Neal McLain wrote:
> Wes Leatherock wrote:
>> A prime example was the greater Kansas City Metropolitan exchange,
>> since the metro area extended across two states with seven-digit
>> dialing. The Missouri side had area code 816, the Kansas side 913.
[NOTE that I have corrected an error, in the above quoted paragraph]
>> Of course, this consideration ceased to be a factor when
>> mandatory 10-digit (or 11-digit) dialing on local calls came
>> into existence.
> Don't those two cities have independent 7-digit dialing plans now?
> I thought 816 and 913 each had 7-digit dialing internally but
> 11-digit dialing across the river?
Yes, in the Kansas City MO/KS metro area, local/EAS calls _within_
one's _own_ state/NPA are still dialable as just seven-digits,
although ten-digits (and 1+ten-digits) are permissive for such
intra-state/NPA local/EAS calls,
but local/EAS calls that _cross_ the state/NPA boundary are now
mandatory ten-digits (permissively 1+ten-digits).
The 816/MO side is eventually going to be overlaid with 975. This was
announced by SW-Bell and NeuStar-NANPA ten years ago, back in 2001,
but it has been "on hold" ever since. Whenever that 816/975 overlay
does take effect, then ten-digits mandatory will also take effect for
local/EAS calls within the 816/MO-side. I don't know if at&t/SW-Bell
and the rest of the telco industry, along with Kansas regulatory and
NANPA, will work to make local/EAS calls within the 913/KS-side also
as mandatory ten-digits for "consistency" purposes, nor not. Of
course, whenever the 913/KS-side ever does need relief which is also
most likely going to be an overlay, then ten-digits will become
mandatory for intra-913/KS local/EAS calls as well, if not already so
by then. BTW, 552 is the likely relief code for 913/KS.
**** MAYBE NOT 552! 552 is now a future 5xx PCS code! Also, 913/KS
is NOT expected to exhaust for QUITE some time now (as of 2011) ****
When the Ottawa-ON / Hull-QC metro area needed to eliminate protected
c.o.codes/7-digit local/EAS dialling to delay area code relief by
"squeezing" as much remaining life as possible from 613/ON and 819/QC,
Bell Canada, the CRTC, the CNA, etc. actually made local/EAS dialling
as mandatory ten-digits _throughout the entire_ 613/ON-side _and_
819/QC-side, even for intra-province/NPA local/EAS calls _everywhere_
in those NPAs, even in places outside of the Ottawa-ON / Hull-QC metro
area. Subsequently, the (entire) 613/ON-side has been overlaid with
343 (in 2010). The (entire) 819/QC-side will be overlaid with 873
next year (in 2012).
> Another example: DC/Maryland/Virginia metro area. Before 1953, the
> entire area had a single 6-digit dialing plan (2L+4D). In '53,
> 7-digit dialing was introduced (2L+5D).
Note that the numbering/dialing of Washington DC Metro (including the
VA and MD suburbs) converting from 2L-4N to 2L-5N was a "staged"
process. There were two or three staggered cutovers affecting specific
exchanges/central offices in various neighberhoods of the metro area
in the late 1940s/early 1950s-era. Other cities which changed from
2L-4N to 2L-5N did it as a single city/metro-wide cutover, where
_everything_ in the entire metro area that was 2L-4N changed to 2L-5N
all at one time, overnight (literally). But not the Washington DC
metro area, nor various other (multi-switch) cities. However, any/all
cutovers in the old electromechanical (SXS, Panel, Crossbar, etc) era
that involved numbering/dialing did NOT have a permissive period, but
such numbering/dialing cutovers were "flash-cut" (or nearly so, i.e.
there might have been an inadvertent permissive dial period for a few
hours or even a few days, as telco had to individually "turn-on" the
new numbering/dialing, and then "turn-off" the old/obsolete numbering/
> Sometime later, the dialing plan was split by area code, with
> 10-digit dialing across boundaries.
It was in October 1990, when the correct destination area code was
now _required_ for ten-digit (permissively 1+ten-digit) local/EAS
dialing which crossed the state/district/NPA boundaries between
DC/VA/MD. Permissive ten-digit local/EAS dialing (also permissive as
1+ten-digits) had been in place by BA/C&P for some time prior to
October 1990, though.
> Since then, both Maryland and Virginia have gotten overlays, so the
> metro area now has five area codes with 10-digit dialing in Maryland
> (301 and 240) and Virginia (703 and 571). DC (202 still has 7-digit
[NOTE that I have slightly edited, and corrected an error, in the
above quoted paragraph]
BTW, probably sometime next year, the eastern Maryland (Baltimore,
Annapolis, etc. area), with 410-overlaid-with-443 (since 1997; also
the 301/410 split was in 1991), will get an additional overlay with
667. NeuStar-NANPA/etc. announced this additional overlay in 2001,
but it has never been actually implemented. Also in 2001, the
additional 227 overlay to 301-and-240 for western Maryland (DC metro
as well as points further west, bordering West Virginia, (WV, BTW
since 2009, has been 304-overlaid-with-681), but there have never
been any formal implementation dates announced for this additional
Maryland 301/240/227 overlay. Of course, ten-digit dialing within the
state is mandatory for all local/EAS calling (1+ten-digits permissive
for local/EAS), so the groundwork is already in place.
> I suppose someday 202 will need relief, with the obvious choice
> being an overlay.
Some time back, it was thought that either 746 or 821 could have been
the relief area codes for future 202/DC relief. But neither will be
the case, since 202-746 and 202-821 are already now assigned as "POTS"
202-NXX c.o.codes in DC.
It seems that the future relief code for 202/DC might now be 771.
381 seems to be the future relief code for 703/571 in northern VA.
> However, somebody here on T-D once suggested a split of sorts:
> put the federal government in its own area code -- 666.
All kidding aside, 666 can NOT be a geographic NPA code. Remember that
NPAs with an identical digit in the second (B) and third (C) position
are RESERVED (or eventually assigned) for "special" functions. These
are SACs, the original definition (which I prefer) was "Special Area
Code", but the 1980s/forward definition is "Service Access Code".
800, 888, 877, 866, 855, etc. Toll-Free,
500, 533, 544, 566, etc. once for Personal Numbering
(but now the 5YY SACs are used for some indeterminable function!),
900, future 922, etc. PAY-PAY-PAY per-call,
700 LD-Carrier services,
and the 6YY range (600, 622, etc.)
all fit this criteria.
The entire 6YY range, including 666, with 600 being the only assigned
such SAC "in service" at present (since 610 was swapped for 600 in
1993), is reserved for Canada for their own special services.
ALSO, HAncock4 wrote:
> Speaking of Washington,
> Washington went dial around 1930. Washington grew somewhat during
> the New Deal as the alphabet soup agencies were formed, but then
> grew tremendously during WW II. (The Pentagon alone had about a
> 16,000 station PBX. See David Brinkley's excellent "Washington
> Goes to War".)
> Would anyone know what kind of switch type was used for Washington
> dial service, especially as the city grew?
Washington DC (eventually including the Maryland suburbs, but I don't
know about the northern Virginia suburbs) was one of the twenty-some
metro areas in the US, most of them being BIG urban metro areas, which
went dial in the 1920s/30s with Panel switching, latter supplemented
with #1XB, i.e., "Revertive Pulsing". There were no other areas in
the US that had such Panel/#1XB (RP) switching, and NONE in Canada
(except for the experimental "Lorimer" RP systems that didn't last
long, in the EARLIEST part of the 20th Century, in a few places in
During the 1950s, #5XB (which was brand new as of 1948) began to be
added to both Panel/#1XB cities, as well as SXS cities, throughout
all of the US and Canada. #5XB was also used for manual-to-dial
conversions, as well as continued brand new installations of SXS for
manual-to-dial conversions, well into the 1960s-era.
Mark J. Cuccia
markjcuccia at yahoo dot com