# My Universal Codes Implementation

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### Gerald Tamayo

Jul 1, 2020, 7:08:36 AM7/1/20
to
When i tried to implement universal codes again in 2009, i saw some Wikipedia descriptions pointing to a decimal number, not binary, to convert to binary. So my implementation is of course done the natural way: using binary numbers, which is more compact, i think?

[CODE]
/*
Filename: ucodes.h (universal codes.)
Written by: Gerald Tamayo, 2009
*/
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>

#if !defined(_UCODES_)
#define _UCODES_

/* Unary Codes. */
#define put_unary(n) put_golomb((n),0)
#define get_unary() get_golomb(0)

/* Exponential Golomb coding */
#define put_xgolomb(n) put_vlcode((n), 0)
#define get_xgolomb() get_vlcode(0)

/* Elias-Gamma coding.
Note: don't pass a zero (0) to the encoding function: only n > 0 */
#define put_elias_gamma(n) put_xgolomb((n)-1)
#define get_elias_gamma() get_xgolomb()

/* Golomb Codes. */
void put_golomb( int n, int mfold );
int get_golomb( int mfold );

/* The following variable-length encoding function can write
Elias-Gamma codes and Exponential-Golomb codes according
to the *len* parameter, which can be 0 to encode integer 0 as
just 1 bit. */
void put_vlcode( int n, int len );
int get_vlcode( int len );

#endif
[/CODE]

I just use my put_vlcode() function for short non entropy codes. Last time i checked, this is related to Rice codes.

[CODE]
/*
Filename: ucodes.c (universal codes.)
Written by: Gerald Tamayo, 2009
*/
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include "gtbitio.h"
#include "ucodes.h"

/* Golomb Codes.

We divide integer n by (1<<mfold), write the result as a
unary code, and then output the remainder as a binary number,
the bitlength of which is exactly the length of the unary_code-1.

In the implementation below, mfold is an exponent of two:
mfold = {0, 1, 2, ...} and (1<<mfold) is thus a power of two.
Each 1 bit of the unary code signifies a (1<<mfold) *part* of
integer n. In *exponential* Golomb coding, each 1 bit signifies
succeeding powers of 2. (We allow a length/mfold of 0 to encode
n as a plain unary code.)
*/
void put_golomb( int n, int mfold )
{
int i = n >> mfold;

while ( i-- ) {
put_ONE();
}
put_ZERO();
if ( mfold )
put_nbits( n%(1<<mfold), mfold );
}

int get_golomb( int mfold )
{
int n = 0;

while ( get_bit() ) n++;
n <<= mfold;
if ( mfold )
n += get_nbits(mfold);

return n;
}

/* The following variable-length encoding function can write
Elias-Gamma codes and Exponential-Golomb codes according
to the *len* parameter, which can be 0 to encode integer 0
as just 1 bit. */
void put_vlcode( int n, int len )
{
while ( n >= (1<<len) ){
put_ONE();
n -= (1<<len++);
}
put_ZERO();
if ( len ) put_nbits( n, len );
}

int get_vlcode( int len )
{
int n = 0;

while ( get_bit() ){
n += (1<<len++);
}
if ( len ) n += get_nbits(len);
return n;
}
[/CODE]