gain enlightenment about their own software by printing
reports and diagrams.

They also apply various workbench features to online versions
of these reports to find out more about their applications,
including information as to how the pieces _really_ fit
together per the semantics of FORTRAN.

There are reports about coding standards violations, variables,
variable access, subprograms and call graphs, and data flow
via COMMON and EXTERNAL blocks. Coming soon: control flow graphs.

* Software Refinery[tm].

Refine/Fortran is unique in the marketplace; it's the only
extensible FORTRAN application analysis tool.
A customer uses Software Refinery, a product we also sell,
to add custom analyses or reports or online displays to


pub/fortran/fxref.tar.Z from
create cross reference of a FORTRAN program.


CLEAN77 available from Purdue University.
Mail Greg Flint ( for more info.


There is a program called TIDY that is available via
anonymous FTP from simtel20:

directory: pub/msdos/fortran/


Cadre Teamwork

222 Richmond
Providence, RI 02903
Phone (401) 351-5950 Fax (401)

Cadre Technologies Inc. Cadre Teamwork is a large suite
of integrated CASE tools that run on Unix and VAX platforms.

Their core products are structured analysis (with real-time extensions)
and design, information modeling, and an integrated data dictionary.

More recently, they have added many extensions, including
a C development environment, C and Fortran reverse engineering
(build a structure chart from source code), testing tools,
and others.

FORTRAN Partner:

~From: (Steve Lionel)

~Newsgroups: comp.lang.fortran
~Subject: Re: Code formatter for FORTRAN
~Date: 15 Jun 1994 15:02:38 GMT
Organization: Digital Equipment Corporation, Nashua NH
~Reply-To: (Steve Lionel)

In article <2tn1bf$>, (Jan Gatowski EN/16) writes:

|> Does anyone know if there exists a (commercial or freeware)
|> FORTRAN code indenter/formatter? A friend is faced with
|> revamping a largely unreadable old code and could use any
|> available tools to render it more legible.

While I was at UK DECUS I attended a talk which described a product
called The FORTRAN Partner which has as its capabilities (according
to the documemtation I have):

Screening: automatically checking whole FORTRAN programs
for classes of error not detected by compiler

Troubleshooting: analysing programmes interactively to expose
problems or inconsistencies

Porting: moving code to different FORTRAN environments

Standardising: converting code to a consistent style and
creating a framework for documentation

Optimising: optimising code for speed of execution

The product is available on the following platforms:

Alliant FX80
Avalon Vaccelerator AP/30
Digital VAX (OpenVMS)
Digital Alpha AXP (OpenVMS)
HP Risc Processors under Unix
IBM PC and compatible systems with minimum 80386
processor and Maths Coprocessor
IBM Risc System 6000 under AIX
Parsys Supernode under Idris
Silicon Graphics MIPS processors under IRIS
Sun SPARC and compatible under Solaris and SunOS

The vendor is:

Software Validation Limited
PO Box 270
Swindon SN4 0TQ
Tel: +44 (0) 793 740002
Fax: +44 (0) 793 740974

A single workstation/PC price is given as 945 Pounds.
I don't know what a US price would be.

One of the claims which impressed me was the ability to understand
many different syntax variants and convert them to a more standard
form. The formatting rules are customizable. (The optimizations
consist of inline expansion and loop unrolling.)

I have not actually tried this product (I just got a demo disc today)
and this should in no way be considered an endorsement of the
product by either myself or Digital Equipment Corporation.
However, it looks like it would be worth considering for
some applications.

Steve Lionel Mail:
SDT Languages Group WWW:
Digital Equipment Corporation
110 Spit Brook Road, ZKO2-3/N30
Nashua, NH 03062-2698
"Free advice is worth every cent"


2.2.3) Is there a WEB for Fortran (and what is web anyway)?

~From: (Thomas Koenig)

FWEB is available via anonymous ftp; use archie(above)
to determine current location(s).

As for the more general question, what is WEB ....

WEB is a "literate" programming system created by Knuth
(he of reference book fame, and TeX fame, and etc.).

It permits the programmer to write code and documentation together.
WEB takes the "high level code and documentation" and creates real
publishable documentation (using TeX or LaTeX) and compilable code.
WEB versions for many languages are available.

Some features of FWEB are:

1) FWEB is a pretty printer. Code is pretty printed by
sending the FWEB file through "fweave" and "TeX".
fweave inserts TeX control characters around the code for
pretty printing. Fweave also collects a cross-referenced
index of *all* identifiers and prints them at the end of
the code listing.

2) FWEB has built in macro preprocessing, which *does*
understand FORTRAN syntax and code layout rules.
A line extending beyond column 72 will be broken into
proper continuation lines.

3) FWEB is multilingual: it understands C,C++,f77,f90,
and RatFor.


2.2.4) Fortran text editors?

[...] More generally, Unipress emacs has a Fortran mode.
There are XEDIT, BRIEF, TPU and EDT clones available on many
common platforms these days.

~From: (Thomas Koenig)
bitnet: ig...@dkauni2.bitnet

If you use EMACS, you can use M-x fortran-mode. An extended
version, which includes the fortran-auto-fill-mode minor mode,
is available via anonymous ftp from:

host: []
directory: /emacs

More generally, Unipress emacs has a Fortran mode.
There are XEDIT, BRIEF, TPU and EDT clones available on many
common platforms these days.

~From: (Bernd R Eggen)

Torbjorn Einarsson has made available Fortran 90 modes for Emacs
19.x (and xemacs). They are available e.g. from the Mailbase list
for Fortran 90, comp-fortran-90 from 12/Jan/1995 onwards. I would
like to express my gratitude to Torbjorn Einarsson for making this
valuable tool publicly accessible.

Files can be retrieved either via anonymous
ftp to:

directory: /pub/lists/comp-fortran-90/files/

by Gopher and WWW (World Wide Web), URL (Universal Resource


or by sending an e-mail to:,

containing the command:

send <listname> <filename>

(e.g. send comp-fortran-90 f90.el).

~From: John E. Davis

In addition, JED has a Fortran mode that is very much like the
emacs Fortran mode. JED also has a very nice EDT emulation and
runs on MSDOS, Unix, VMS, as well as DEC Alpha systems.

JED is no longer available from It is now
available in the USA from:

and in Europe from:

The latest version is 0.97-14. A .gif image of JED is also
available from

Despite the fact that the version number is below 1.0, the editor
is VERY stable--- the version is below 1.0 because I feel that the
documentation is not quite up to 1.0 levels.

Here is a partial list of features:

o runs under Unix, VMS, and IBMPC (all versions)
X Window version also available

o emacs*, wordstar*, EDT* emulation C, Fortran*, tex*,
text editing modes

o C-like extension language called S-Lang.

o user configurable (bind keys, write functions, etc....)

o region highlighting (even on character based terminals!)

o Syntax highlighting in Beta test (even on character based

o 8 bit clean, edit binary files too.

o rectangular (box) cut/paste

o backup and autosave files

o full undo

o regular expressions

o GNU Emacs compatable

o info reader* calendar* mail*, elm like rmail*
(rmail new in 0.95 version) dired directory editor*

o automatic horizontal pan/scroll (configurable)

o parenthesis matching/blinking

o filename, buffername, function name completion

o Menu driven for novice users*

o incremental search/replace*

o sorting

o no hardcoded buffer/line limits

o multiple windows and buffers

o keyboard macros with macro query feature.

o buffer mode lines are configurable, e.g., display time,
line number, etc...

o ispell* shell commands and ``interactive'' shell*

* Note: these functions are written in the extension language.

John E. Davis internet:
bitnet: davis@ohstpy


2.2.5) How can I convert an existing FORTRAN 77 program to the free
form source of Fortran 90?

Source code conversion program from ftp

Many people who start to code in Fortran 90 prefer to do so using
the new, less restictive, source form. However, a problem arises
when wanting to modify old FORTRAN 77 code while sticking to the
new style. To help in this situation, a source code conversion
program has been written (and well tested) and made availble by
anonymous ftp.

Apart from the conversion, the program can:

o ensure that blanks are used correctly in the code as they
are significant with the new source form;

o indent DO-loops and IF-blocks;

o replace CONTINUE by END DO, where appropriate;

o add subprogram names to END statements;

o change non-standard length specification syntax,
like INTEGER*2, to the Fortran 90 equivalent,
in all contexts (type statements, FUNCTION statements,
and IMPLICIT statements);

o produce an interface block automatically from the
source code of a procedure - useful to the library
developer when wishing to use this important new
facility with an existing library.

The source code can be obtained by anonymous
ftp to: (

When prompted for a userid, reply with: anonymous
and give your name as password.
The directory is /pub/MandR and the file name is convert.f90.

Mike Metcalf (


2.2.6) What is preprocessing, how can it help? How can it hurt?

Preprocessing often refers to usage of a Macro-prepressor
upon ones source code prior to compilation.

How can this help?

It can make it easier to move code between machines.

How can this hurt?

It can cause difficulties in compilation of the processed code;
most (if not all) macro-preprocessors know nothing about Fortran
syntax and code layout rules. So, a common problem is that after
preprocessing some text may be lost past "sacred" column 72.
Those working with compilers that optionally compile *past* line
72 should probably employ that option when using a preprocessor.

Common prepressors are: cpp, m4, and ratfor. Many sites have their
own custom prepressors. Basic functions are:

1) definition of a symbol
2) conditional code selection based on a symbol
3) substition of a symbol by its definition

Traditional BSD Unix f77 processors treat a file named foo.F
(as opposed to foo.f) as one that should be run through cpp
prior to compilation "automatically".

2.3) Fortran Packages and libraries

2.3.1) Where can I get "foo" (some random package), older posts
to comp.lang.fortran etc

~From: (Marc R. Roussel)

Use archie. archie is an online database of what is available
and where on the "net". Archie can be used either via telnet
or by mail. For information about archie send mail to: subject: help

And you will get back copious directions on how to use archie.
If you prefer interactive experimentation, telnet to:

and log in as archie. No password will be required.
The first thing you will be shown is a list of other archie servers.
If one of these servers is geographically much closer to you than
Rutgers, NJ, please disconnect (by typing 'quit') and use that one.
To save you this step, here is a list of archie sites: (Rutgers University) (University of Nebraska
in Lincoln) (SURAnet archie server) (ANS archie server) (Australian server) (European server in Finland) (UK/England server) (Israel server) (Japanese server)

I believe that all of these servers run the mail server as well
as the telnet and archie server software. (The archie server
is a third way to use archie. It's probably the best way,
but it requires that you install software.)

Once you logged into an archie server, you will want to make
sure that all the information you will retrieve will be mailed
to you. Type:

set mailto

where, of course, you will substitute your own email address
for the made-up one shown above. You are now ready to search
the database. If at any time you want to know what options are
available to you, type help. To search for a program or file,

prog foo

where foo is the name of the program or file required.
Once your search is done, type 'mail' to have the output sent
to you. (The output will almost always be several pages long.)
Then type 'quit' to exit.

comp.lang.fortran archives

Dejanews archives all Usenet newsgroups, a convenient "entry
point" for browsing news is:

Older news items (more than three months) are kept separatly.


2.3.2) Where can I find coded BLAS (and what are coded BLAS?)

The BLAS (basic linear algebra software) comes in several
flavors: BLAS-1, -2, and -3. These can be described as
scalar, vector and matrix-matrix levels.

"Coded" BLAS are either hand coded in assembler, or at
least tweaked for a given machine.

Some vendors provide these, some are provided on the net
(see archie) and some are marketed by various commercial

In addition, it should be noted that BLAS-3 is very amenable
to parallel processing. Done cleverly, this could be done by
a network of processors over a net.

DSS markets just such an implementation. Contact the folks
below. The following material is their marketing blurb:

and VFFTPACK available for the entire SPARC hardware and
software line.

DSSLIB is based on LAPACK 2.0, but is backward compatible with
all previous LAPACKs.

Single-CPU optimization typically yields 2x-4x over Netlib code.
MP computation yields significantly better than that, reaching
almost half a gigaflop on a top-of-the-line Sun MP machine and
exceeding even that on SPARC MP supercomputers.

Interfaces are shipped with DSSLIB to allow users of IMSL/Math,
Rogue Wave's math libraries, IDL from Research Systems,
and others to optimize and parallelize their applications
without making source code changes.

The company can be contacted at: Dakota Scientific Software, Inc.
2241 Cedar Drive Rapid City, SD 57702-3245
+1.800.641.8851 voice
+1.605.394.8851 voice
+1.605.348.9623 fax


2.3.3) Where can I get mathematical software

There are, of course, many commerical operations which provide
high quality software. NAG and IMSL to name just two.

netlib and archie (mentioned above) can be used to good effect
to find specific freeware (public domain, shareware or mostly
freely distributable source).

In addition, NASA's COSMIC distributes some government funded

One particular bit of NASA software, MATH77 a large math library
created by numerical analysts at JPL is available from:

Language Systems Corp.
441 Carlisle Dr.
Herndon, VA 22070
tel: (800) 252-6479

An excellent place to look for such things is the Web page
of Tomasz Plewa:


2.3.4) What Interval Arithmetic Packages are available?

(Michel Olagnon, Ifremer DITI GO,

The CADNA package implements stochastic arithmetic (a sort of
interval arithmetic) in Fortran 90 on the top of any standard
Fortran 77 program. That is, if you have a working Fortran 77
program, you can use CADNA to see what results you get with
stochastic arithmetic.

For information on CADNA, or a demo version,

3 Avenue de l'Opera
tel: +33 1 44 55 30 80
fax: +33 1 40 15 95 54

For information on stochastic arithmetic (similar to interval
arithmetic, but the intervals are the most probable error bounds
instead of the maximum bounds), refer to:

Vignes, Jean,
A stochastic arithmetic for reliable scientific
computation MATCOM 940
-- Mathematics and Computers in Simulation 35 (1993) 233-261.

~From: (Thomas Koenig)

You might try the XSC series of languages developed at
the Institute for Applied Mathematics at the University
of Karlsruhe (look at:

if you've got access to Mosaic), or send mail to:

(Rolf Hammer) for more information.

I'm fairly sure about Pascal, C, and C++; I also believe
IBM sells a compiler based and their VS series of compilers.


2.3.5) FLIB Announcement ... Freeware

Date: Mon, 22 May 1995 19:39:41
Organization: Kansas State University
Lines: 93
Message-ID: <>
Keywords: FORTRAN Freeware
X-Newsreader: Trumpet for Windows [Version 1.0 Rev A]

Hello FORTRAN People, This is the first general announcement
of the FORTRAN Library (FLIB).
One of the unique aspects of this code repository is that a
considerable amount of source code is available for non-numeric
tasks, .e.g.,

string manipulation,
time and date functions,
conversion of numbers to strings (and vice versa),

Many of these tasks are among the most Frequently Asked
Questions (FAQ) in the FORTRAN usenet group.

The preferred (by me) method of accessing FLIB is through the
World Wide Web. The information and code descriptions provided
via the web will be more up-to-date and comprehensive, and it
will be easier for you to maintain a stable link to this code
repository if you access it via the uniform resource locator

FLIB can also be reached by generic file transfer protocol (ftp).
If you have trouble accessing FLIB via your web client,
try using a generic ftp program to access the anonymous
ftp server at:

Login as anonymous and enter your email address
(e.g., as the password.
The flib files are under the directory ~pub/robs/flib.

The current scope of the code in FLIB is summarized below.
Please feel free to send me an email message describing your
opinion/experience with FLIB (remember however that this is

Rob Stewart

Scope of Code Repository

The FLIB routines are currently divided into five areas:


This package contains approximately 50 routines to
manipulate character strings (e.g., upper to lowercase,
removal of specific characters from a string, macro
substitution). convert numbers to strings and vice versa,
align/center text in specific columns, plus more...


For now this package contains less than 10 routines; basic
routines are provided to scale, rotate, and translate points
between coordinate systems. These routines are quite useful
in a number of computer simulations involving 2 and
3-dimensional geometries -- including graphics.


This package contains approximately 30 routines to generate
random numbers sample from various probability density
functions (pdf) including a disk, plate, box, sphere, and
unit direction vectors from arbitrarily oriented cones
(NOTE: some routines call routines from GeomPak). All of the
algorithms for random number genration are based on the
discussion of Lehmer generators (circa 1951) in the article

Park, S.K. and Miller, K.W.,
Random number generators: good ones are hard to find.
Communications of the ACM, 31, No 10 (Oct. 1988).


A set of routines to access and manipulate the system time
and date, compute the elapased time between two events,
etc... Since most of these routines are system and compiler
dependent, you will also need to select the appropriate file
from the Compiler Abstraction Layer (CAL) -- see below.

Compiler Abstraction Layer (CAL)

A set of stubs or wrappers for widely used but non-portable
and non-standard system calls or routines (e.g., system time
and date).

Rob Stewart --or--

Diplomacy: The art of saying "nice doggie" until you can find a rock.


3.1) Fortran and other languages (Essentially C)

3.1.1) "Why do people use FORTRAN?, C is so much better"

One should avoid such pointless arguments .... if you feel
this way, don't subscribe to comp.lang.fortran.

This sort of question always triggers off a protracted
discussion, the highlights of which are typically:

a) FORTRAN and C have different semantics. A FORTRAN optimizer
knows more about aliasing, function interactions, and I/O.
A C optimizer has to infer or compute such information.
C bigots typically have neither written such optimizers nor
worked with folks who do it for a living, and are prone to
dismiss such arguments as being petty and neolithic.

FORTRAN programmers are often a bit more in touch with high
performance computing, and are unwilling to bet that heavily
on compiler wizardry.

<enter Peter van der Linden author of "Expert C Programming" >

In addition, ANSI C section on Program Execution
makes it clear that associative and commutative regrouping
of operands is only allowed if it produces the same result
as it would if the regrouping had not been done.
Where it makes a difference is on hardware that produces
an exception on arithmetic overflow, and the regrouping
either causes or avoids an exception,
that otherwise would not/would take place. In ANSI C

a = a + 32760 + b

MUST be evaluated as (a + 32760) + b NOT as a +(32760 + b)
UNLESS the overflow exception will be the same in either case.

Fortran is somewhat less tightly-buttoned about this, and
allows the compiler-writer to regroup the expression and
evaluate it in either order. Thus, in Fortran, whether you
get an exception or not depends on the compiler, the level
of optimization, and the hardware. In ANSI C, it only depends
on the hardware.

Of course, compiler options, vendor extensions and the like
sometimes narrow the difference. Also, some Fortran compilers
do not take advantage of all of these features of the language,
thus narrowing the gap in the other direction.

On any given code, on any given system, all bets are off.

b) There is a vast body of existing FORTRAN code (much of which
is publically available and of high quality). Numerical codes
are particularly difficult to "vet", scientific establishments
usually do not have large otherwise idle programming staffs, etc.
so massive recoding into any new language is typically resisted
quite strongly.

c) Fortran tends to meet some of the needs of scientists better.
Most notably, it has built in support for: - variable dimension
array arguments in subroutines - a compiler-supported infix
exponentiation operator which is generic with respect to both
precision and type, *and* which is generally handled very
efficiently or the commonly occuring special case
floating-point**small-integer - complex arithmetic -
generic-precision intrinsic functions

d) Retraining staff is quite expensive.

e) It is sometimes argued that: - Jonathan Thornburg <also
responsible for misc. other fixups>

Fortran tends to be easier for non-experts to learn than C,
because its "mental model of the computer" is much simpler.
For example, in Fortran the programmer can generally avoid
learning about pointers and memory addresses, while these
are essential in C.

More generally, in Fortran the difference between (C notation)
x, &x, and often even *x is basically hidden, while in C
it's exposed. For non-experts this makes Fortran
a considerably simpler language.

Because of this relative simplicity, for simple programming
tasks which fall within its domain, (say writing a simple
least-squares fitting routine), Fortran generally requires
much less computer science knowledge of the programmer than
C does, and is thus much easier to use.

An interesting (pro-Fortran 90) viewpoint on this subject from
a practical point of view can be found at:

It's called "Fortran 90 as a language of choice for engineering
students", and was written by Dr. John K. Prentice from Quetzal
Computational Associates (Email:


3.1.2) Why are there aimless debates?

There are some persistent individuals who would like computer
systems to work in a fashion somewhat unlike they do now.
It seems pointless to debate with them; the debates (in
various groups) always take the same form and never result
in meaningful dialog.

One can usually recognize such by reading a week or so's worth
of postings. Sometimes you may have to read for a month to
recognize such. When you do, please try to avoid triggering
(or responding to) such individuals.

Many (if not most) newsreaders support a feature entitled
KILL files. As you recognize individuals, you may wish to
put them into your local kill file.
For example, the style employed by GNUS:

(gnus-kill "From" "dw...@place.ISP")
(gnus-kill "Subject" "test")

the first kills off all postings from the named individual,
the second kills off all postings including the beloved
"test" string. See your local NewsGod for details suitable
for your local system.


3.1.3) How do I call f77 from C (and visa versa) This is quite
platform dependent.

For Suns see the FORTRAN User's Guide, Chapter 14.

There is a package available from usenet which attempts
to make this "quick and easy" for a wide range
of platforms:

Location: /newsarchive/comp.sources.misc/volume20 DIRECTORY
drwxr-xr-x 512 Jul 7 1993 cfortran

Location: /pub/usenet/comp.sources.misc/volume20 DIRECTORY
drwxrwxr-x 512 May 28 1993 cfortran

Location: /usenet/comp.sources.misc/volume20 DIRECTORY
drwxr-xr-x 8192 Oct 30 15:09 cfortran

Location: /dec/.0/usenet/comp.sources.misc/volume20 DIRECTORY
dr-xr-xr-x 512 Jul 8 1993 cfortran

Location: /pub/netnews/sources.misc/volume20 DIRECTORY
drwxr-xr-x 512 Jun 7 1993 cfortran

Location: /pub/archives/comp.sources.misc/vol20 DIRECTORY
drwxrwxr-x 512 Jun 2 1993 cfortran

It is on many other sites (around the world) too.
See archie if you need other pointers.

For some systems, you have to initialize a runtime system
explicitly if you call a different language, and stopping
execution from the other program may not work.

The most recent version of cfortran.h is available
via anon. ftp from:



~From: (Rudi Vankemmel)

Yongtao Chen ( wrote:
: .......
: * How to call NAG Fortran Library with C (under Unix) ? *

: We have a NAG Fortran Library on our machine but I do not
: know how to call them in my C program. Can anybody give
: me some advice about how to do this?

Hello, we have some programs written in C calling the NAG library
(which is written in Fortran). There are a number of important
things you must be aware of:

1) Fortran uses a column wise storage of matrices while C stores
them row wise. This means that when you want to parse a matrix
from your C-program to the NAG (-fortran-) routine you must
transpose the matrix in your program before entering the routine.
Of course, any output from such a routine must be transposed again.

If you ommit this step, then probably your program will run
(because it has data to compute on) but it will generate wrong

B.T.W. if you have the Fortran source code (of any routine)
then on some platforms you may use compiler directives specifying
that the Fortran compiler must use row wise storage.
Some platforms support these directives. However watch out with
this if you call the same routine from another Fortran

2) Your Fortran compiler may add an underscore "_" to the routine
name in the symbol table e.g. subroutine example(..,..,..)
becomes example_ in the table. Hence in the calling
C-program/routine you must add a trailing underscore !
Otherwise the loader will complain about an undefined symbol
"example" while "example_" is loaded.

However, check your compiler for this. For example the Fortran
compiler on VAX-VMS systems does NOT add a trailing underscore
(there watch out with the fact that the VAX-Fortran compiler
translates everything in uppercase).

3) Fortran passes its variables by reference. This means that you
MUST give adresses in your calling C-program (i know, this is
a stupid remark but it is too often forgotten (my experience ....)).

4) Watch out especially with float's and double's. Make sure that
the size of the variable in the calling program is identical to
the size in the Fortran routine e.g.

double <----> real*8,
float <----> real

This is extremely important on machines with little endian byte
ordening. Parsing a float (C-routine) to a real*8 (Fortran)
number will not generate SEGV but give wrong results as the data
is parsed wrongly.

5) Remember that the array index in Fortran starts at 1 while in C
this is at index 0; hence a parsed array fortran_array[1:100]
must be used in the C-routine/program as c_array[0:99].

Good luck with it !! Rudi Vankemmel

another post:

~From: (Reginald Beardsley)

I do a lot of this. The following is true on the following
machines. I cannot say about others.

Sun 3 & 4 IBM
Intergraph Clipper (Apogee & Green Hills compilers)
H-P 7xx

1) If possible, do not pass strings to FORTRAN from C or vice versa.

2) Do not mix I/O on the same file descriptors.

3) Do all your math in FORTRAN, and all the rest in C
if at all possible.

4) NEVER ever attempt to write the equivalent of a FORTRAN
function that returns a character variable in C.
Life is too short for the suffering it causes.

5) If you do ANY I/O in FORTRAN, you MUST use a FORTRAN mainprogram.

6) FORTRAN always passes pointers. <not necessarily khb>

7) FORTRAN passes string lengths BY VALUE in the order the
strings appear in the argument list. These do NOT appear
in the FORTRAN argument list, but will appear in the C
argument list.

8) You will need to take care of nulls and blanks spaces
explicitly if you ignor

9) The Sun FORTRAN compiler used lex and yacc to do the conversion
of a run time format from a character variable. If you use
lex and yacc either rename the variables and functions or
partially link before you link to the FORTRAN libraries.

10) FORTRAN symbols have trailing underscores appended.
Some compilers require a compiler flag to get this.
Use it! It makes the code more portable.

11) Don't pass structures. If you must access a structure element,
pass a pointer through to a routine which passes back the
element pointer.

12) Don't forget that the storage orders for arrays is opposite
and transposition is expensive.

I currently have many lines of code with FORTRAN calling C calling
FORTRAN. It's not my choice of things to do, but it works well.
Much better than using the wrong language for the task. My only
regret is that I'm forced to pass a lot of strings between the two

Reginald H. Beardsley

followup to first post:

~From: (Andrew Mullhaupt)

In article <> (Christian Brechbue

> It is important that you know what's happening when Fortran
> and C access array elements. But I never had to perform
> any "transposition" step in a program. You just have to
> read the definitions the other way. When the manual says
> A(j+1,i+1) I understand this means a[i][j] in C, etc.

This is true enough, but there are times when you don't want
to modify already existing FORTRAN and C you may have to write
a transposition wrapper.

This can be advisable for reasons of clarity (i.e. keeping the
documentation the code and the math in sync.) and for reasons
of performance.

Andrew Mullhaupt


Most vendors have surprisingly complete documentation of this sort
of thing ... if one troubles to look for it. There is, for example,
an entire chapter in the SunPro Fortran documentation <khb>


3.1.4) For whatever reasons, I want to translate my Fortran into C.
What tools are available?

f90 from NAG, see above

f2c see above.

FORTRAN=C=FORTRIX=Rapitech Rapitech (914) 368-3000

FORTRAN=C=FOR_C=Cobalt Blue 404 518 1116
tel: (770) 518-1116,
Fax: (770) 640-1182

FORTRAN=C=PROMULA.FORTRAN=Promula (614) 263-5512


3.1.5) For whatever reasons, I want to translate my existing C code
into Fortran. What tools are available?

Regretably none. This is indeed unfortunate, as even a limited
translator could help with typical C header files.


3.2) Compiler and system differences

3.2.1) My compiler is mis-behaving; who enforces the standard?

ANSI and ISO standards do not usually have a particular
enforcement mechanism. Local bodies sometimes do.

However, it should be borne in mind that if *your* source code
is not standard compliant there is *NO* obligation for a FORTRAN
('77 and before) compiler to do *ANYTHING* in particular.
In Fortran (90) the text in "constraints" must be tested and a
warning produced (compiler option can be used to evade this, of course).

Some (notably Guy Steele, with respect to another standard)
have noted that when non-standard complying code is encountered,
a compiler may do *ANYTHING* including initation of Global Warfare.
Keep this in mind.

When you do find a bona fide compiler bug, you are generally
best served by reporting it to the *vendor*. If you neglect to
tell the vendor, how can you complain about it not being fixed?

When reporting a *suspected* bug be sure to be quite specific
about the computer system, operating system rev level (patches
applied if known) and *compiler*version* (and patches thereof).
It is very hard for people to read your mind; but they will try.
The attempts are often entertaining, sometimes helpful, but
always an inefficient use of people-time and net-bandwidth.

Also note that it is generally helpful if you cut down the
example to the smallest size you can.
Vendors are developers too; the tendency is invest time/money
where one can get the biggest bang for the buck.


3.2.2) My F77 program compiled ok on a <system1>, but gives me heaps
of syntax errors on a <system2>. What's wrong?

~from: (Thomas Koenig)

Most likely, the program was written with a line length greater
than 72. If your compiler supports it, turn on the option for
greater line length (e.g. -e is not uncommon) ;
otherwise, split up the lines by hand, or via one of those
pretty-printers/restructing tools mentioned above.


3.2.3) My F77 program ran ok on a <system1>, but on a <system2>,
it just gives me strange results. What's wrong?

Original: (Thomas Koenig)
Revised by: (Melvin Klassen)

There are different reasons why this could happen. Possibly, your
program violates the standard in some way which is not caught by the
compiler on <system1>, or in some way which the compiler on
<system1> intentionally allowed, e.g., in FORTRAN 77,
variable-names were restricted to 6 upper-case characters, while
many compilers were extended to handle longer, mixed-case names.

Some programs rely on the retention of values between invocations.
Use SAVE statements for those variables which you need to keep
across function calls.

Some programs rely on variables to be initialized to zero when a
subroutine or function is first called. Some compilers (VAX/VMS
for example) exhibit this behaviour.

Some operating systems (IBM's MVS/ESA and VM/ESA for example)
have been observed to fill with a "zero" value the first time
you reference a previously-unused area of virtual storage.

Compilers on newer architectures often fill variables with
garbage on each new function call. This is permitted,
according to the standard.

The solution is to explicitly initialize all variables.

Your compiler may have an option to trap uninitialized variables;
use that to find the trouble spots. For example, the IBM VS
compiler will do a static-flow-analysis, and report such errors,
when you specify the 'OPT(2)' option. Alternatively, if you are
desperate, try to compile using a flag which forces static
allocation of all variables.

Another problem might be that the accuracy of REAL and DOUBLE
PRECISION differs between different platforms; that can cause
roundoff error to wipe out your results or your program to go into
endless loops.

Yet another (and much more subtle) problem can occur if a lot of
formatted I/O is employed. The conversion from internal to external
representations can introduce very significant errors; much worse on
some platforms than others (doing correctly rounded base conversion
is expensive).

There are, of course, lots of other possibilities, these are just a
starting point.


3.2.4) How can I read my VAX binary data somewhere else?

Some vendors provide bulit in methods (DEC provides this via
special options on the OPEN statement). Others provide library
support (on SPARC products, with the SunPro compilers, checkout

In addition, Accerl8 provides a commerial tool. Contact:

Harry Fleury Tel: (303)863 8088
Accelr8 Technology Fax: (303)863 1218
303 E. 17th Ave., Suite 108 Email:
Denver, Colorado 80203



3.3) Language extensions

The following three Q's and A's based on email from: (Thomas Koenig)

3.3.1) How common is DO ... END DO

It is very common; and of course is part of Fortran 90.
Compilers claimed to *not* support it
(much shorter list this way):

1) Salford ftn77/Primos version

2) Prime f77 compiler

3) Microsoft Fortran for CP/M 8080/Z80 machines

4) Fujitsu VPxxx UXP/M compiler


3.3.2) What are ENCODE and DECODE statements, and how are they translated
to standard Fortran? How can I convert numbers to character strings
(and vice-versa)?

ENCODE and DECODE are vendor extensions to Fortran (invented in
the sixties, long before X3.9-1978 added internal I/O to the
language) which are most often used to convert data between
numeric and character representations. They may be viewed as
formatted writes to (ENCODE) or reads from (DECODE) memory.
The standard-conforming alternatives are internal write and
internal read statements respectively.

For example,


DAY = 4
YEAR = 93
10 FORMAT (I2,'/',I2,'/',I2)

The above can be translated as "write 8 characters, formatted
according to format 10, storing the results in variable DATE, and
using the contents of variables MONTH, DAY, and YEAR as the data to

A DECODE statement would be used to reverse the process (extract
the variables MONTH2, DAY2, and YEAR2 from the string DATE).

20 FORMAT (I2,1X,I2,1X,I2)

Conversion of ENCODE/DECODE to standard Fortran-77 is not difficult.
The critical thing to remember is that the variable to be written
to (ENCODE) or read from (DECODE) must be a CHARACTER variable
which is long enough to contain the string.
The first number within the parentheses (in this case 8) is the
minimum length to use in a type declaration.

Thus a standard-conforming equivalent of the above
example is:


DAY = 4
YEAR = 93

10 FORMAT (I2,'/',I2,'/',I2)
20 FORMAT (I2,1X,I2,1X,I2)

Although the above example used integers, any other data type
may also be used.

From: < (Al Stangenberger)>


3.4.1) What is involved in parsing Fortran?

~From: clodius@hotspec (William Clodius)

> I don't know if the following is any help
> Dec has published a discussion of some of the problems
> in parsing Fortran
> There is a publicly available Fortran90 grammar for a compiler
> generator at
> The "compiler" generator that uses the grammar, ELI,
> apparently has home pages at
> however the links to Germany and Australia did not work
> when I tried them out.
> The Sage++ compiler development system apparently has
> Fortran 77/M parsers available

~From: (Mark Johnson)

> Christian Rutzinger <> wrote:
> >I want to write a Recursive Descent Parser for Fortran90. ,,,
> >
> >Am I wrong, or is (Standard) Fortran90 really a not
> >LL(1) language?
> FORTRAN is definitely not LL(1). A good example is the difference
> between the following two statements
> DO 10 I=1,10
> and
> DO 10 I=1.10
> [the real difference is the comma in the first one & the period in
> the second example]
> The first starts a DO loop, using [implicitly integer]
> I as an index, counting from 1 to 10.
> [7 tokens - DO, 10, I, =, 1, ",", and 10]
> The second assigns the value 1.1 to the [implicitly real]
> variable DO10I. [only 3 tokens - DO10I, =, 1.10]
> Needless to say, you sometimes have to examine the entire statement
> before you know what kind it is & generate tokens. One approach to
> handle this is to do something like...
> call read_statement(line)
> call statement_type(current_state, new_state, s_type, line)
> <computed goto based on s_type, etc.>...
> where the statement_type procedure uses the "current state" and
> the input line(s) to determine the statement type "s type" and
> "new state". The "current state" and "next state" represent the
> language rules relating to the order of statements. This solution
> isn't very efficient, and dumps a lot of functionality into the
> statement_type procedure. But it is a robust and somewhat easy
> to describe solution. There are undoubtedly others who could
> supply more optimal solutions.
> Good luck on your work.
> --Mark
> --
> -- Mark Johnson <>
> [I put a little Fortran subset parser in the comp.compilers
> archives several years ago. It uses a yacc parser and a lot
> of lexical feedback. It's not complete, but the structure is
> adequate to parse all of Fortran. -John]
> --
> Send compilers articles to,
> meta-mail to


4.1.1) WWW and Fortran


~From: (Charles DH Williams)

> In article <4hmd1k$>, "M.W.Gardner ENV PG"
> <e449> wrote:
> > Could anyone give me pointers to information concerning
> > the use of F90 programs as CGI servers. I wish to write
> > programs to generate WWW pages interactively. Has anyone
> > done this ? If so please contact me.
> >
> > I have checked out the FAQ and F90 pages with no success.
> > I also know that perl is probably a more traditional
> > language to do this sort of stuff.
> You may find that John Rowe's "Metaform" system does what you want
> lets users write and install their own cgi code in whatever
> language they like without causing security problems et al.
> I used it to implement a simulation of a temperature control
> system which takes lots of parameters and draws graphs
> representing the results. Get to it via the last line in
> the contents list of
> Good luck
> Charles

~From: Kavan Ratnatunga

Recently I wrote fairly large cgi-driver in f77 and found that
it was not very difficult, and for my application since the
output I was putting on the web was originally created from
fortran analysis programs, there were some particular advantages
in the program logic.

If interested see:

Kavan Ratnatunga


Keith H. Bierman keith....@Sun.COM| k...@chiba.Eng.Sun.COM
SunSoft Developer Products |
2550 Garcia UMPK16-304 415 786-9296 | (415 7869296) fax
Mountain View, CA 94043 <speaking for myself, not Sun*> Copyright 1996

Keith H. Bierman keith....@Sun.COM| k...@chiba.Eng.Sun.COM
SunSoft Developer Products |
2550 Garcia UMPK16-304 415 786-9296 | (415 7869296) fax
Mountain View, CA 94043 <speaking for myself, not Sun*> Copyright 1996

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