4.3BSD-Reno is available! The attached is the cover letter
of the information packet which will be sent to 4BSD licensees
in the next few days.
We are happy to send you information about our June, 1990
test release of the Fourth Berkeley Software Distribution,
4.3BSD-Reno. This release represents an intermediate point in
the development of 4.4BSD; several new facilities have been com-
pleted and are ready for external use, while other new facilities
slated for the 4.4BSD release have not yet been integrated. Our
goal in making this release available is to get feedback on any
problems in the design or implementation of the new facilities,
as well as to allow adventurous sites to gain experience with
these portions of 4.4BSD.
This distribution is NOT intended to be used on production
systems; nor is it intended for sites without sufficient local
expertise to find and fix any problems that are encountered. It
is intended to be used to provide an advance look at some of the
facilities and interfaces that we will be distributing in 4.4BSD.
We are interested in getting feedback on the problems that you
find and also any compatibility problems that you anticipate in
trying to convert your applications to run on this release. The
interfaces in this release will change before the release of
4.4BSD (at least in part based on feedback from this test group).
Thus, you should not expect applications ported to this release
to work unchanged on 4.4BSD.
Unlike past test releases, 4.3BSD-Reno is being made gen-
erally available to 4.3BSD licensees, and 4.3BSD-Reno may be
redistributed and used in released products (within the usual
licensing constraints). However, you will have to upgrade any
code that you use from 4.3BSD-Reno to the 4.4BSD code within one
year of the release of 4.4BSD. We appreciate your help in this
debugging effort and look forward to hearing from you. Please
send your comments to reno4...@okeeffe.Berkeley.EDU. We
regret that changes documents are not available; the next section
outlines the major changes available in 4.3BSD-Reno.
The license to 4.3BSD-Reno is simply an Addendum to the
4.3BSD License. Sites without a 4.3BSD license may obtain both
4.3BSD and 4.3BSD-Reno simultaneously, but must sign a 4.3BSD
license as well as the Addendum. Contact the distribution office
for 4.3BSD licensing information. 4.3BSD is available only to
sites with UNIX/32V, System III, or System V source licenses
with AT&T. We are actively working to decrease the amount of
AT&T code in the system. We expect that we will provide a subset
of 4.4BSD without the AT&T code to sites without requiring an
AT&T license. However, we are not prepared to make that determi-
nation for this release, so we are providing only tapes with the
complete system at this time.
The enclosed information is designed to serve two purposes.
The first purpose is to acquaint you with the details of our dis-
tribution so you can decide whether you would like to receive it.
The second purpose is to tell you how to obtain our distribution.
What is 4.3BSD-Reno?
The distribution consists of one 6250 bpi or three 1600 bpi
magnetic tapes containing full sources and documentation plus one
set of binaries. You may specify VAX and/or Tahoe (CCI Power
The three major new facilities available in the 4.3BSD-Reno
release are the addition of ISO/OSI networking support, a freely
redistributable implementation of NFS, and the conversion to and
addition of the POSIX.1 facilities. There are numerous other
changes throughout the system.
The ISO/OSI Networking consists of a kernel implementation
of transport class 4 (TP-4), connectionless networking protocol
(CLNP), and 802.3-based link-level support (hardware-compatible
with Ethernet*). The session and presentation layers will be
provided outside the kernel by the ISO development environment
(ISODE). Included in this development environment are file
transfer and management (FTAM), virtual terminals (VT), a direc-
tory services implementation (X.500), and miscellaneous other
A new virtual filesystem interface has been added to the
kernel to support multiple filesystems. Although generally simi-
lar to Sun's vnode interface, the Berkeley interface has been
structured for more efficient support of filesystems that main-
tain state (such as the local filesystem). In addition to the
local ``fast filesystem'', we have added an implementation of the
network filesystem (NFS) that fully interoperates with the NFS
shipped by Sun and its licensees. Because our NFS implementation
was implemented using only the publicly available NFS
specification, it does not require a license from Sun to use in
source or binary form. By default it runs over UDP to be compa-
tible with Sun's implementation. However, it can be configured
on a per-mount basis to run over TCP. Using TCP allows it to be
used quickly and efficiently through gateways and over long-haul
networks. We have also added a memory-based filesystem that runs
in pageable memory, which allows large temporary filesystems
without requiring dedicated physical memory.
The quota system has been rewritten to support both user and
group quotas (simultaneously if desired). Quota expiration is
based on time rather than the previous metric of number of logins
over quota. This change makes quotas more useful on fileservers
onto which users seldom login.
The 4.3BSD-Reno distribution contains most of the interfaces
specified in the POSIX.1 system interface standard. The biggest
area of change is a new terminal driver. The terminal driver is
similar to the System V terminal driver with the addition of the
necessary extensions to get the functionality previously avail-
able in the 4.3BSD terminal driver. 4.3BSD-Reno also adds the
POSIX job control interface, which is similar to the 4.3BSD job
control interface, but adds a security model that was missing in
the 4.3BSD job control implementation. Other additions include
POSIX signals, FIFO's, and saved user and group identifiers. We
have been tracking the POSIX shell and utility work and have
included prototypes of many of the proposed utilities. Finally,
we have converted about 80% of the libraries and header files to
be compliant with ANSI C.
Work has also progressed in several other areas. Several
important enhancements have been added to the TCP/IP protocols
including TCP header prediction and serial line IP (SLIP) with
header compression. The routing implementation has been com-
pletely rewritten to use a hierarchical routing tree with a mask
per route to support the arbitrary levels of routing found in the
ISO protocols. The routing table also stores and caches route
characteristics to speed the adaptation of the throughput and
congestion avoidance algorithms.
The Kerberos (version 4) authentication software has been
integrated into much of the system (except NFS) to provide the
first real network authentication on BSD.
The hardware supported by 4.3BSD-Reno is:
+ VAX (86x0, 78x, 750, 730; MicroVAX II, 3200/3500/3600; 82x0)
+ Tahoe (CCI Power 6/32, 6/32SX; Unisys 7000/xx; Harris HCX7,
+ HP 9000/300 series
In addition, kernel support for the Intel i386 and many AT-bus
peripherals has been added recently; contact the distribution
office for a list of supported hardware if necessary.
For this distribution, binaries will be available for only the
VAX and Tahoe architectures. The 4.4BSD distribution will prob-
ably be available for all the above architectures as well as
several machines based on the MIPS processor.
The reason that this distribution is not labeled 4.4BSD-
alpha is because it does not contain several major interfaces
that we plan to have available for that distribution. These
+ A new virtual memory system using the mmap interface
described in the 4.3BSD architecture document. The inter-
face is similar to the interface shipped in several commer-
cial versions of UNIX such as SunOS 4.0.
+ Support for ISO Connection-Oriented Network Service, X.25,
+ A new internal network layering (``bstreams'') combining
features of the current socket layering and of Streams.
+ Fixes, tuning, fixes, documentation, and fixes.
This release does include several important structural ker-
nel changes. The most pervasive change is to eliminate the user
structure fields u.u_error, u.u_u_r.r_val1, and u.u_ap by using a
new internal system call convention:
error = (*callp)(proc, args, retval);
We are also reducing the use of other global variables with the
intent to eventually eliminate all references to the user area
except for the per-process runtime stack. Thus, all substruc-
tures will eventually be referenced via the proc structure.
Another major change is the introduction of a new sleep
error = tsleep(wchan, pri|PCATCH, wstring, timeout);
The old sleep interface can be used only for non-interruptible
sleeps. The tsleep interface can be used at any priority, but is
only interruptible if the PCATCH flag is set. When interrupted,
tsleep returns EINTR or ERESTART; all non-local goto's
(longjmp's) have been eliminated from the kernel.
Many data structures that were previously statically allo-
cated are now allocated dynamically. These structures include
the mount table, the vnode table, the name cache, and the quota
How to obtain the 4.3BSD-Reno release
All previous 4.3BSD licensees will be able to receive the
4.3BSD Reno release simply by executing the steps outlined below.
4.2BSD licensees who have not yet upgraded to 4.3BSD will be
required to do so as well as following the steps outlined below
for the Reno distribution. For further information on ordering
the standard 4.3BSD distribution, contact our distribution office
at the address given below.
Because we are a research and development organization and
not a commercial organization, we make our research results
available for a fee which covers only our costs for the distribu-
tion. We distribute only the whole system and cannot send indi-
vidual pieces of the system. Because the software is distributed
``As Is'' and is partially derived from licensed material, we are
required to have a formal license arrangement with each organiza-
tion to which we distribute.
Specifically, we must receive from your organization the
following material before the distribution can be sent:
+ Two appropriate signed Addenda for the Reno distribution if
you are a 4.3BSD licensee. Add to that the appropriate
Addendum to receive the upgrade if you are a 4.2BSD licen-
see. For new licensees, two executed copies of the Berkeley
License Agreement (4/86) with the appropriate Addendum,
i.e., for foreign or US government sites, plus the Addendum
for the Reno distribution. We require two copies of all
Agreements/Addenda with original signatures, one of which is
returned to the Licensee. The name of the organization on
the Addendum No. Three must be the same as that which
appears on the Software Agreement with AT&T (or Western
Electric). The Addendum No. Three must be signed by a duly
authorized person who holds a position that is at the same
level or a higher level of authority as that which appears
on the AT&T Software Agreement. Please have this person's
name and title typed in the available space in addition to
+ A check from a U.S. bank for $495.00 U.S. (for a single 6250
BPI tape of 4.3BSD-Reno) or $595.00 (for three 1600 BPI
tapes of 4.3BSD-Reno) payable to ``The Regents of the
University of California'' must be received before the dis-
tribution can be sent. If you must issue a Purchase Order,
please issue one that is blank-backed. If this is not pos-
sible, insert and initialize in the body of the Purchase
Order the following clause: ``The terms and conditions of
this Purchase Order are not accepted by The Regents of the
University of California. The revised Berkeley License
Agreement (4/86) governs.'' For 4.2 licensees that have
updated to 4.3BSD, substitute ``The terms and conditions of
this Purchase Order are not accepted by The Regents of the
University of California. The revised Berkeley License
Agreement (6/83) and Addendum Number Three govern.''
+ A completed Site Information Form. The distribution itself
will be sent to the technical contact. The site information
is kept confidential and is for our use in identifying sites
with specific configurations. Please note that we cannot
ship to post office boxes; therefore, please have the techn-
ical contact's address supplied without use of a post office
A checklist is included to aid you in assembling this
material. All the above material must be sent to:
Computer Systems Research Group
Computer Science Division, EECS
University of California
Berkeley, California 94720
Once all these items have been received and are in proper order,
the distribution will be sent to the technical address indicated
on the Site Information Form that you provided when you placed
your order; we cannot provide delivery dates. Once the material
is assembled and packaged, the distribution is shipped by commer-
cial carrier. Order of shipment will be based on time of arrival
of the properly completed paperwork. Because of the differential
in costs of shipping outside the United States, we ask that
organizations beyond the North American continent pay the collect
The most expedient way to insure that your full distribution
is sent as quickly as possible is to include in a single package
the signed appropriate Addenda (without modification) for the
Reno distribution plus any other necessary signed legal papers,
depending on your licensing status, the appropriate check prop-
erly made out to ``The Regents of the University of California,''
and a completely filled-out Site Information Form, and to send
this single package to the address noted above.
Many large organizations have multiple entities that act
independently from one another and are licensed independently
from AT&T. Others have the parent organization licensed by AT&T
and copies of the software distribution sent to each independent
entity. The Berkeley License Agreement must be executed with the
organization holding the appropriate AT&T Software Agreement.
If your organization has an AT&T license and chooses not to
redistribute internally, please contact us for a copy of the
letter of authorization to be executed by the parent company.
University of California Sites. If you are a part of the
University of California, and do not already have an AT&T source
license for your CPU, you must use the following procedure: ask
Pam True (415) 642-6348 at Berkeley Campus Materiel Management
for an application for an additional CPU authorization under The
Regents of the University of California's Software Agreement with
AT&T. We will receive the completed application from Materiel
Management. If you have previously obtained a Berkeley License
for your CPU or have an AT&T source license for your CPU, you do
not need to contact the Materiel Management Office.
In all cases, the following items must be sent to the Com-
puter Systems Research Group: 1) a letter signed by the Director
or Head of Department requesting 4.3BSD-Reno, stating that you
have read and understood the Berkeley License Agreement and that
your organization will abide by it, 2) an IOC for $495.00 or
$595.00 (1600 BPI), and 3) a Site Information Form if the contact
information has changed.
DARPA Sites. The research on which the Berkeley Software
Distributions are based has been sponsored by DARPA (Defense
Advanced Research Projects Agency). Provision has been made for
prepayment of distribution costs for a few designated DARPA
sites. In place of the check for $495.00 or $595.00, you should
include a letter from your Program Manager stating that you are
designated as such a site. However, you must comply with all
other requirements in applying for the distribution.
A Special Note
The procedures and rules set out in this document are
University and AT&T constraints that must be followed in order
for the distribution of software to be possible. The Computer
Systems Research Group has no control over these constraints and
must reject your application if material submitted is not in
If You Have Read Everything and Still Need Help
If you have questions about the licensing process after
reading this letter, you may call the distribution group at (415)
642-7780, write to them at the address above, or contact them via
electronic mail at bsd-...@Berkeley.EDU or ucbvax!bsd-dist. They
will not be able to answer technical questions.
Computer Systems Research Group
July 6, 1990
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