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A virus is a submicroscopic infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of an organism.[1] Viruses infect all types of life forms, from animals and plants to microorganisms, including bacteria and archaea.[2] Since Dmitri Ivanovsky's 1892 article describing a non-bacterial pathogen infecting tobacco plants, and the discovery of the tobacco mosaic virus by Martinus Beijerinck in 1898,[3] more than 6,000 virus species have been described in detail,[4] of the millions of types of viruses in the environment.[5] Viruses are found in almost every ecosystem on Earth and are the most numerous type of biological entity.[6][7] The study of viruses is known as virology, a subspeciality of microbiology.

When infected, a host cell is forced to rapidly produce thousands of identical copies of the original virus. When not inside an infected cell or in the process of infecting a cell, viruses exist in the form of independent particles, or virions, consisting of: (i) the genetic material, i.e. long molecules of DNA or RNA that encode the structure of the proteins by which the virus acts; (ii) a protein coat, the capsid, which surrounds and protects the genetic material; and in some cases (iii) an outside envelope of lipids. The shapes of these virus particles range from simple helical and icosahedral forms to more complex structures. Most virus species have virions too small to be seen with an optical microscope as they are one hundredth the size of most bacteria.

The origins of viruses in the evolutionary history of life are unclear: some may have evolved from plasmids—pieces of DNA that can move between cells—while others may have evolved from bacteria. In evolution, viruses are an important means of horizontal gene transfer, which increases genetic diversity in a way analogous to sexual reproduction.[8] Viruses are considered by some biologists to be a life form, because they carry genetic material, reproduce, and evolve through natural selection, although they lack the key characteristics such as cell structure that are generally considered necessary criteria for life. Because they possess some but not all such qualities, viruses have been described as "organisms at the edge of life",[9] and as self-replicators.[10]

Viruses spread in many ways. One transmission pathway is through disease-bearing organisms known as vectors: for example, viruses are often transmitted from plant to plant by insects that feed on plant sap, such as aphids; and viruses in animals can be carried by blood-sucking insects. Influenza viruses are spread by coughing and sneezing. Norovirus and rotavirus, common causes of viral gastroenteritis, are transmitted by the faecal–oral route, passed by hand-to-mouth contact or in food or water. The infectious dose of norovirus required to produce infection in humans is less than 100 particles.[11] HIV is one of several viruses transmitted through sexual contact and by exposure to infected blood. The variety of host cells that a virus can infect is called its "host range". This can be narrow, meaning a virus is capable of infecting few species, or broad, meaning it is capable of infecting many.[12]

Viral infections in animals provoke an immune response that usually eliminates the infecting virus. Immune responses can also be produced by vaccines, which confer an artificially acquired immunity to the specific viral infection. Some viruses, including those that cause AIDS, HPV infection, and viral hepatitis, evade these immune responses and result in chronic infections. Several antiviral drugs have been developed.


Contents
1 Etymology
2 History
3 Origins
4 Microbiology
4.1 Life properties
4.2 Structure
4.2.1 Giant viruses
4.3 Genome
4.3.1 Genome size
4.4 Genetic mutation
4.5 Replication cycle
4.6 Genome replication
4.7 Cytopathic effects on the host cell
4.8 Dormant and latent infections
4.9 Host range
5 Classification
5.1 ICTV classification
5.2 Baltimore classification
6 Role in human disease
6.1 Epidemiology
6.2 Epidemics and pandemics
6.3 Cancer
6.4 Host defence mechanisms
6.5 Prevention and treatment
6.5.1 Vaccines
6.5.2 Antiviral drugs
7 Infection in other species
7.1 Animal viruses
7.2 Plant viruses
7.3 Bacterial viruses
7.4 Archaeal viruses
8 Role in aquatic ecosystems
9 Role in evolution
10 Applications
10.1 Life sciences and medicine
10.1.1 Virotherapy
10.2 Materials science and nanotechnology
10.3 Synthetic viruses
10.4 Weapons
11 See also
12 References
12.1 Notes
12.2 Bibliography
13 External links
Etymology
The word is from the Latin neuter vīrus referring to poison and other noxious liquids, from the same Indo-European base as Sanskrit viṣa, Avestan vīša, and ancient Greek ἰός (all meaning "poison"), first attested in English in 1398 in John Trevisa's translation of Bartholomeus Anglicus's De Proprietatibus Rerum.[13][14] Virulent, from Latin virulentus (poisonous), dates to c. 1400.[15][16] A meaning of "agent that causes infectious disease" is first recorded in 1728,[14] long before the discovery of viruses by Dmitri Ivanovsky in 1892. The English plural is viruses (sometimes also vira)[17] whereas the Latin word is a mass noun, which has no classically attested plural (vīra is used in Neo-Latin[18]). The adjective viral dates to 1948.[19] The term virion (plural virions), which dates from 1959,[20] is also used to refer to a single viral particle that is released from the cell and is capable of infecting other cells of the same type.[21]

History
Main articles: History of virology and Social history of viruses
An old, bespectacled man wearing a suit and sitting at a bench by a large window. The bench is covered with small bottles and test tubes. On the wall behind him is a large old-fashioned clock below which are four small enclosed shelves on which sit many neatly labelled bottles.
Martinus Beijerinck in his laboratory in 1921
Louis Pasteur was unable to find a causative agent for rabies and speculated about a pathogen too small to be detected by microscopes.[22] In 1884, the French microbiologist Charles Chamberland invented the Chamberland filter (or Pasteur-Chamberland filter) with pores small enough to remove all bacteria from a solution passed through it.[23] In 1892, the Russian biologist Dmitri Ivanovsky used this filter to study what is now known as the tobacco mosaic virus: crushed leaf extracts from infected tobacco plants remained infectious even after filtration to remove bacteria. Ivanovsky suggested the infection might be caused by a toxin produced by bacteria, but did not pursue the idea.[24] At the time it was thought that all infectious agents could be retained by filters and grown on a nutrient medium—this was part of the germ theory of disease.[3] In 1898, the Dutch microbiologist Martinus Beijerinck repeated the experiments and became convinced that the filtered solution contained a new form of infectious agent.[25] He observed that the agent multiplied only in cells that were dividing, but as his experiments did not show that it was made of particles, he called it a contagium vivum fluidum (soluble living germ) and re-introduced the word virus. Beijerinck maintained that viruses were liquid in nature, a theory later discredited by Wendell Stanley, who proved they were particulate.[24] In the same year Friedrich Loeffler and Paul Frosch passed the first animal virus through a similar filter: aphthovirus, the agent of foot-and-mouth disease.[26]

In the early 20th century, the English bacteriologist Frederick Twort discovered a group of viruses that infect bacteria, now called bacteriophages[27] (or commonly 'phages'), and the French-Canadian microbiologist Félix d'Herelle described viruses that, when added to bacteria on an agar plate, would produce areas of dead bacteria. He accurately diluted a suspension of these viruses and discovered that the highest dilutions (lowest virus concentrations), rather than killing all the bacteria, formed discrete areas of dead organisms. Counting these areas and multiplying by the dilution factor allowed him to calculate the number of viruses in the original suspension.[28] Phages were heralded as a potential treatment for diseases such as typhoid and cholera, but their promise was forgotten with the development of penicillin. The development of bacterial resistance to antibiotics has renewed interest in the therapeutic use of bacteriophages.[29]

By the end of the 19th century, viruses were defined in terms of their infectivity, their ability to pass filters, and their requirement for living hosts. Viruses had been grown only in plants and animals. In 1906, Ross Granville Harrison invented a method for growing tissue in lymph, and, in 1913, E. Steinhardt, C. Israeli, and R. A. Lambert used this method to grow vaccinia virus in fragments of guinea pig corneal tissue.[30] In 1928, H. B. Maitland and M. C. Maitland grew vaccinia virus in suspensions of minced hens' kidneys. Their method was not widely adopted until the 1950s when poliovirus was grown on a large scale for vaccine production.[31]

Another breakthrough came in 1931, when the American pathologist Ernest William Goodpasture and Alice Miles Woodruff grew influenza and several other viruses in fertilised chicken eggs.[32] In 1949, John Franklin Enders, Thomas Weller, and Frederick Robbins grew poliovirus in cultured cells from aborted human embryonic tissue,[33] the first virus to be grown without using solid animal tissue or eggs. This work enabled Hilary Koprowski, and then Jonas Salk, to make an effective polio vaccine.[34]

The first images of viruses were obtained upon the invention of electron microscopy in 1931 by the German engineers Ernst Ruska and Max Knoll.[35] In 1935, American biochemist and virologist Wendell Meredith Stanley examined the tobacco mosaic virus and found it was mostly made of protein.[36] A short time later, this virus was separated into protein and RNA parts.[37] The tobacco mosaic virus was the first to be crystallised and its structure could, therefore, be elucidated in detail. The first X-ray diffraction pictures of the crystallised virus were obtained by Bernal and Fankuchen in 1941. On the basis of her X-ray crystallographic pictures, Rosalind Franklin discovered the full structure of the virus in 1955.[38] In the same year, Heinz Fraenkel-Conrat and Robley Williams showed that purified tobacco mosaic virus RNA and its protein coat can assemble by themselves to form functional viruses, suggesting that this simple mechanism was probably the means through which viruses were created within their host cells.[39]

The second half of the 20th century was the golden age of virus discovery and most of the documented species of animal, plant, and bacterial viruses were discovered during these years.[40] In 1957, equine arterivirus and the cause of Bovine virus diarrhoea (a pestivirus) were discovered. In 1963, the hepatitis B virus was discovered by Baruch Blumberg,[41] and in 1965, Howard Temin described the first retrovirus. Reverse transcriptase, the enzyme that retroviruses use to make DNA copies of their RNA, was first described in 1970, independently by Temin and David Baltimore.[42] In 1983 Luc Montagnier's team at the Pasteur Institute in France, first isolated the retrovirus now called HIV.[43] In 1989 Michael Houghton's team at Chiron Corporation discovered Hepatitis C.[44][45]

Origins
See also: Viral evolution
Viruses are found wherever there is life and have probably existed since living cells first evolved.[46] The origin of viruses is unclear because they do not form fossils, so molecular techniques are used to investigate how they arose.[47] In addition, viral genetic material occasionally integrates into the germline of the host organisms, by which they can be passed on vertically to the offspring of the host for many generations. This provides an invaluable source of information for paleovirologists to trace back ancient viruses that have existed up to millions of years ago. There are three main hypotheses that aim to explain the origins of viruses:[48][49]

Regressive hypothesis
Viruses may have once been small cells that parasitised larger cells. Over time, genes not required by their parasitism were lost. The bacteria rickettsia and chlamydia are living cells that, like viruses, can reproduce only inside host cells. They lend support to this hypothesis, as their dependence on parasitism is likely to have caused the loss of genes that enabled them to survive outside a cell. This is also called the 'degeneracy hypothesis',[50][51] or 'reduction hypothesis'.[52]
Cellular origin hypothesis
Some viruses may have evolved from bits of DNA or RNA that "escaped" from the genes of a larger organism. The escaped DNA could have come from plasmids (pieces of naked DNA that can move between cells) or transposons (molecules of DNA that replicate and move around to different positions within the genes of the cell).[53] Once called "jumping genes", transposons are examples of mobile genetic elements and could be the origin of some viruses. They were discovered in maize by Barbara McClintock in 1950.[54] This is sometimes called the 'vagrancy hypothesis',[50][55] or the 'escape hypothesis'.[52]
Co-evolution hypothesis
This is also called the 'virus-first hypothesis'[52] and proposes that viruses may have evolved from complex molecules of protein and nucleic acid at the same time that cells first appeared on Earth and would have been dependent on cellular life for billions of years. Viroids are molecules of RNA that are not classified as viruses because they lack a protein coat. They have characteristics that are common to several viruses and are often called subviral agents.[56] Viroids are important pathogens of plants.[57] They do not code for proteins but interact with the host cell and use the host machinery for their replication.[58] The hepatitis delta virus of humans has an RNA genome similar to viroids but has a protein coat derived from hepatitis B virus and cannot produce one of its own. It is, therefore, a defective virus. Although hepatitis delta virus genome may replicate independently once inside a host cell, it requires the help of hepatitis B virus to provide a protein coat so that it can be transmitted to new cells.[59] In similar manner, the sputnik virophage is dependent on mimivirus, which infects the protozoan Acanthamoeba castellanii.[60] These viruses, which are dependent on the presence of other virus species in the host cell, are called 'satellites' and may represent evolutionary intermediates of viroids and viruses.[61][62]
In the past, there were problems with all of these hypotheses: the regressive hypothesis did not explain why even the smallest of cellular parasites do not resemble viruses in any way. The escape hypothesis did not explain the complex capsids and other structures on virus particles. The virus-first hypothesis contravened the definition of viruses in that they require host cells.[52] Viruses are now recognised as ancient and as having origins that pre-date the divergence of life into the three domains.[63] This discovery has led modern virologists to reconsider and re-evaluate these three classical hypotheses.[63]

The evidence for an ancestral world of RNA cells[64] and computer analysis of viral and host DNA sequences are giving a better understanding of the evolutionary relationships between different viruses and may help identify the ancestors of modern viruses. To date, such analyses have not proved which of these hypotheses is correct.[64] It seems unlikely that all currently known viruses have a common ancestor, and viruses have probably arisen numerous times in the past by one or more mechanisms.[65]

Microbiology
Life properties
Scientific opinions differ on whether viruses are a form of life, or organic structures that interact with living organisms.[10] They have been described as "organisms at the edge of life",[9] since they resemble organisms in that they possess genes, evolve by natural selection,[66] and reproduce by creating multiple copies of themselves through self-assembly. Although they have genes, they do not have a cellular structure, which is often seen as the basic unit of life. Viruses do not have their own metabolism, and require a host cell to make new products. They therefore cannot naturally reproduce outside a host cell[67]—although bacterial species such as rickettsia and chlamydia are considered living organisms despite the same limitation.[68][69] Accepted forms of life use cell division to reproduce, whereas viruses spontaneously assemble within cells. They differ from autonomous growth of crystals as they inherit genetic mutations while being subject to natural selection. Virus self-assembly within host cells has implications for the study of the origin of life, as it lends further credence to the hypothesis that life could have started as self-assembling organic molecules.[2]

Structure
A cartoon showing several identical molecules of protein forming a hexagon
Diagram of how a virus capsid can be constructed using multiple copies of just two protein molecules

Structure of tobacco mosaic virus: RNA coiled in a helix of repeating protein sub-units

Structure of icosahedral adenovirus. Electron micrograph with an illustration to show shape

Structure of chickenpox virus. They have a lipid envelope

Structure of an icosahedral cowpea mosaic virus
Viruses display a wide diversity of shapes and sizes, called 'morphologies'. In general, viruses are much smaller than bacteria. Most viruses that have been studied have a diameter between 20 and 300 nanometres. Some filoviruses have a total length of up to 1400 nm; their diameters are only about 80 nm.[70] Most viruses cannot be seen with an optical microscope, so scanning and transmission electron microscopes are used to visualise them.[71] To increase the contrast between viruses and the background, electron-dense "stains" are used. These are solutions of salts of heavy metals, such as tungsten, that scatter the electrons from regions covered with the stain. When virions are coated with stain (positive staining), fine detail is obscured. Negative staining overcomes this problem by staining the background only.[72]

A complete virus particle, known as a virion, consists of nucleic acid surrounded by a protective coat of protein called a capsid. These are formed from identical protein subunits called capsomeres.[73] Viruses can have a lipid "envelope" derived from the host cell membrane. The capsid is made from proteins encoded by the viral genome and its shape serves as the basis for morphological distinction.[74][75] Virally-coded protein subunits will self-assemble to form a capsid, in general requiring the presence of the virus genome. Complex viruses code for proteins that assist in the construction of their capsid. Proteins associated with nucleic acid are known as nucleoproteins, and the association of viral capsid proteins with viral nucleic acid is called a nucleocapsid. The capsid and entire virus structure can be mechanically (physically) probed through atomic force microscopy.[76][77] In general, there are four main morphological virus types:

Helical
These viruses are composed of a single type of capsomere stacked around a central axis to form a helical structure, which may have a central cavity, or tube. This arrangement results in rod-shaped or filamentous virions which can be short and highly rigid, or long and very flexible. The genetic material (typically single-stranded RNA, but ssDNA in some cases) is bound into the protein helix by interactions between the negatively charged nucleic acid and positive charges on the protein. Overall, the length of a helical capsid is related to the length of the nucleic acid contained within it, and the diameter is dependent on the size and arrangement of capsomeres. The well-studied tobacco mosaic virus is an example of a helical virus.[78]
Icosahedral
Most animal viruses are icosahedral or near-spherical with chiral icosahedral symmetry. A regular icosahedron is the optimum way of forming a closed shell from identical sub-units. The minimum number of identical capsomeres required for each triangular face is 3, which gives 60 for the icosahedron. Many viruses, such as rotavirus, have more than 60 capsomers and appear spherical but they retain this symmetry. To achieve this, the capsomeres at the apices are surrounded by five other capsomeres and are called pentons. Capsomeres on the triangular faces are surrounded by six others and are called hexons.[79] Hexons are in essence flat and pentons, which form the 12 vertices, are curved. The same protein may act as the subunit of both the pentamers and hexamers or they may be composed of different proteins.[80]
Prolate
This is an icosahedron elongated along the fivefold axis and is a common arrangement of the heads of bacteriophages. This structure is composed of a cylinder with a cap at either end.[81]
Envelope
Some species of virus envelop themselves in a modified form of one of the cell membranes, either the outer membrane surrounding an infected host cell or internal membranes such as nuclear membrane or endoplasmic reticulum, thus gaining an outer lipid bilayer known as a viral envelope. This membrane is studded with proteins coded for by the viral genome and host genome; the lipid membrane itself and any carbohydrates present originate entirely from the host. The influenza virus and HIV use this strategy. Most enveloped viruses are dependent on the envelope for their infectivity.[82]
Complex
These viruses possess a capsid that is neither purely helical nor purely icosahedral, and that may possess extra structures such as protein tails or a complex outer wall. Some bacteriophages, such as Enterobacteria phage T4, have a complex structure consisting of an icosahedral head bound to a helical tail, which may have a hexagonal base plate with protruding protein tail fibres. This tail structure acts like a molecular syringe, attaching to the bacterial host and then injecting the viral genome into the cell.[83]
The poxviruses are large, complex viruses that have an unusual morphology. The viral genome is associated with proteins within a central disc structure known as a nucleoid. The nucleoid is surrounded by a membrane and two lateral bodies of unknown function. The virus has an outer envelope with a thick layer of protein studded over its surface. The whole virion is slightly pleomorphic, ranging from ovoid to brick-shaped.[84]

Giant viruses
Main article: Giant virus
Mimivirus is one of the largest characterised viruses, with a capsid diameter of 400 nm. Protein filaments measuring 100 nm project from the surface. The capsid appears hexagonal under an electron microscope, therefore the capsid is probably icosahedral.[85] In 2011, researchers discovered the largest then known virus in samples of water collected from the ocean floor off the coast of Las Cruces, Chile. Provisionally named Megavirus chilensis, it can be seen with a basic optical microscope.[86] In 2013, the Pandoravirus genus was discovered in Chile and Australia, and has genomes about twice as large as Megavirus and Mimivirus.[87] All giant viruses have dsDNA genomes and they are classified into several families: Mimiviridae, Pithoviridae, Pandoraviridae, Phycodnaviridae, and the Mollivirus genus.[88]

Some viruses that infect Archaea have complex structures unrelated to any other form of virus, with a wide variety of unusual shapes, ranging from spindle-shaped structures to viruses that resemble hooked rods, teardrops or even bottles. Other archaeal viruses resemble the tailed bacteriophages, and can have multiple tail structures.[89]

Genome
Genomic diversity among viruses
Property Parameters
Nucleic acid
DNA
RNA
Both DNA and RNA (at different stages in the life cycle)
Shape
Linear
Circular
Segmented
Strandedness
Single-stranded
Double-stranded
Double-stranded with regions of single-strandedness
Sense
Positive sense (+)
Negative sense (−)
Ambisense (+/−)
An enormous variety of genomic structures can be seen among viral species; as a group, they contain more structural genomic diversity than plants, animals, archaea, or bacteria. There are millions of different types of viruses,[5] although fewer than 7,000 types have been described in detail.[90] As of September 2015, the NCBI Virus genome database has more than 75,000 complete genome sequences,[91] but there are doubtlessly many more to be discovered.[92][93]

A virus has either a DNA or an RNA genome and is called a DNA virus or an RNA virus, respectively. The vast majority of viruses have RNA genomes. Plant viruses tend to have single-stranded RNA genomes and bacteriophages tend to have double-stranded DNA genomes.[94]

Viral genomes are circular, as in the polyomaviruses, or linear, as in the adenoviruses. The type of nucleic acid is irrelevant to the shape of the genome. Among RNA viruses and certain DNA viruses, the genome is often divided up into separate parts, in which case it is called segmented. For RNA viruses, each segment often codes for only one protein and they are usually found together in one capsid. All segments are not required to be in the same virion for the virus to be infectious, as demonstrated by brome mosaic virus and several other plant viruses.[70]

A viral genome, irrespective of nucleic acid type, is almost always either single-stranded or double-stranded. Single-stranded genomes consist of an unpaired nucleic acid, analogous to one-half of a ladder split down the middle. Double-stranded genomes consist of two complementary paired nucleic acids, analogous to a ladder. The virus particles of some virus families, such as those belonging to the Hepadnaviridae, contain a genome that is partially double-stranded and partially single-stranded.[94]

For most viruses with RNA genomes and some with single-stranded DNA genomes, the single strands are said to be either positive-sense (called the 'plus-strand') or negative-sense (called the 'minus-strand'), depending on if they are complementary to the viral messenger RNA (mRNA). Positive-sense viral RNA is in the same sense as viral mRNA and thus at least a part of it can be immediately translated by the host cell. Negative-sense viral RNA is complementary to mRNA and thus must be converted to positive-sense RNA by an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase before translation. DNA nomenclature for viruses with single-sense genomic ssDNA is similar to RNA nomenclature, in that positive-strand viral ssDNA is identical in sequence to the viral mRNA and is thus a coding strand, while negative-strand viral ssDNA is complementary to the viral mRNA and is thus a template strand.[94] Several types of ssDNA and ssRNA viruses have genomes that are ambisense in that transcription can occur off both strands in a double-stranded replicative intermediate. Examples include geminiviruses, which are ssDNA plant viruses and arenaviruses, which are ssRNA viruses of animals.[95]

Genome size
Genome size varies greatly between species. The smallest—the ssDNA circoviruses, family Circoviridae—code for only two proteins and have a genome size of only two kilobases;[96] the largest—the pandoraviruses—have genome sizes of around two megabases which code for about 2500 proteins.[87] Virus genes rarely have introns and often are arranged in the genome so that they overlap.[97]

In general, RNA viruses have smaller genome sizes than DNA viruses because of a higher error-rate when replicating, and have a maximum upper size limit.[47] Beyond this, errors when replicating render the virus useless or uncompetitive. To compensate, RNA viruses often have segmented genomes—the genome is split into smaller molecules—thus reducing the chance that an error in a single-component genome will incapacitate the entire genome. In contrast, DNA viruses generally have larger genomes because of the high fidelity of their replication enzymes.[98] Single-strand DNA viruses are an exception to this rule, as mutation rates for these genomes can approach the extreme of the ssRNA virus case.[99]

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Spamming is the use of messaging systems to send an unsolicited message (spam) to large numbers of recipients for the purpose of commercial advertising, for the purpose of non-commercial proselytizing, or for any prohibited purpose (especially the fraudulent purpose of phishing). While the most widely recognized form of spam is email spam, the term is applied to similar abuses in other media: instant messaging spam, Usenet newsgroup spam, Web search engine spam, spam in blogs, wiki spam, online classified ads spam, mobile phone messaging spam, Internet forum spam, junk fax transmissions, social spam, spam mobile apps,[1] television advertising and file sharing spam. It is named after Spam, a luncheon meat, by way of a Monty Python sketch about a restaurant that has Spam in almost every dish and where vikings annoyingly sing "Spam" over and over again.[2]

Spamming remains economically viable because advertisers have no operating costs beyond the management of their mailing lists, servers, infrastructures, IP ranges, and domain names, and it is difficult to hold senders accountable for their mass mailings. The costs, such as lost productivity and fraud, are borne by the public and by Internet service providers, which have added extra capacity to cope with the volume. Spamming has been the subject of legislation in many jurisdictions.[3]

A person who creates spam is called a spammer.[4]


Contents
1 Etymology
2 History
2.1 Pre-Internet
2.2 History
3 In different media
3.1 Email
3.2 Instant messaging
3.3 Newsgroup and forum
3.4 Mobile phone
3.5 Social networking spam
3.6 Social spam
3.7 Blog, wiki, and guestbook
3.8 Spam targeting video sharing sites
3.9 VoIP Spam
3.10 Academic search
3.11 Mobile apps
4 Noncommercial forms
5 Geographical origins
6 Trademark issues
7 Cost–benefit analyses
7.1 General costs
8 In crime
9 Political issues
10 Court cases
10.1 United States
10.2 United Kingdom
10.3 New Zealand
10.4 Bulgaria
11 Newsgroups
12 See also
13 References
13.1 Citations
13.2 Sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Etymology

Menu from Monty Python’s "Spam" sketch, from where the term is derived. Spam is included in almost every dish to the consternation of a customer.
The term spam is derived from the 1970 "Spam" sketch of the BBC television comedy series Monty Python's Flying Circus.[5][6] The sketch, set in a cafe, has a waitress reading out a menu where every item but one includes Spam canned luncheon meat. As the waitress recites the Spam-filled menu, a chorus of Viking patrons drown out all conversations with a song, repeating "Spam, Spam, Spam, Spam… Lovely Spam! Wonderful Spam!".[7] The excessive amount of Spam mentioned is a reference to the ubiquity of it and other imported canned meat products in the UK after World War II (a period of rationing in the UK) as the country struggled to rebuild its agricultural base.[citation needed]

In the 1980s the term was adopted to describe certain abusive users who frequented BBSs and MUDs, who would repeat "Spam" a huge number of times to scroll other users' text off the screen.[8] In early chat-room services like PeopleLink and the early days of Online America (later known as America Online or AOL), they actually flooded the screen with quotes from the Monty Python Spam sketch.[citation needed] This was used as a tactic by insiders of a group that wanted to drive newcomers out of the room so the usual conversation could continue. It was also used to prevent members of rival groups from chatting—for instance, Star Wars fans often invaded Star Trek chat rooms, filling the space with blocks of text until the Star Trek fans left.[9]

It later came to be used on Usenet to mean excessive multiple posting—the repeated posting of the same message. The unwanted message would appear in many, if not all newsgroups, just as Spam appeared in all the menu items in the Monty Python sketch. The first usage of this sense was by Joel Furr[10][11] This use had also become established—to "spam" Usenet was to flood newsgroups with junk messages. The word was also attributed to the flood of "Make Money Fast" messages that clogged many newsgroups during the 1990s.[citation needed] In 1998, the New Oxford Dictionary of English, which had previously only defined "spam" in relation to the trademarked food product, added a second definition to its entry for "spam": "Irrelevant or inappropriate messages sent on the Internet to a large number of newsgroups or users."

There was also an effort to differentiate between types of newsgroup spam. Messages that were crossposted to too many newsgroups at once, as opposed to those that were posted too frequently, were called "velveeta" (after a cheese product), but this term did not persist.[12]

History
Pre-Internet
In the late 19th century, Western Union allowed telegraphic messages on its network to be sent to multiple destinations. The first recorded instance of a mass unsolicited commercial telegram is from May 1864, when some British politicians received an unsolicited telegram advertising a dentist.[13]


History
The earliest documented spam (although the term had not yet been coined[14]) was a message advertising the availability of a new model of Digital Equipment Corporation computers sent by Gary Thuerk to 393 recipients on ARPANET on May 3, 1978.[10] Rather than send a separate message to each person, which was the standard practice at the time, he had an assistant, Carl Gartley, write a single mass email. Reaction from the net community was fiercely negative, but the spam did generate some sales.[15][16]

Spamming had been practiced as a prank by participants in multi-user dungeon games, to fill their rivals' accounts with unwanted electronic junk.[16]

The first major commercial spam incident started on March 5, 1994, when a husband and wife team of lawyers, Laurence Canter and Martha Siegel, began using bulk Usenet posting to advertise immigration law services. The incident was commonly termed the "Green Card spam", after the subject line of the postings. Defiant in the face of widespread condemnation, the attorneys claimed their detractors were hypocrites or "zealouts", claimed they had a free speech right to send unwanted commercial messages, and labeled their opponents "anti-commerce radicals". The couple wrote a controversial book entitled How to Make a Fortune on the Information Superhighway.[16]

An early example of nonprofit fundraising bulk posting via Usenet also occurred in 1994 on behalf of CitiHope, an NGO attempting to raise funds to rescue children at risk during the Bosnian War. However, as it was a violation of their terms of service, the ISP Panix deleted all of the bulk posts from Usenet, only missing three copies[citation needed].

Within a few years, the focus of spamming (and anti-spam efforts) moved chiefly to email, where it remains today.[8] By 1999, Khan C. Smith, a well known hacker at the time, had begun to commercialize the bulk email industry and rallied thousands into the business by building more friendly bulk email software and providing internet access illegally hacked from major ISPs such as Earthlink and Botnets.[17]

By 2009 the majority of spam sent around the World was in the English language; spammers began using automatic translation services to send spam in other languages.[18]

In different media
Email
Main article: Email spam
Email spam, also known as unsolicited bulk email (UBE), or junk mail, is the practice of sending unwanted email messages, frequently with commercial content, in large quantities. Spam in email started to become a problem when the Internet was opened for commercial use in the mid-1990s. It grew exponentially over the following years, and by 2007 it constituted about 80% to 85% of all e-mail, by a conservative estimate.[19] Pressure to make email spam illegal has resulted in legislation in some jurisdictions, but less so in others. The efforts taken by governing bodies, security systems and email service providers seem to be helping to reduce the volume of email spam. According to "2014 Internet Security Threat Report, Volume 19" published by Symantec Corporation, spam volume dropped to 66% of all email traffic.[20]

An industry of email address harvesting is dedicated to collecting email addresses and selling compiled databases.[21] Some of these address-harvesting approaches rely on users not reading the fine print of agreements, resulting in their agreeing to send messages indiscriminately to their contacts. This is a common approach in social networking spam such as that generated by the social networking site Quechup.[22]

Instant messaging
Main article: Messaging spam
Instant messaging spam makes use of instant messaging systems. Although less prevalent than its e-mail counterpart, according to a report from Ferris Research, 500 million spam IMs were sent in 2003, twice the level of 2002.[23]

Newsgroup and forum
Main article: Newsgroup spam
Newsgroup spam is a type of spam where the targets are Usenet newsgroups. Spamming of Usenet newsgroups actually pre-dates e-mail spam. Usenet convention defines spamming as excessive multiple posting, that is, the repeated posting of a message (or substantially similar messages). The prevalence of Usenet spam led to the development of the Breidbart Index as an objective measure of a message's "spamminess".

Main article: Forum spam
Forum spam is the creation of advertising messages on Internet forums. It is generally done by automated spambots. Most forum spam consists of links to external sites, with the dual goals of increasing search engine visibility in highly competitive areas such as weight loss, pharmaceuticals, gambling, pornography, real estate or loans, and generating more traffic for these commercial websites. Some of these links contain code to track the spambot's identity; if a sale goes through, the spammer behind the spambot earns a commission.

Mobile phone
Main article: Mobile phone spam
Mobile phone spam is directed at the text messaging service of a mobile phone. This can be especially irritating to customers not only for the inconvenience, but also because of the fee they may be charged per text message received in some markets. To comply with CAN-SPAM regulations in the US, SMS messages now must provide options of HELP and STOP, the latter to end communication with the advertiser via SMS altogether.

Despite the high number of phone users, there has not been so much phone spam, because there is a charge for sending SMS. Recently, there are also observations of mobile phone spam delivered via browser push notifications. These can be a result of allowing websites which are malicious or delivering malicious ads to send a user notifications.[24]

Social networking spam
Main article: Social networking spam
Facebook and Twitter are not immune to messages containing spam links. Spammers hack into accounts and send false links under the guise of a user's trusted contacts such as friends and family.[25] As for Twitter, spammers gain credibility by following verified accounts such as that of Lady Gaga; when that account owner follows the spammer back, it legitimizes the spammer.[26] Twitter has studied what interest structures allow their users to receive interesting tweets and avoid spam, despite the site using the broadcast model, in which all tweets from a user are broadcast to all followers of the user.[27] Spammers, out of malicious intent, post either unwanted (or irrelevant) information or spread misinformation on social media platforms.[28]

Social spam
Spreading beyond the centrally managed social networking platforms, user-generated content increasingly appears on business, government, and nonprofit websites worldwide. Fake accounts and comments planted by computers programmed to issue social spam can infiltrate these websites.[29]


Blog, wiki, and guestbook
Main article: Spam in blogs
Blog spam is spamming on weblogs. In 2003, this type of spam took advantage of the open nature of comments in the blogging software Movable Type by repeatedly placing comments to various blog posts that provided nothing more than a link to the spammer's commercial web site.[30] Similar attacks are often performed against wikis and guestbooks, both of which accept user contributions. Another possible form of spam in blogs is the spamming of a certain tag on websites such as Tumblr.

Spam targeting video sharing sites

Screenshot from a spam video on YouTube claiming that the film in question has been deleted from the site, and can only be accessed on the link posted by the spambot in the video description (if the video were actually removed by YouTube, the description would be inaccessible and the deletion notification would look different).
In actual video spam, the uploaded movie is given a name and description with a popular figure or event that is likely to draw attention, or within the video a certain image is timed to come up as the video's thumbnail image to mislead the viewer, such as a still image from a feature film, purporting to be a part-by-part piece of a movie being pirated, e.g. Big Buck Bunny Full Movie Online - Part 1/10 HD, a link to a supposed keygen, trainer, ISO file for a video game, or something similar. The actual content of the video ends up being totally unrelated, a Rickroll, offensive, or simply on-screen text of a link to the site being promoted.[31] In some cases, the link in question may lead to an online survey site, a password-protected archive file with instructions leading to the aforementioned survey (though the survey, and the archive file itself, is worthless and doesn't contain the file in question at all), or in extreme cases, malware.[32] Others may upload videos presented in an infomercial-like format selling their product which feature actors and paid testimonials, though the promoted product or service is of dubious quality and would likely not pass the scrutiny of a standards and practices department at a television station or cable network.

VoIP Spam
Main article: VoIP spam
VoIP spam is VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) spam, usually using SIP (Session Initiation Protocol). This is nearly identical to telemarketing calls over traditional phone lines. When the user chooses to receive the spam call, a pre-recorded spam message or advertisement is usually played back. This is generally easier for the spammer as VoIP services are cheap and easy to anonymize over the Internet, and there are many options for sending mass number of calls from a single location. Accounts or IP addresses being used for VoIP spam can usually be identified by a large number of outgoing calls, low call completion and short call length.

Academic search
Academic search engines enable researchers to find academic literature and are used to obtain citation data for calculating author-level metrics. Researchers from the University of California, Berkeley and OvGU demonstrated that most (web-based) academic search engines, especially Google Scholar are not capable of identifying spam attacks.[33] The researchers manipulated the citation counts of articles, and managed to make Google Scholar index complete fake articles, some containing advertising.[33]

Mobile apps
Spamming in mobile app stores include (i) apps that were automatically generated and as a result do not have any specific functionality or a meaningful description; (ii) multiple instances of the same app being published to obtain increased visibility in the app market; and (iii) apps that make excessive use of unrelated keywords to attract users through unintended searches.[34]

Noncommercial forms
E-mail and other forms of spamming have been used for purposes other than advertisements. Many early Usenet spams were religious or political. Serdar Argic, for instance, spammed Usenet with historical revisionist screeds. A number of evangelists have spammed Usenet and e-mail media with preaching messages. A growing number of criminals are also using spam to perpetrate various sorts of fraud.[35]

Geographical origins
In 2011 the origins of spam were analyzed by Cisco Systems. They provided a report that shows spam volume originating from countries worldwide.[36]

Rank Country Spam
volume(%)
1 India 13.7
2 Russia 9.0
3 Vietnam 7.9
4
(tie) South Korea 6.0
Indonesia 6.0
6 China 4.7
7 Brazil 4.5
8 United States 3.2
Trademark issues
Hormel Foods Corporation, the maker of SPAM luncheon meat, does not object to the Internet use of the term "spamming". However, they did ask that the capitalized word "Spam" be reserved to refer to their product and trademark.[37] By and large, this request is obeyed in forums that discuss spam.

Cost–benefit analyses
The European Union's Internal Market Commission estimated in 2001 that "junk email" cost Internet users €10 billion per year worldwide.[38] The California legislature found that spam cost United States organizations alone more than $13 billion in 2007, including lost productivity and the additional equipment, software, and manpower needed to combat the problem.[39] Spam's direct effects include the consumption of computer and network resources, and the cost in human time and attention of dismissing unwanted messages.[40] Large companies who are frequent spam targets utilize numerous techniques to detect and prevent spam.[41]

The cost to providers of search engines is significant: "The secondary consequence of spamming is that search engine indexes are inundated with useless pages, increasing the cost of each processed query".[4] The costs of spam also include the collateral costs of the struggle between spammers and the administrators and users of the media threatened by spamming.[42]

Email spam exemplifies a tragedy of the commons: spammers use resources (both physical and human), without bearing the entire cost of those resources. In fact, spammers commonly do not bear the cost at all. This raises the costs for everyone.[43] In some ways spam is even a potential threat to the entire email system, as operated in the past. Since email is so cheap to send, a tiny number of spammers can saturate the Internet with junk mail. Although only a tiny percentage of their targets are motivated to purchase their products (or fall victim to their scams), the low cost may provide a sufficient conversion rate to keep the spamming alive. Furthermore, even though spam appears not to be economically viable as a way for a reputable company to do business, it suffices for professional spammers to convince a tiny proportion of gullible advertisers that it is viable for those spammers to stay in business. Finally, new spammers go into business every day, and the low costs allow a single spammer to do a lot of harm before finally realizing that the business is not profitable[citation needed].

Some companies and groups "rank" spammers; spammers who make the news are sometimes referred to by these rankings.[44][45]

General costs
In all cases listed above, including both commercial and non-commercial, "spam happens" because of a positive cost-benefit analysis result; if the cost to recipients is excluded as an externality the spammer can avoid paying.

Cost is the combination of

Overhead: The costs and overhead of electronic spamming include bandwidth, developing or acquiring an email/wiki/blog spam tool, taking over or acquiring a host/zombie, etc.
Transaction cost: The incremental cost of contacting each additional recipient once a method of spamming is constructed, multiplied by the number of recipients (see CAPTCHA as a method of increasing transaction costs).
Risks: Chance and severity of legal and/or public reactions, including damages and punitive damages.
Damage: Impact on the community and/or communication channels being spammed (see Newsgroup spam).
Benefit is the total expected profit from spam, which may include any combination of the commercial and non-commercial reasons listed above. It is normally linear, based on the incremental benefit of reaching each additional spam recipient, combined with the conversion rate. The conversion rate for botnet-generated spam has recently been measured to be around one in 12,000,000 for pharmaceutical spam and one in 200,000 for infection sites as used by the Storm botnet.[46] The authors of the study calculating those conversion rates noted, "After 26 days, and almost 350 million e-mail messages, only 28 sales resulted."

In crime
Spam can be used to spread computer viruses, trojan horses or other malicious software. The objective may be identity theft, or worse (e.g., advance fee fraud). Some spam attempts to capitalize on human greed, while some attempts to take advantage of the victims' inexperience with computer technology to trick them (e.g., phishing).

One of the world's most prolific spammers, Robert Alan Soloway, was arrested by US authorities on May 31, 2007.[47] Described as one of the top ten spammers in the world, Soloway was charged with 35 criminal counts, including mail fraud, wire fraud, e-mail fraud, aggravated identity theft, and money laundering.[47] Prosecutors allege that Soloway used millions of "zombie" computers to distribute spam during 2003.[48] This is the first case in which US prosecutors used identity theft laws to prosecute a spammer for taking over someone else's Internet domain name.[49]

In an attempt to assess potential legal and technical strategies for stopping illegal spam, a study cataloged three months of online spam data and researched website naming and hosting infrastructures. The study concluded that: 1) half of all spam programs have their domains and servers distributed over just eight percent or fewer of the total available hosting registrars and autonomous systems, with 80 percent of spam programs overall being distributed over just 20 percent of all registrars and autonomous systems; 2) of the 76 purchases for which the researchers received transaction information, there were only 13 distinct banks acting as credit card acquirers and only three banks provided the payment servicing for 95 percent of the spam-advertised goods in the study; and, 3) a "financial blacklist" of banking entities that do business with spammers would dramatically reduce monetization of unwanted e-mails. Moreover, this blacklist could be updated far more rapidly than spammers could acquire new banking resources, an asymmetry favoring anti-spam efforts.[50]

Political issues
An ongoing concern expressed by parties such as the Electronic Frontier Foundation and the American Civil Liberties Union has to do with so-called "stealth blocking", a term for ISPs employing aggressive spam blocking without their users' knowledge. These groups' concern is that ISPs or technicians seeking to reduce spam-related costs may select tools that (either through error or design) also block non-spam e-mail from sites seen as "spam-friendly". Few object to the existence of these tools; it is their use in filtering the mail of users who are not informed of their use that draws fire.[51]

Even though it is possible in some jurisdictions to treat some spam as unlawful merely by applying existing laws against trespass and conversion, some laws specifically targeting spam have been proposed. In 2004, United States passed the CAN-SPAM Act of 2003 that provided ISPs with tools to combat spam. This act allowed Yahoo! to successfully sue Eric Head who settled the lawsuit for several thousand U.S. dollars in June 2004. But the law is criticized by many for not being effective enough. Indeed, the law was supported by some spammers and organizations that support spamming, and opposed by many in the anti-spam community.[citation needed]

Court cases
See also: E-mail spam legislation by country
United States
Earthlink won a $25 million judgment against one of the most notorious and active "spammers" Khan C. Smith in 2001 for his role in founding the modern spam industry which dealt billions in economic damage and established thousands of spammers into the industry.[52] His email efforts were said to make up more than a third of all Internet email being sent from 1999 until 2002.

Sanford Wallace and Cyber Promotions were the target of a string of lawsuits, many of which were settled out of court, up through a 1998 Earthlink settlement[53] that put Cyber Promotions out of business. Attorney Laurence Canter was disbarred by the Tennessee Supreme Court in 1997 for sending prodigious amounts of spam advertising his immigration law practice. In 2005, Jason Smathers, a former America Online employee, pleaded guilty to charges of violating the CAN-SPAM Act. In 2003, he sold a list of approximately 93 million AOL subscriber e-mail addresses to Sean Dunaway who sold the list to spammers.[54][55]

In 2007, Robert Soloway lost a case in a federal court against the operator of a small Oklahoma-based Internet service provider who accused him of spamming. U.S. Judge Ralph G. Thompson granted a motion by plaintiff Robert Braver for a default judgment and permanent injunction against him. The judgment includes a statutory damages award of about $10 million under Oklahoma law.[56]

In June 2007, two men were convicted of eight counts stemming from sending millions of e-mail spam messages that included hardcore pornographic images. Jeffrey A. Kilbride, 41, of Venice, California was sentenced to six years in prison, and James R. Schaffer, 41, of Paradise Valley, Arizona, was sentenced to 63 months. In addition, the two were fined $100,000, ordered to pay $77,500 in restitution to AOL, and ordered to forfeit more than $1.1 million, the amount of illegal proceeds from their spamming operation.[57] The charges included conspiracy, fraud, money laundering, and transportation of obscene materials. The trial, which began on June 5, was the first to include charges under the CAN-SPAM Act of 2003, according to a release from the Department of Justice. The specific law that prosecutors used under the CAN-Spam Act was designed to crack down on the transmission of pornography in spam.[58]

In 2005, Scott J. Filary and Donald E. Townsend of Tampa, Florida were sued by Florida Attorney General Charlie Crist for violating the Florida Electronic Mail Communications Act.[59] The two spammers were required to pay $50,000 USD to cover the costs of investigation by the state of Florida, and a $1.1 million penalty if spamming were to continue, the $50,000 was not paid, or the financial statements provided were found to be inaccurate. The spamming operation was successfully shut down.[60]

Edna Fiedler, 44, of Olympia, Washington, on June 25, 2008, pleaded guilty in a Tacoma court and was sentenced to 2 years imprisonment and 5 years of supervised release or probation in an Internet $1 million "Nigerian check scam." She conspired to commit bank, wire and mail fraud, against US citizens, specifically using Internet by having had an accomplice who shipped counterfeit checks and money orders to her from Lagos, Nigeria, the previous November. Fiedler shipped out $609,000 fake check and money orders when arrested and prepared to send additional $1.1 million counterfeit materials. Also, the U.S. Postal Service recently intercepted counterfeit checks, lottery tickets and eBay overpayment schemes with a value of $2.1 billion.[61][62]

In a 2009 opinion, Gordon v. Virtumundo, Inc., 575 F.3d 1040, the Ninth Circuit assessed the standing requirements necessary for a private plaintiff to bring a civil cause of action against spam senders under the CAN-SPAM Act of 2003, as well as the scope of the CAN-SPAM Act's federal preemption clause.[63]

United Kingdom
In the first successful case of its kind, Nigel Roberts from the Channel Islands won £270 against Media Logistics UK who sent junk e-mails to his personal account.[64]

In January 2007, a Sheriff Court in Scotland awarded Mr. Gordon Dick £750 (the then maximum sum that could be awarded in a Small Claim action) plus expenses of £618.66, a total of £1368.66 against Transcom Internet Services Ltd.[65] for breaching anti-spam laws.[66] Transcom had been legally represented at earlier hearings, but were not represented at the proof, so Gordon Dick got his decree by default. It is the largest amount awarded in compensation in the United Kingdom since Roberts v Media Logistics case in 2005.

Despite the statutory tort that is created by the Regulations implementing the EC Directive, few other people have followed their example. As the Courts engage in active case management, such cases would probably now be expected to be settled by mediation and payment of nominal damages.

New Zealand
In October 2008, an international internet spam operation run from New Zealand was cited by American authorities as one of the world's largest, and for a time responsible for up to a third of all unwanted e-mails. In a statement the US Federal Trade Commission (FTC) named Christchurch's Lance Atkinson as one of the principals of the operation. New Zealand's Internal Affairs announced it had lodged a $200,000 claim in the High Court against Atkinson and his brother Shane Atkinson and courier Roland Smits, after raids in Christchurch. This marked the first prosecution since the Unsolicited Electronic Messages Act (UEMA) was passed in September 2007. The FTC said it had received more than three million complaints about spam messages connected to this operation, and estimated that it may be responsible for sending billions of illegal spam messages. The US District Court froze the defendants’ assets to preserve them for consumer redress pending trial.[67] U.S. co-defendant Jody Smith forfeited more than $800,000 and faces up to five years in prison for charges to which he pleaded guilty.[68]

Bulgaria
While most countries either outlaw or at least ignore spam, Bulgaria is the first and until now[when?] only one[citation needed]to legalize it. According to the Bulgarian E-Commerce act[69] (Чл.5,6) anyone can send spam to mailboxes published as owned by a company or organization as long as there is a "clear and straight indication that the message is unsolicited commercial e-mail" ("да осигури ясното и недвусмислено разпознаване на търговското съобщение като непоискано") in the message body.

This made lawsuits against Bulgarian ISP's and public e-mail providers with antispam policy possible, as they are obstructing legal commerce activity and thus violate Bulgarian antitrust acts. While there are no such lawsuits until now, several cases of spam obstruction are currently awaiting decision in the Bulgarian Antitrust Commission (Комисия за защита на конкуренцията) and can end with serious fines for the ISPs in question.[when?][citation needed]

The law contains other dubious provisions — for example, the creation of a nationwide public electronic register of e-mail addresses that do not want to receive spam.[70] It is usually abused as the perfect source for e-mail address harvesting, because publishing invalid or incorrect information in such a register is a criminal offense in Bulgaria.

Newsgroups
news.admin.net-abuse.email
See also
icon Internet portal
Address munging (avoidance technique)
Advance-fee scam (Nigerian spam)
Anti-spam techniques
Identity theft – Deliberate use of someone else's identity, usually as a method to gain a financial advantage
Image spam
Confidence trick – Attempt to defraud a person or group after first gaining their confidence
Junk mail
List of spammers – Wikipedia list article
Malware
Network Abuse Clearinghouse
Phishing – Act of attempting to acquire sensitive information by posing as a trustworthy entity
Social spam – Unwanted spam content appearing on social networking services
Spam and Open Relay Blocking System (SORBS)
SpamCop
The Spamhaus Project
Spamigation
VoIP spam
Spoetry
Sporgery – Posting a flood of articles to a Usenet group, with falsified headers.
Suppression list
Voice phishing, also known as Vishing – Form of criminal phone fraud, using social engineering over the telephone system to gain access to private personal and financial information for the purpose of financial reward
History
Howard Carmack
Make Money Fast – Electronic chain letter
Sanford Wallace
Spam King
Usenet Death Penalty
References
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Lombardi, Candace. "Alleged 'Seattle Spammer' arrested - CNET". News.com. Retrieved 2013-09-03.
Claburn, Thomas. "'Spam King' Robert Alan Soloway Pleads Guilty". InformationWeek.com [1], 3/17/2008.
SPAMfighter News (6 November 2007). "Spam Kingpin Robert Soloway Arrested". Retrieved 17 December 2018.
Levchenko, Kirill; et al. (2011). Click Trajectories: End-to-End Analysis of the Spam Value Chain (PDF). 2011 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy. pp. 431–446. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.706.1497. doi:10.1109/SP.2011.24. ISBN 978-0-7695-4402-1.

adultsfr...@gmail.com

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Sep 20, 2020, 9:52:58 AM9/20/20
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On Sunday, September 20, 2020 at 6:14:46 PM UTC+5:30, adultsfr...@gmail.com wrote:
> Are you single man looking girls for Sex dating? Now meet online girls for sex or one night stand on your bed and casual hookup.you'll start find many Girls dates and sex. Here are some of the types of sex and partners you can find through.
>
> Find Now:  https://adultfriendfinder.com/go/g1449552

Do you want to know how to know if a girl likes you? Well here are five sure shots signs to figure out whether a girl likes you or not! These are the important signs that a girl likes you. When you use these secrets you will never lose your confidence with a girl because you know she likes you. These five signs that shes likes you are going to help you get a first date with the girl you like!

The first way to tell if a girl likes you is that she looks at you a little longer than just a glance. When you lock eyes she is attracted to you. Take this as a moment to approach her with confidence. A woman that stares at you is inviting you to talk to you. If you have style, great body language, and a strong presence you will have many women look at you. So look for this sign!

Is she facing you with receptive body language? If a girl is near you that means that she is in close proximity of you so you may approach her. She wouldn't be so close to you unless she was attracted to you. Also, is she with open body language and facing your direction? If so, she wants to you approach her!

When you do approach her, is she always smiling and laughing at your jokes - even when they aren't funny? A woman that is infatuated by you will feel so good around you, that without even realizing it, she will be smiling all the time. Do you notice when you laugh at a bad joke your boss tells? Well you do it to please your boss. A girl will laugh at your dumb jokes because she likes you and wants to please you.

When you leave her does she look for you? This means the girl is chasing you! A woman has many men approach her daily. She can choose anyone to talk to. But one sign that a girl likes you is when she makes a strong effort to see you. She asks about you and searches for you online, or looks for you at a party. She wants to be with you!

Finally, is she on a date with you? A woman takes a lot of effort to go on a date with a man that she just met. She takes hours to get dressed, and will only go out with you if she feels secure and comfortable. Most importantly, if she goes out with you, this is the strongest of the signs that she likes you! She can go out with anyone else, but she chose you! She likes you!

Look for these 5 signs that a girl likes you! When you recognize these signs, jump on the opportunity and get with that girl.

3 unexpected 'Simple Tricks' I stumbled on that will let you know exactly what is in a woman's mind. So you know exactly what she is thinking so YOU will be able to get her every time.


adultsfr...@gmail.com

unread,
Sep 20, 2020, 9:54:39 AM9/20/20
to
On Sunday, September 20, 2020 at 6:14:46 PM UTC+5:30, adultsfr...@gmail.com wrote:
> Are you single man looking girls for Sex dating? Now meet online girls for sex or one night stand on your bed and casual hookup.you'll start find many Girls dates and sex. Here are some of the types of sex and partners you can find through.
>
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Dating is part of college life and we need to admit that it is hard especially if you do not have a car. Most college students want something that they can be proud of like dating a girl/guy who has his/her own a car. Do not worry and feel sorry about yourself because you do not have a car to use on your date. Just be creative to think of ideas. Read the following tips to help you:

Take advantage of different transportation around you.
Try to ask your date about the most interesting transportation he/she wants to ride. It can be a horse, bicycle or old school car. Just make sure to find ways on how you can both ride on that transportation to your date destination. Make your own fairytale story.

Walk together.
Set a date near both of your places so that you do not need to ride. All you need to do is walk. This is great chance to know him/her better. It is also a good strategy to find ways on how you can tickle her/his heart.

Borrow a Car.
If you want to impress him/her by showing some effort to find ways on how you can get a car to use, you can ask family members or friends to borrow their car if they have. In exchange of borrowing their car, you can give your service, pay some amount or be kind enough to fill the gas.

Rent a Car.
There are many available renting cars around the corner. Take time to research for the most affordable and can give you good deals. Remember not to choose a car because it looks good in the eyes, always choose car that makes you feel comfortable to drive.

Use your Date's Car
It is already 21century no problem if you will go out in a date using his/her car. Just make sure that you will pay for the food you will eat. Besides, you're the one who ask to go out together.

When it comes to dating, never think that you cannot go out with someone because you do not have any car to use. Remember that no bridges can put a barrier, if you're really willing to spend time to someone very specially to you.


mariee...@gmail.com

unread,
Sep 20, 2020, 11:26:15 AM9/20/20
to
The virus is a submicroscopic infectious agent that recurs only inside the living cells of the body. [1] Viruses infect all forms of life, from animals and plants to microorganisms, including bacteria and archaea. [2] More than 6000 virus species have been described in detail since Dmitry Ivanovsky's 1892 article describing a bacterial pathogen infecting tobacco plants and Martinus Beijerinck's tobacco mosaic virus discovered in 1898 [3], out of millions types of viruses in the environment. [5] Viruses are found in almost all ecosystems on Earth and are the largest type of biological unit. [6] [7] Viral research is known as virology, a subspecialty of microbiology.

When infected, the host cell is forced to quickly produce thousands of identical copies of the original virus. If the viruses are not inside the infected cell or in the process of infecting the cell, they exist as independent particles or virions consisting of: (i) genetic material, ie long DNA or RNA molecules that encode the cell structure. the proteins with which the virus works; (ii) a protein sheath, a capsid that surrounds and protects genetic material; and in some cases (iii) a lipid outer shell. The particle shapes of these viruses range from simple spiral and icosahedral shapes to more complex structures. For most virus species, virions are too small to be seen under an optical microscope because they are one hundredth of most bacteria.

The origin of viruses in the history of life's evolution is unclear: some may have evolved from plasmids, pieces of DNA that can move between cells, and others from bacteria. In evolution, viruses are an important means of horizontal gene transfer, which increases genetic diversity in a similar way to sex breeding [8]. Some biologists consider viruses to be a form of life because they carry genetic material, multiply and develop through natural selection, although they lack key properties such as cell structure, which are generally considered essential life criteria. Because they have some, but not all, of these properties, viruses have been described as "life-threatening organisms" [9] and as self-replicators [10].

Viruses spread in many ways. One route of transmission occurs through disease-carrying organisms known as vectors: for example, viruses are often transmitted from plant to plant by insects that feed on plant juices, such as aphids; and viruses can be transmitted to animals by blood - sucking insects. Influenza viruses are spread by coughing and sneezing. Norovirus and rotavirus, which are common causes of viral gastroenteritis, are transmitted in the faeces - orally, by mouth-to-mouth or food or water. The infectious dose of norovirus required to induce infection in humans is less than 100 particles. [11] HIV is one of several viruses that are transmitted during sexual intercourse and exposure to infected blood. The variety of host cells that the virus can infect is called its 'host range'. It can be narrow, meaning that the virus can infect some species, or broad, meaning it can infect many. [12]

Animal viral infections cause an immune response that usually destroys the infecting virus. Immune responses can also be caused by vaccines that artificially acquire immunity to a particular viral infection. Some viruses, including those that cause AIDS, HPV infection, and viral hepatitis, avoid these immune reactions and cause chronic infections. Several antiviral drugs have been developed.


Content
1 Etymology
2 History
3 origin
4 Microbiology
4.1 Life properties
4.2. Structure
4.2.1 Giant viruses
4.3 Genomes
4.3.1 Genome size
4.4. Genetic mutation
4.5 Replication cycle
4.6 Genome replication
4.7 Cytopathic effects on the host cell
4.8 Inactive and latent infections
4.9 Host Range
5 Classification
5.1 ICTV classification
5.2. Baltimore classification
6 Role in human diseases
6.1 Epidemiology
6.2. Epidemics and pandemics
6.3 Cancer
6.4 Host protection mechanisms
6.5 Prevention and treatment
6.5.1. Vaccines
6.5.2 Antivirals
7 Infection of other species
7.1. Animal viruses
7.2 Plant viruses
7.3 Bacterial viruses
7.4 Archaic viruses
8 Role in aquatic ecosystems
9 Role in evolution
10 Applications
10.1 Life sciences and medicine
10.1.1. Virotherapy
10.2. Materials science and nanotechnology
10.3. Synthetic viruses
10.4. Weapons
11 See also
12 References
12.1 Notes
12.2. Bibliography
13 External links
Etymology
This name comes from the Latin neuter viruses, which refer to poisons and other harmful liquids, from the same Indo-European base, which is Sanskrit viṣa, Avestan viša and ancient gr.

The virus is a submicroscopic infectious agent that recurs only inside the living cells of the body. [1] Viruses infect all forms of life, from animals and plants to microorganisms, including bacteria and archaea. [2] More than 6000 virus species have been described in detail since Dmitry Ivanovsky's 1892 article describing a bacterial pathogen infecting tobacco plants and Martinus Beijerinck's tobacco mosaic virus discovered in 1898 [3], out of millions types of viruses in the environment. [5] Viruses are found in almost all ecosystems on Earth and are the largest type of biological unit. [6] [7] Viral research is known as virology, a subspecialty of microbiology.

When infected, the host cell is forced to quickly produce thousands of identical copies of the original virus. If the viruses are not inside the infected cell or in the process of infecting the cell, they exist as independent particles or virions consisting of: (i) genetic material, ie long DNA or RNA molecules that encode the cell structure. the proteins with which the virus works; (ii) a protein sheath, a capsid that surrounds and protects genetic material; and in some cases (iii) a lipid outer shell. The particle shapes of these viruses range from simple spiral and icosahedral shapes to more complex structures. For most virus species, virions are too small to be seen under an optical microscope because they are one hundredth of most bacteria.

The origin of viruses in the history of life's evolution is unclear: some may have evolved from plasmids, pieces of DNA that can move between cells, and others from bacteria. In evolution, viruses are an important means of horizontal gene transfer, which increases genetic diversity in a similar way to sex breeding [8]. Some biologists consider viruses to be a form of life because they carry genetic material, multiply and develop through natural selection, although they lack key properties such as cell structure, which are generally considered essential life criteria. Because they have some, but not all, of these properties, viruses have been described as "life-threatening organisms" [9] and as self-replicators [10].

Viruses spread in many ways. One route of transmission occurs through disease-carrying organisms known as vectors: for example, viruses are often transmitted from plant to plant by insects that feed on plant juices, such as aphids; and viruses can be transmitted to animals by blood - sucking insects. Influenza viruses are spread by coughing and sneezing. Norovirus and rotavirus, which are common causes of viral gastroenteritis, are transmitted in the faeces - orally, by mouth-to-mouth or food or water. The infectious dose of norovirus required to induce infection in humans is less than 100 particles. [11] HIV is one of several viruses that are transmitted during sexual intercourse and exposure to infected blood. The variety of host cells that the virus can infect is called its 'host range'. It can be narrow, meaning that the virus can infect some species, or broad, meaning it can infect many. [12]

Animal viral infections cause an immune response that usually destroys the infecting virus. Immune responses can also be caused by vaccines that artificially acquire immunity to a particular viral infection. Some viruses, including those that cause AIDS, HPV infection, and viral hepatitis, avoid these immune reactions and cause chronic infections. Several antiviral drugs have been developed.


Content
1 Etymology
2 History
3 origin
4 Microbiology
4.1 Life properties
4.2. Structure
4.2.1 Giant viruses
4.3 Genomes
4.3.1 Genome size
4.4. Genetic mutation
4.5 Replication cycle
4.6 Genome replication
4.7 Cytopathic effects on the host cell
4.8 Inactive and latent infections
4.9 Host Range
5 Classification
5.1 ICTV classification
5.2. Baltimore classification
6 Role in human diseases
6.1 Epidemiology
6.2. Epidemics and pandemics
6.3 Cancer
6.4 Host protection mechanisms
6.5 Prevention and treatment
6.5.1. Vaccines
6.5.2 Antivirals
7 Infection of other species
7.1. Animal viruses
7.2 Plant viruses
7.3 Bacterial viruses
7.4 Archaic viruses
8 Role in aquatic ecosystems
9 Role in evolution
10 Applications
10.1 Life sciences and medicine
10.1.1. Virotherapy
10.2. Materials science and nanotechnology
10.3. Synthetic viruses
10.4. Weapons
11 See also
12 References
12.1 Notes
12.2. Bibliography
13 External links
Etymology
This name comes from the Latin neuter viruses, which refer to poisons and other harmful liquids, from the same Indo-European base, which is Sanskrit viṣa, Avestan viša and ancient gr.

mariee...@gmail.com

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Sep 20, 2020, 11:27:41 AM9/20/20
to
I see no difference. In both cases some kind of type tag need to be
written and the object's size with it if not derived from the tag.

Whether stream Read/Write or storage elements copy is then used changes
little.

P.S. I never used Storage_IO, I did storage pools instead.

With a ring buffer you go as follows. Make a LIFO of Storage_Elements.
It could be a descendant of Root_Storage_Pool or else if true parent
type is already spent (Ada has no full multiple inheritance) use an
access discriminant in a mix-in:

type LIFO_Pool (Buffer : not null access LIFO'Class)
with null record;

The implementation of Allocate with reserve place in Buffer. Allocate
already has parameter Size_In_Storage_Elements.

You should only pay attention to Alignment and to atomic kicking off old
elements when new allocation overlaps old elements in the buffer. So the
element sizes must be stored in the LIFO. Writing into the LIFO will become:

procedure Push (Buffer : in out LIFO'Class S : String) is
Pool : LIFO_Pool (Buffer'Unchecked_Access);
type String_Ptr is access String;
for String_Ptr'Storage_Pool use Pool;
Ptr : String_Ptr;
begin
Ptr := new String'("Some text");
end Push;

P.P.S. Beware Ada finalization design bug ARM 7.6.1 (11.1/3): no
controlled types, also.
- show quoted text -

Simon Wright
6 Jul
"Dmitry A. Kazakov" <mai...@dmitry-kazakov.de> writes:

> On 05/07/2020 17:36, Simon Wright wrote:
>> "Jeffrey R. Carter" <spam.jr...@spam.not.acm.org> writes:
>>
>>> On 7/5/20 11:52 AM, Simon Wright wrote:
>>>> Simon Wright <si...@pushface.org> writes:
>>>>
>>>>> For the Size, see ARM 13.13.2(2).
>>>>
>>>> 13.13.2(1.2), sorry
>>>
>>> That only works for elementary types. For any type, a better approach
>>> is generic package Ada.Storage_IO, ARM A.9
>>> (http://www.ada-auth.org/standards/rm12_w_tc1/html/RM-A-9.html).
>>
>> As you say, this has the advantage of actually working.
>
> I see no difference. In both cases some kind of type tag need to be
> written and the object's size with it if not derived from the tag.

I was talking about the fact that 'Storage_Size only works for elementary
types.

Simon Wright
6 Jul
"Jeffrey R. Carter" <spam.jr...@spam.not.acm.org> writes:

> For any type, a better approach is generic package Ada.Storage_IO, ARM
> A.9 (http://www.ada-auth.org/standards/rm12_w_tc1/html/RM-A-9.html).

Any *definite* type. I don't remember whether that would suit the
original requirement in this thread.

Jeffrey R. Carter
6 Jul
On 7/6/20 10:11 AM, Simon Wright wrote:
>
> Any *definite* type. I don't remember whether that would suit the
> original requirement in this thread.

I don't think "requirement" applies. "Circular buffer of untyped values" is at
best a design decision. Trying to bypass the type system is usually an
indication of a design problem, in my experience.

--
Jeff Carter
"In the frozen land of Nador they were forced to
eat Robin's minstrels, and there was much rejoicing."
Monty Python & the Holy Grail
70

Simon Wright
6 Jul
"Jeffrey R. Carter" <spam.jr...@spam.not.acm.org> writes:

> On 7/6/20 10:11 AM, Simon Wright wrote:
>>
>> Any *definite* type. I don't remember whether that would suit the
>> original requirement in this thread.
>
> I don't think "requirement" applies. "Circular buffer of untyped
> values" is at best a design decision. Trying to bypass the type system
> is usually an indication of a design problem, in my experience.

Yes. There would have to be some mechanism for the receiving end to
decide what to do with the next lot of bytes!

Dmitry A. Kazakov
6 Jul
- show quoted text -
Sure. An example would be implementation of interprocess RPC. The
parameters of a RPC would be passed via some pipe implemented as a ring
buffer with stream interface on top of it. Since RPC parameters could be
of almost any type, here you go.
- show quoted text -

jennyd...@gmail.com

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Sep 21, 2020, 9:47:58 PM9/21/20
to
On Sunday, September 20, 2020 at 6:14:46 PM UTC+5:30, adultsfr...@gmail.com wrote:
> Are you single man looking girls for Sex dating? Now meet online girls for sex or one night stand on your bed and casual hookup.you'll start find many Girls dates and sex. Here are some of the types of sex and partners you can find through.
>
> Find Now:  https://adultfriendfinder.com/go/g1449552

Internet dating has become a commodity for people who are interested in joining a dating service. Dating services has it's pros and cons. However, the benefits which dating services offer to their members far out weigh the negatives. Internet dating has become a commodity for people who are interested in joining a dating service. Here are some reasons why that is true.

I went to Google and searched for the term dating services. As I do this I get over 80 million results and every one is an online dating website.

Now do the same thing except Google search online dating services. I see 82 million results, not much difference which leads you to the conclusion that dating services and online dating services have come to mean the same thing.

What is an online dating service? It is a group of people who get together to socialize and know each other better. This can lead to dating and relationships from that.

An online dating service is accepted in today's society as normal because so many people do it. Everyone from the busy business executive to single moms can be found online at a dating service.

One of the best things about online dating is that you can search for the exact type of person you are looking for. An online profile gives you exact match information which gives you an excellent chance of meeting someone with a common interest.

Some online dating services are run as a membership. You may be able to join for free during a trial period. This gives you a chance to list your own personal information and see if you like their service.

Most online dating services screen their members before they join. For their existing members security is a top priority.

Finding a specific online dating services is very easy to do. Here are a few ideas on doing that.

1. Ask a friendFree Reprint Articles, nothing beats a referral from someone you know. Plus they can give you real life experiences to draw from.

2. Do a Google search for "dating services discussion forums". Here you will find a group of forums you can join for free to see what others are saying. You can hang in the shadows or join in and ask questions of your own.

3. Go where the action is. The best known dating services are the ones who advertise on television the most. eHarmony.com And Match.com are 2 that come to mind. Start there and check them out.

This is a few tips and suggestions on finding dating services for yourself. Online dating services are here to stay and can offer the right person a lot in finding a partner or just someone to hang out with.



This is a good one. Some popular dating sites that have millions of singles may not be your type. A free dating site that has only 100,000 members may be your good type. It is not based on the number of members who sign up for the site. Each person has different concept. So, what you need to do is search for good dating sites and sign up with them.

Two types of dating sites you may consider, paid and free dating websites. As the name mentions, free dating services don't charge members at membership fee while other paid sites collect monthly fee. What is your favorite one? Free and paid dating websites may have the same features. It is recommended that you sign up with free online dating sites if you are new to the online dating world. Choosing a suitable dating site can be hard if you are new. To be successful in selecting the best dating service you just need the extract research on your part. You should take a closer look at your needs. Do you want to spend money in looking for online love? What exactly do you seek from a dating site?

Free membership sites are recommended if you are new to the online dating world. You can sign up for more than one dating website at the same time. There is the pros and cons between these free online dating websites. The downsize of it is the scammers. Such dating sites also have third-party ads to pay for the service. Paid dating websites don't have such ads but you have to pay monthly membership fee around $20 to $50. It is up to you to decide which type you should join. When you first research for a best dating site, make sure you read their term of use to understand their tos. Some dating sites allow free registration but will charge you money when you try to contact others.

In conclusion, you have to make your own decision to select the best dating sites to sign up with. Whether it is free or paid service, the whole point is to search for singles in your area and date each other. For free dating sites, you can join a few websites at the same time. If you still cannot find a dream mate after a few months, then move to another free site.

As you know online dating really works these days. As seen on TV, popular dating sites generated thousands of relationships a year. The first thing you need to do is to sign up for a profile, search for singles in your area, and interact with them by dropping an e-mail message. ThenPsychology Articles, your online dating journey begins.

Being a single is not fun. Take action to find your other half today.


The word dating is derived from ‘date’. When they word “date” is uttered among youth it implies to much more than the date as a chronological reference to time in terms of time as we know and the calendar we follow. For the youth it means an appointment with a friend of opposite for an evening or night out.

For an adult ‘date’ has same meaning as the youth but it is not restricted to fun and holding hands and mumbling few niceties before the farewell. Adult dating online implies to creating a space for love, romance or a long-term relationship and casual or pre-mediated hot, torrid sex encounter. Another negative aspect of adult dating online on land is that anonymity cannot be maintained easily and squarely as you would like to at least in the initial stages.

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The adult dating world is very complex and mired in confusion for many. The reason is that dating on land as such was a very frustrating affair as interaction with the opposite sex was restricted to social clubs, work place, community and few other outlets. Thus if within these venues you could not find a soul mate or a sex partner then you had to wait for eternity for that chance meeting (if ever) with a perfect person. Or catch hold of who ever you found near suitable and risk the chance of facing frustration in later period of life.

Internet has changed that, the fantastic information transmission and connectivity that it has ushered has brought about a paradigm shift in the way we date. Not only the way we date but even in our sexual attitudes and orientations. If you visit any dating site you will realize as to how valid the above fact is. Browse the adult dating online personals of any major dating site and you will realize how varied the expression of sexual desire and sexual preference is.

https://adultfriendfinder.com/go/g1449552

In a fast changing society the expression of word sex is no more a taboo. People now flaunt their sexuality more openly and are not afraid of experimenting with different lifestyles as is apparent in case of swinging among couples know as swingers or adult swingers. Swinger sex albeit not acceptable to traditionalist has brought about a revolution in sex lives of married couples. The aspect of sharing once wife or swapping partner for sex is now nothing new. One good look at swinger’s personals will make that apparent. Even as a single you can sex with swinger’s if acceptance is there – since there are many combinations that are popular among swingers from twosome sex to threesome sex and orgies. BDSM and fetishist also find there kind in these websites.

Similarly the alternate sex seekers like bisexual, gay and lesbians have surfaced evenly in Internet dating thanks to anonymity it provides to out personals in a world which still refers to homo sexuality as “queer”. There are now specific portal which are service providers for alternate sex seekers and are referred to as gay dating site and lesbian dating site which are targeted on gay sex and lesbian sex.

Many portals offer the option of ethnic or religious dating on lines of your desire to date with a person of same faith or ethnicity or have interracial relationship.

You can virtually date anyone in the world as people can post their profiles on any dating site now along with their photos. You can interact with people you like using online chat or live webcams to get to know them better before you take the plunge of meeting them. This will take you to a long term relationship a matrimonial alliance or a rollicking sex date what ever you wish.

https://adultfriendfinder.com/go/g1449552

Hence when you visit a dating site make sure of what you wish for and accordingly choose a site that is focused on singles dating, sex dating, gay lesbian or swinger’s sex or even just friendship. Then matchmaking services or adult friend finder that is region specific in case you are looking for dating within your country or in a local area. There are portals which offer everything under one roof making your task easier.

Be careful there portals that offer everything and deliver nothing. They will cheat on your credit cards and most of the profiles posted would be fake or inactive. Prefer sites which give free registration thereby giving you a chance for exploring the site before you commit financially. In most of the trusted sites privacyScience Articles, anonymity and safety is assured. Just be focused what kind of dating you are in for to have a successful adult dating online experience.

The word dating is derived from ‘date’. When they word “date” is uttered among youth it implies to much more than the date as a chronological reference to time in terms of time as we know and the calendar we follow. For the youth it means an appointment with a friend of opposite for an evening or night out.

For an adult ‘date’ has same meaning as the youth but it is not restricted to fun and holding hands and mumbling few niceties before the farewell. Adult dating online implies to creating a space for love, romance or a long-term relationship and casual or pre-mediated hot, torrid sex encounter. Another negative aspect of adult dating online on land is that anonymity cannot be maintained easily and squarely as you would like to at least in the initial stages.

https://adultfriendfinder.com/go/g1449552

The adult dating world is very complex and mired in confusion for many. The reason is that dating on land as such was a very frustrating affair as interaction with the opposite sex was restricted to social clubs, work place, community and few other outlets. Thus if within these venues you could not find a soul mate or a sex partner then you had to wait for eternity for that chance meeting (if ever) with a perfect person. Or catch hold of who ever you found near suitable and risk the chance of facing frustration in later period of life.

Internet has changed that, the fantastic information transmission and connectivity that it has ushered has brought about a paradigm shift in the way we date. Not only the way we date but even in our sexual attitudes and orientations. If you visit any dating site you will realize as to how valid the above fact is. Browse the adult dating online personals of any major dating site and you will realize how varied the expression of sexual desire and sexual preference is.

https://adultfriendfinder.com/go/g1449552

In a fast changing society the expression of word sex is no more a taboo. People now flaunt their sexuality more openly and are not afraid of experimenting with different lifestyles as is apparent in case of swinging among couples know as swingers or adult swingers. Swinger sex albeit not acceptable to traditionalist has brought about a revolution in sex lives of married couples. The aspect of sharing once wife or swapping partner for sex is now nothing new. One good look at swinger’s personals will make that apparent. Even as a single you can sex with swinger’s if acceptance is there – since there are many combinations that are popular among swingers from twosome sex to threesome sex and orgies. BDSM and fetishist also find there kind in these websites.

Similarly the alternate sex seekers like bisexual, gay and lesbians have surfaced evenly in Internet dating thanks to anonymity it provides to out personals in a world which still refers to homo sexuality as “queer”. There are now specific portal which are service providers for alternate sex seekers and are referred to as gay dating site and lesbian dating site which are targeted on gay sex and lesbian sex.

Many portals offer the option of ethnic or religious dating on lines of your desire to date with a person of same faith or ethnicity or have interracial relationship.

You can virtually date anyone in the world as people can post their profiles on any dating site now along with their photos. You can interact with people you like using online chat or live webcams to get to know them better before you take the plunge of meeting them. This will take you to a long term relationship a matrimonial alliance or a rollicking sex date what ever you wish.
The word dating is derived from ‘date’. When they word “date” is uttered among youth it implies to much more than the date as a chronological reference to time in terms of time as we know and the calendar we follow. For the youth it means an appointment with a friend of opposite for an evening or night out.

For an adult ‘date’ has same meaning as the youth but it is not restricted to fun and holding hands and mumbling few niceties before the farewell. Adult dating online implies to creating a space for love, romance or a long-term relationship and casual or pre-mediated hot, torrid sex encounter. Another negative aspect of adult dating online on land is that anonymity cannot be maintained easily and squarely as you would like to at least in the initial stages.

https://adultfriendfinder.com/go/g1449552

The adult dating world is very complex and mired in confusion for many. The reason is that dating on land as such was a very frustrating affair as interaction with the opposite sex was restricted to social clubs, work place, community and few other outlets. Thus if within these venues you could not find a soul mate or a sex partner then you had to wait for eternity for that chance meeting (if ever) with a perfect person. Or catch hold of who ever you found near suitable and risk the chance of facing frustration in later period of life.

Internet has changed that, the fantastic information transmission and connectivity that it has ushered has brought about a paradigm shift in the way we date. Not only the way we date but even in our sexual attitudes and orientations. If you visit any dating site you will realize as to how valid the above fact is. Browse the adult dating online personals of any major dating site and you will realize how varied the expression of sexual desire and sexual preference is.

https://adultfriendfinder.com/go/g1449552

In a fast changing society the expression of word sex is no more a taboo. People now flaunt their sexuality more openly and are not afraid of experimenting with different lifestyles as is apparent in case of swinging among couples know as swingers or adult swingers. Swinger sex albeit not acceptable to traditionalist has brought about a revolution in sex lives of married couples. The aspect of sharing once wife or swapping partner for sex is now nothing new. One good look at swinger’s personals will make that apparent. Even as a single you can sex with swinger’s if acceptance is there – since there are many combinations that are popular among swingers from twosome sex to threesome sex and orgies. BDSM and fetishist also find there kind in these websites.

Similarly the alternate sex seekers like bisexual, gay and lesbians have surfaced evenly in Internet dating thanks to anonymity it provides to out personals in a world which still refers to homo sexuality as “queer”. There are now specific portal which are service providers for alternate sex seekers and are referred to as gay dating site and lesbian dating site which are targeted on gay sex and lesbian sex.

Many portals offer the option of ethnic or religious dating on lines of your desire to date with a person of same faith or ethnicity or have interracial relationship.

You can virtually date anyone in the world as people can post their profiles on any dating site now along with their photos. You can interact with people you like using online chat or live webcams to get to know them better before you take the plunge of meeting them. This will take you to a long term relationship a matrimonial alliance or a rollicking sex date what ever you wish.

https://adultfriendfinder.com/go/g1449552

Hence when you visit a dating site make sure of what you wish for and accordingly choose a site that is focused on singles dating, sex dating, gay lesbian or swinger’s sex or even just friendship. Then matchmaking services or adult friend finder that is region specific in case you are looking for dating within your country or in a local area. There are portals which offer everything under one roof making your task easier.

Be careful there portals that offer everything and deliver nothing. They will cheat on your credit cards and most of the profiles posted would be fake or inactive. Prefer sites which give free registration thereby giving you a chance for exploring the site before you commit financially. In most of the trusted sites privacyScience Articles, anonymity and safety is assured. Just be focused what kind of dating you are in for to have a successful adult dating online experience.

The word dating is derived from ‘date’. When they word “date” is uttered among youth it implies to much more than the date as a chronological reference to time in terms of time as we know and the calendar we follow. For the youth it means an appointment with a friend of opposite for an evening or night out.

For an adult ‘date’ has same meaning as the youth but it is not restricted to fun and holding hands and mumbling few niceties before the farewell. Adult dating online implies to creating a space for love, romance or a long-term relationship and casual or pre-mediated hot, torrid sex encounter. Another negative aspect of adult dating online on land is that anonymity cannot be maintained easily and squarely as you would like to at least in the initial stages.
https://adultfriendfinder.com/go/g1449552

The adult dating world is very complex and mired in confusion for many. The reason is that dating on land as such was a very frustrating affair as interaction with the opposite sex was restricted to social clubs, work place, community and few other outlets. Thus if within these venues you could not find a soul mate or a sex partner then you had to wait for eternity for that chance meeting (if ever) with a perfect person. Or catch hold of who ever you found near suitable and risk the chance of facing frustration in later period of life.

Internet has changed that, the fantastic information transmission and connectivity that it has ushered has brought about a paradigm shift in the way we date. Not only the way we date but even in our sexual attitudes and orientations. If you visit any dating site you will realize as to how valid the above fact is. Browse the adult dating online personals of any major dating site and you will realize how varied the expression of sexual desire and sexual preference is.

https://adultfriendfinder.com/go/g1449552

In a fast changing society the expression of word sex is no more a taboo. People now flaunt their sexuality more openly and are not afraid of experimenting with different lifestyles as is apparent in case of swinging among couples know as swingers or adult swingers. Swinger sex albeit not acceptable to traditionalist has brought about a revolution in sex lives of married couples. The aspect of sharing once wife or swapping partner for sex is now nothing new. One good look at swinger’s personals will make that apparent. Even as a single you can sex with swinger’s if acceptance is there – since there are many combinations that are popular among swingers from twosome sex to threesome sex and orgies. BDSM and fetishist also find there kind in these websites.

Similarly the alternate sex seekers like bisexual, gay and lesbians have surfaced evenly in Internet dating thanks to anonymity it provides to out personals in a world which still refers to homo sexuality as “queer”. There are now specific portal which are service providers for alternate sex seekers and are referred to as gay dating site and lesbian dating site which are targeted on gay sex and lesbian sex.

Many portals offer the option of ethnic or religious dating on lines of your desire to date with a person of same faith or ethnicity or have interracial relationship.

You can virtually date anyone in the world as people can post their profiles on any dating site now along with their photos. You can interact with people you like using online chat or live webcams to get to know them better before you take the plunge of meeting them. This will take you to a long term relationship a matrimonial alliance or a rollicking sex date what ever you wish.
https://adultfriendfinder.com/go/g1449552

Hence when you visit a dating site make sure of what you wish for and accordingly choose a site that is focused on singles dating, sex dating, gay lesbian or swinger’s sex or even just friendship. Then matchmaking services or adult friend finder that is region specific in case you are looking for dating within your country or in a local area. There are portals which offer everything under one roof making your task easier.

Be careful there portals that offer everything and deliver nothing. They will cheat on your credit cards and most of the profiles posted would be fake or inactive. Prefer sites which give free registration thereby giving you a chance for exploring the site before you commit financially. In most of the trusted sites privacyScience Articles, anonymity and safety is assured. Just be focused what kind of dating you are in for to have a successful adult dating online experience.

https://adultfriendfinder.com/go/g1449552

Hence when you visit a dating site make sure of what you wish for and accordingly choose a site that is focused on singles dating, sex dating, gay lesbian or swinger’s sex or even just friendship. Then matchmaking services or adult friend finder that is region specific in case you are looking for dating within your country or in a local area. There are portals which offer everything under one roof making your task easier.

Be careful there portals that offer everything and deliver nothing. They will cheat on your credit cards and most of the profiles posted would be fake or inactive. Prefer sites which give free registration thereby giving you a chance for exploring the site before you commit financially. In most of the trusted sites privacyScience Articles, anonymity and safety is assured. Just be focused what kind of dating you are in for to have a successful adult dating online experience.

https://adultfriendfinder.com/go/g1449552

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Yahweh, Queen and Country! Never Satan President Republic! Beware of the rising of the Antichrist!
Look at Psalms 14 and 53 on atheism https://www.empire.kred/ROOTNK?t=94a1f39b
The United States called a referendum on November 3, 2020 to dissolve the Union and dissolve itself.

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Yahweh, Queen and Country! Never Satan President Republic! Beware of the rising of the Antichrist!
Look at Psalms 14 and 53 on atheism https://www.empire.kred/ROOTNK?t=94a1f39b
The United States called a referendum on November 3, 2020 to dissolve the Union and dissolve it.

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The United States called a referendum on November 3, 2020 to dissolve the Union and dissolve itself.

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Yahweh, Queen and Country! Never Satan President Republic! Beware of the rising of the Antichrist!
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The United States called a referendum on November 3, 2020 to dissolve the Union and dissolve itself.

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Yahweh, Queen and Country! Never Satan President Republic! Beware of the rising of the Antichrist!
Look at Psalms 14 and 53 on atheism https://www.empire.kred/ROOTNK?t=94a1f39b
The United States called a referendum on November 3, 2020 to dissolve the Union and dissolve it.

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+ proxad.net! 209.85.160.216.MISMATCH! news-out.google.com! nntp.google.com!
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Injection information: google-groups.googlegroups.com; post-host = 185.32.221.247;
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+ people
From: emilywa ... @ gmail.com
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Depends on Google groups now!
-
Member - Liberal International This is doctor @@ nl2k.ab.ca Ici doctor @@ nl2k.ab.ca
Yahweh, Queen and Country! Never Satan President Republic! Beware of the rising of the Antichrist!
Look at Psalms 14 and 53 on atheism https://www.empire.kred/ROOTNK?t=94a1f39b
The United States called a referendum on November 3, 2020 to dissolve the Union and dissolve itself.

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+ people
From: emilywa ... @ gmail.com
Injection Date: Saturday, Sep 19, 2020 09:01:59 + 0000
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Stop Copy content from other site for spam. Stop Now
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Complaints-A: groups ... @ google.com
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+ people
From: emilywa ... @ gmail.com
Injection Date: Saturday, Sep 19, 2020 09:01:59 + 0000
Content type: text / plain; charset = "UTF-8"
Xref: news.nk.ca rec.arts.sf.science:101640

Depends on Google groups now!
-
Member - Liberal International This is doctor @@ nl2k.ab.ca Ici doctor @@ nl2k.ab.ca
Yahweh, Queen and Country! Never Satan President Republic! Beware of the rising of the Antichrist!
Look at Psalms 14 and 53 on atheism https://www.empire.kred/ROOTNK?t=94a1f39b
The United States called a referendum on November 3, 2020 to dissolve the Union and dissolve it.

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+ Sat, Sep 19, 2020 02:01:59 -0700 (PDT)
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Complaints-A: groups ... @ google.com
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Subject: Re: AdultFriendFinder: A Kinky Hookup And Sex Site For Open-minded People
+ people
From: emilywa ... @ gmail.com
Injection date: Saturday, September 19, 2020 09:01:59 +0000
Content type: text / plain; charset = "UTF-8"
Xref: news.nk.ca rec.arts.sf.science:101640

Depends on Google groups now!
-
Member - Liberal International This is doctor @@ nl2k.ab.ca Ici doctor @@ nl2k.ab.ca
Yahweh, Queen and Country! Never Satan President Republic! Beware of the rising of the Antichrist!
Look at Psalms 14 and 53 on atheism https://www.empire.kred/ROOTNK?t=94a1f39b
The United States called a referendum on November 3, 2020 to dissolve the Union and dissolve itself.

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+ people
From: emilywa ... @ gmail.com
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Xref: news.nk.ca rec.arts.sf.science:101640

Received X: in 2002: aed: 26a1 :: with SMTP id q30mr24652176qtd.25.1600506119206;
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Complaints-A: groups ... @ google.com
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+ people
From: emilywa ... @ gmail.com
Injection Date: Saturday, Sep 19, 2020 09:01:59 + 0000
Content type: text / plain; charset = "UTF-8"
Xref: news.nk.ca rec.arts.sf.science:101640

Depends on Google groups now!
-
Member - Liberal International This is doctor @@ nl2k.ab.ca Ici doctor @@ nl2k.ab.ca
Yahweh, Queen and Country! Never Satan President Republic! Beware of the rising of the Antichrist!
Look at Psalms 14 and 53 on atheism https://www.empire.kred/ROOTNK?t=94a1f39b
The United States called a referendum on November 3, 2020 to dissolve the Union and dissolve it.

Received X: in 2002: aed: 26a1 :: with SMTP id q30mr24652176qtd.25.1600506119206;
+ Sat, Sep 19, 2020 02:01:59 -0700 (PDT)
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Subject: Re: AdultFriendFinder: A Kinky Hookup And Sex Site For Open-minded People
+ people
From: emilywa ... @ gmail.com
Injection date: Saturday, September 19, 2020 09:01:59 +0000
Content type: text / plain; charset = "UTF-8"
Xref: news.nk.ca rec.arts.sf.science:101640

Depends on Google groups now!
-
Member - Liberal International This is doctor @@ nl2k.ab.ca Ici doctor @@ nl2k.ab.ca
Yahweh, Queen and Country! Never Satan President Republic! Beware of the rising of the Antichrist!
Look at Psalms 14 and 53 on atheism https://www.empire.kred/ROOTNK?t=94a1f39b
The United States called a referendum on November 3, 2020 to dissolve the Union and dissolve itself.

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Complaints-A: groups ... @ google.com
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From: emilywa ... @ gmail.com
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Xref: news.nk.ca rec.arts.sf.science:101640

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